The storage and handling of fresh foods ,
including fruits and vegetables
• Postharvest science provides benefits to the s...
What is the Postharvest Goal?

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Postharvest life and quality

How
High
How
Fast
Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Causes of Postharvest Losses

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Physical Damage
– major factor leading to wastage
– results in lower market prices
TYPES OF DAMAGE
Impact

- sharp blow, i...
Desiccation
during storage, tendency is for
water to move from produce to
atmosphere
Water loss results in:

•
•
•
•
•

sh...
Postharvest diseases

Rhizopus rot

Brown rot (Monilinia fructicola)

Blue mould
(Penicillium
expansum)

Anthracnose (eg.
...
Physiological disorders

water soaked
appearance of flesh

flesh does not ripen
colour does not change

pitting
of skin

b...
Postharvest Handling Techniques
How Can We Reduce Postharvest Losses?

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Postharvest Handling Techniques

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Postharvest Processes - Harvest

Transport to packing house

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Marketing Functions - Australia
Packing

Fungicide

Washing
Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Grading and Quality Control
Grading

Packing

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
International transport by sea
Refrigerated Transport
Reefer
container

Pre-cooled fruit loaded into
refrigerated truck

-...
Quality Management
Definition of Quality
Producer

grade

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Definition of Quality
Wholesalers

Retailers

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Definition of Quality
Consumers

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
External quality
Appearance

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Appearance can be improved by:

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Quality components of fruit and
vegetables - internal
Main Factor

Component

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Quality components of fruit and
vegetables - internal
Main Factor

Component

Organic produce
Dr Stephen Morris
Postharves...
Minimising Quality Losses
Minimise time to market

Minimise metabolic activity (respiration rate)
Minimise physiological a...
Changes in acidity and soluble
solids in grapes during ripening
14
3

10
8

2

6
4

1

Titratable acidity (%)

Soluble sol...
Change in aromatic compounds
during ripening of banana fruit
1200
1000

Concentration ug/100g

1000
2-Pentyl acetate
800
6...
Colour
light reflected from rotating fruit measured by
photoelectric cells
Images captured and analysed by software, fruit...
Brix determination (automated, non-destructive)
Indication of taste (sweetness)
Brix = % of soluble solids
per given weigh...
Quality Management Systems

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Quality Management Systems

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Increased Consumption of Fresh
Produce and
the Occurrence of Foodborne Disease

Sivapalasingam et al., Journal of Food Pro...
Pathogens & Spoilage Organisms
Disease:
•
•

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Vulnerable Persons Food Safety Scheme Manual

Policy and information to help businesses comply with the Food Service to Vu...
Australian Experts Name Foods Most Likely to Cause Food Poisoning
Rachel Creasey, 28 Nov 2013 (Australian Food Safety News...
Three Quick Examples of Problems and Solutions

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Apples – Benefits and Problems of Technol0gy
1-MCP

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Combination of CA and 1-MCP

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Apples in Summer

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Potatoes – Unusual History

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Developed ‘Safe’ use of potatoes.

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Potatoes Adoption

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Potatoes – Critical Food for Hazaras in Afghanistan

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Eggs – Problem of Compromised Immune System

Australia Survey Egg Quality 2008
100
90

Huagh Units

80

USDA Grade AA

70
...
Eggs – Problem of Compromised Immune System
•
•
•
•

Eggs have three strong barriers against bacteria
Egg shell and waxy b...
Eggs – Problem of Compromised Immune System

Dr Stephen Morris
Postharvest Fresh
Eggs – Simple temperature and handling protocol
would guarantee extra safe and extra fresh eggs for
consumer
• With curren...
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Stephen Morris - Postharvest Fresh - The storage and handling of fruits and vegetables

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Dr Stephen Morris, Director, Postharvest Fresh delivered this presentation at the Food Regulations and Labelling Standards Conference.

