Think outside the box: new materials,
design application, and performance
of railway turnout bearers
Sakdirat Kaewunruen P...
Acknowledgement
Special Thanks:
• The authors are grateful to Asset Standards Authority, Transport for
NSW for the permiss...
FREE ONLINE ACCESS
OUT NOW!
http://www.ejse.org
Component Design
Track Force Distribution
Force distribution and actions (bending
moment, shear force, axial force, and
to...
Traditional Materials
Timber, Steel and Concrete
Life Cycles:
• 10-15 years for Timber
• 15-30 years for Steel
• 50 years ...
Traditional Materials
Timber
Steel
Concrete
Discuss practical problems
associated with bearer materials
Materials by Design
FFU
FFU or Fibre reinforced foamed urethane
material is somewhat new in turnout
applications.
• FFU ma...
Materials by Design
FFU
Materials by Design
Composite
CarbonLoc (in research and development
stage at UOW and USQ) is a new material
by design:
• ...
Materials by Design
Geopolymer, recycle rubber and others
• Geo-polymer tends to be slightly more brittle compared with hi...
Materials by Design
Design Criteria
• High resiliency & Low impact and noise.
• Good electrical insulation.
• Light weight...
Aged rail Infrastructure
Deteriorated turnout requires
renewal to maintain safe and
reliable operations
Case Study
Complexity of the Junction
The junction consists of many
turnouts, double and single slips
connected to yards/refuges
Case...
Practicality and Constructability
Tight geometry tolerances and
physical constraints require
special turnout components.
2...
Practicality and Constructability
Tight geometry tolerances and
physical constraints require
special turnout components.
A...
Actions and Consequences
ImpactForce(kN)
100
200
300
400
0
P2 { F = ma }
Ballast is pulverised.
Impact vibrations result in
pulverisation and breakage
of ballast, yielding large
settlement and po...
Practicality
CaseStudy:Hornsby
Junction
verticallateral
Dynamic Reponses
at crossing
at interface between FFU and
concrete sleepers
Settlement and Stability
Stiffness Transition
• FFU to Timber – NO need
• FFU to Concrete – stiffness
transition required (using
10mm SA47 over 20
...
Lateral Stiffening
Option 1: Steel in-bearers
Option 2: Steel plate stiffeners
Option 3: Ballast Glue/Bond
life cycle costperformance
time
degradationrateofturnoutImpact vibration
- Extended service life
- Reduced track maintenan...
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Dr Sakdirat Kaewunruen - Transport for NSW - Think outside the box: New materials, design application and performance of railway turnout bearers

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Dr Sakdirat Kaewunruen delivered the presentation at 2014 RISSB National Rail Turnouts Workshop.

The RISSB National Rail Turnouts Workshop gives all those involved an in-depth forum for discussion and the sharing of expertise. A key element of this workshop is participation and knowledge sharing from audience as well as the workshop leaders. It is a chance for you to bring your experience and to take away new approaches for best practice.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://www.informa.com.au/railturnoutsworkshop14

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Dr Sakdirat Kaewunruen - Transport for NSW - Think outside the box: New materials, design application and performance of railway turnout bearers