Informa's annual Food Regulations and Labelling Standards Conference is now in its 15th year and continually provides a platform to discuss the ongoing issues in food policy

For more information about the event, please visit the conference website: http://www.informa.com.au/foodregs2013

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Stephen Morris - Postharvest Fresh - The storage and handling of fruits and vegetables

  1. 1. The storage and handling of fresh foods , including fruits and vegetables • Postharvest science provides benefits to the supply chain and reduces waste, therefore making better use of existing resources • 15-75% of fresh produce is lost - tropical regions and developing nations is higher due to lack of technology & inadequate infrastructure • More than 66% of value after farm gate (can be up to 90%) , therefore loss in postharvest is more economically significant • In developed countries, produce has higher ‘value’ • Distance to market is a big factor - modern supply chains span the globe Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  2. 2. What is the Postharvest Goal? Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  3. 3. Postharvest life and quality How High How Fast Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  4. 4. Causes of Postharvest Losses Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  5. 5. Physical Damage – major factor leading to wastage – results in lower market prices TYPES OF DAMAGE Impact - sharp blow, ie. falling on a hard surface or against another fruit - a fingernail or cutting blade - mechanical harvester - hail etc Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  6. 6. Desiccation during storage, tendency is for water to move from produce to atmosphere Water loss results in: • • • • • shrivelling softening loss of appearance loss of saleable weight toughening % water loss resulting in quality loss varies with produce type Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  7. 7. Postharvest diseases Rhizopus rot Brown rot (Monilinia fructicola) Blue mould (Penicillium expansum) Anthracnose (eg. Colletotrichum spp.) Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  8. 8. Physiological disorders water soaked appearance of flesh flesh does not ripen colour does not change pitting of skin bitter pit - low calcium Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  9. 9. Postharvest Handling Techniques How Can We Reduce Postharvest Losses? Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  10. 10. Postharvest Handling Techniques Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  11. 11. Postharvest Processes - Harvest Transport to packing house Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  12. 12. Marketing Functions - Australia Packing Fungicide Washing Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  13. 13. Grading and Quality Control Grading Packing Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  14. 14. International transport by sea Refrigerated Transport Reefer container Pre-cooled fruit loaded into refrigerated truck - Reefers are insulated containers with own refrigeration units - Can have CA or MA Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  15. 15. Quality Management Definition of Quality Producer grade Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  16. 16. Definition of Quality Wholesalers Retailers Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  17. 17. Definition of Quality Consumers Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  18. 18. External quality Appearance Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  19. 19. Appearance can be improved by: Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  20. 20. Quality components of fruit and vegetables - internal Main Factor Component Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  21. 21. Quality components of fruit and vegetables - internal Main Factor Component Organic produce Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  22. 22. Minimising Quality Losses Minimise time to market Minimise metabolic activity (respiration rate) Minimise physiological activities Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  23. 23. Changes in acidity and soluble solids in grapes during ripening 14 3 10 8 2 6 4 1 Titratable acidity (%) Soluble solids (%) 12 2 0 0 Red/green Red Purple Black Soluble solids Titratable acidity Dull black Adapted from Kays, 1991 Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  24. 24. Change in aromatic compounds during ripening of banana fruit 1200 1000 Concentration ug/100g 1000 2-Pentyl acetate 800 600 700 400 n-Butyl acetate Hexyl acetate 200 Carbon dioxide mg/kg/24 h Methyl-3-butyl acetate CO2 Isopentyl alcohol 0 400 2 4 5 6 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Days Adapted from Kays, 1991 Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  25. 25. Colour light reflected from rotating fruit measured by photoelectric cells Images captured and analysed by software, fruit sorted into defined classifications using colour, diameter and shape Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  26. 