  1. 1. Think outside the box: new materials, design application, and performance of railway turnout bearers Sakdirat Kaewunruen PhD CPEng Transport for NSW 22 May 2014 Hilton, Brisbane e: sakdirat.kaewunruen@transport.nsw.gov.au
  2. 2. Acknowledgement Special Thanks: • The authors are grateful to Asset Standards Authority, Transport for NSW for the permission to publish the data via WCRR 2013. • The work support from John Holland Rails, KBR, Delkor Rail and Sydney Trains is gratefully acknowledged. • Special Thanks to: Omar Elsayed, John Gooch, Phil Grant, Phouc Nguyen, James Couper, Allan Churchill, Malcolm Kerr, Martin Hoang, Dudley Ingram, Gavin Jennings
  3. 3. FREE ONLINE ACCESS OUT NOW! http://www.ejse.org
  4. 4. Component Design Track Force Distribution Force distribution and actions (bending moment, shear force, axial force, and torsion) can be obtained by FEM and BOEF.
  5. 5. Traditional Materials Timber, Steel and Concrete Life Cycles: • 10-15 years for Timber • 15-30 years for Steel • 50 years for concrete Discuss the main types of bearer materials in different rail networks and their asset strategies
  6. 6. Traditional Materials Timber Steel Concrete Discuss practical problems associated with bearer materials
  7. 7. Materials by Design FFU FFU or Fibre reinforced foamed urethane material is somewhat new in turnout applications. • FFU material is used mostly in embedded track systems in Japan. • FFU sleepers have been installed in tracks for over 35 years. • FFU is made of fibre glasses glued in a special resin, that synthetically mimics natural timber fibres.
  8. 8. Materials by Design FFU
  9. 9. Materials by Design Composite CarbonLoc (in research and development stage at UOW and USQ) is a new material by design: • Initially developed for transoms and girders (ARTC trial by Austrak) • Being tested for impact and fatigue capacities • Thickness can be as thin as 140mm Combined reinforced steels, pultruded GPRP, and resins.
  10. 10. Materials by Design Geopolymer, recycle rubber and others • Geo-polymer tends to be slightly more brittle compared with high strength concrete (test at f’c = 50 Mpa @ 28 days). Creep and shrinkage need to be controlled by material design. • Recycle rubber tends to have weaker pull-out capacity, fatigue and shear strengths. • Crumbed rubber mixed concrete seems to have manufacturing issues during accelerated casting and curing. • Ply-wood sleepers, under development in Toowoomba, need to look into delamination between wood layers.
  11. 11. Materials by Design Design Criteria • High resiliency & Low impact and noise. • Good electrical insulation. • Light weight so it is easy to construct and maintain. • Adaptability to gauge variation. • No carbon emission. • Does not suffer corrosion • Light weight contributing to poor track stability • Not sustain under very hot work • Long life cycle
  12. 12. Aged rail Infrastructure Deteriorated turnout requires renewal to maintain safe and reliable operations Case Study
  13. 13. Complexity of the Junction The junction consists of many turnouts, double and single slips connected to yards/refuges Case Study
  14. 14. Practicality and Constructability Tight geometry tolerances and physical constraints require special turnout components. 250mm150 Case Study
  15. 15. Practicality and Constructability Tight geometry tolerances and physical constraints require special turnout components. Aged rail Infrastructure Deteriorated turnout requires renewal to maintain safe and reliable operations Complexity of the Junction The junction consists of many turnouts, double and single slips connected to yards/refuges 250mm150 MaterialChoice FFU=timber-likematerial Case Study
  16. 16. Actions and Consequences ImpactForce(kN) 100 200 300 400 0 P2 { F = ma }
  17. 17. Ballast is pulverised. Impact vibrations result in pulverisation and breakage of ballast, yielding large settlement and poor ride comfort. Concrete bearer is broken into pieces. Resonance and impact magnification can damage turnout components. broken component white ballast FieldObservations
  18. 18. Practicality
  19. 19. CaseStudy:Hornsby Junction verticallateral
  20. 20. Dynamic Reponses
  21. 21. at crossing
  22. 22. at interface between FFU and concrete sleepers
  23. 23. Settlement and Stability
  24. 24. Stiffness Transition • FFU to Timber – NO need • FFU to Concrete – stiffness transition required (using 10mm SA47 over 20 adjacent concrete sleepers on each approach)
  25. 25. Lateral Stiffening Option 1: Steel in-bearers Option 2: Steel plate stiffeners Option 3: Ballast Glue/Bond
  26. 26. life cycle costperformance time degradationrateofturnoutImpact vibration - Extended service life - Reduced track maintenance - Improved signal reliability Timber FFU Timber FFU

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