26. Brix determination (automated, non-destructive) Indication of taste (sweetness) Brix = % of soluble solids per given weight of juice No damage to fruit www.compacsort.com Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  27. 27. Quality Management Systems Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  28. 28. Quality Management Systems Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  29. 29. Increased Consumption of Fresh Produce and the Occurrence of Foodborne Disease Sivapalasingam et al., Journal of Food Protection., Vol 67, No. 10, 2004, pp 2342-2353 Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  30. 30. Pathogens & Spoilage Organisms Disease: • • Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  31. 31. Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  32. 32. Vulnerable Persons Food Safety Scheme Manual Policy and information to help businesses comply with the Food Service to Vulnerable Persons Food Safety Scheme under the Food Regulation 2004 Foods that are normally potentially hazardous include: • Raw and cooked meats or foods containing raw or cooked meat such as casseroles, curries, lasagne and meat pies. • Dairy products and foods containing dairy products such as custard and dairy based desserts. • Seafood and foods containing seafood • Processed fruits and vegetables , for example salads • Cooked rice and pasta • Foods containing eggs, beans, or other protein rich foods, for example Quiche • Foods that contain any of the above, for example sandwiches Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  33. 33. Australian Experts Name Foods Most Likely to Cause Food Poisoning Rachel Creasey, 28 Nov 2013 (Australian Food Safety News) The Seven Foods Most Likely to Give You Food Poisoning Rice – Once rice cooked Bacillus cereus can start to grow – keep refrigerated and eat promptly Poultry – Problem can occur due to Salmonella & Campylobacter. Killed if properly cooked but when raw can contaminate other surface surfaces and foods. Eggs – Problem with Salmonella on surface of egg shells. Cooking thoroughly can kill them. But when uncooked, Salmonella with time, can penetrate shell and eventually reach the yolk, with then a huge increase in bacteria concentration. Deli Meats – Risk of Listeria, which can grow down to about 2C Fruit – Problem when grown on ground ie melons, also other fruits. Only ever problem from contamination usually from water or surfaces containing some trace of faeces. Listeria cannot cross the skin, but a problem when cut. Vegetables (especially leafy) and Tomatoes – Salmonella and Listeria can be a problem, from ground and water splash/ irrigation. Sprouts – Unfortunately, the ideal temperature and conditions for growing sprouts are also ideal for bacteria. Keep refrigerated, eat promptly don’t touch if any sign of bacteria. Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  34. 34. Three Quick Examples of Problems and Solutions Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  35. 35. Apples – Benefits and Problems of Technol0gy 1-MCP Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  36. 36. Combination of CA and 1-MCP Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  37. 37. Apples in Summer Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  38. 38. Potatoes – Unusual History Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  39. 39. Developed ‘Safe’ use of potatoes. Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  40. 40. Potatoes Adoption Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  41. 41. Potatoes – Critical Food for Hazaras in Afghanistan Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  42. 42. Eggs – Problem of Compromised Immune System Australia Survey Egg Quality 2008 100 90 Huagh Units 80 USDA Grade AA 70 USDA Grade A 60 USDA Grade B 50 40 Brisbane 30 20 Melbourne 10 Sydney 0 0 10 20 Previous Aust, Std 30 40 Estimated Days After Laying 50 60 Perth Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  43. 43. Eggs – Problem of Compromised Immune System • • • • Eggs have three strong barriers against bacteria Egg shell and waxy bloom Egg white strongly discourages bacterial growth Membrane around yolk is a strong physical and chemical barrier, breaks down after about 3 weeks at room temperature Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  44. 44. Eggs – Problem of Compromised Immune System Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
  45. 45. Eggs – Simple temperature and handling protocol would guarantee extra safe and extra fresh eggs for consumer • With current cheap stick on temperature labels can readily ensure temperature kept below 8C • Label eggs with laying date and use by date 2.5 weeks under refrigeration below 8C • Ie Three spot label – first changes after 8 h above 8C, second after 1 day above 8C and third after 48h above 8C • Have monitored cooling and transport protocol • Have special cooking and handling protocol – ie check label from fridge < 24 h above 8C and cook within 2 hours from fridge. Dr Stephen Morris Postharvest Fresh
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