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Russell Ockendon, Control Centre Built Environment Design Consultant - Beyond Architecture and Interior Design


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Russell Ockendon, Control Centre Built Environment Design Consultant presented this at the Control Room Design and Operations Conference. …

Russell Ockendon, Control Centre Built Environment Design Consultant presented this at the Control Room Design and Operations Conference.

This event will provide you insight into streamlining operations, optimising efficiency & managing costs in your control room facilities, through effective design and operations.

Russell will be speaking at the 2nd Annual Control Room Design & Operations Conference in March 2014. For more information, visit

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  • 1. Ccbedc abn 85 91 246 230 14 PRES SENTATION PAPER | Contr Room De rol esign & Operations Con ference | 11-12 Marc 2013 | S ch Sydney Australia | bey yond arch hitect ture & interior design r | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Pag 1 of 12 | ge
  • 2. Ccbedc 1. H Human M Machine Interface 1.1 A Machine For Living g Charles-Éd douard Jeann neret, better known as Le 1 Corbusier, in his 1923 b book “Vers une Architecture” – e ure Towards a new Architectu – proposed that a house is a s machine fo living. or When we i interact with our built environments, we exist a a r at “Human M Machine Interface e”. aces, and our b built We mould, occupy and use our built spa pact upon and influence us. spaces imp 1.2 Humans, A Anthropom metrics An d A Architectur re In the firs century BC, the Roman architect, Vitruviius, st wrote that a built struct t ture must be solid, useful a and beautiful. 1.3 Huma ans, Ergon nomic Des sign Processes & IS SO11064 Le us advance from 1490 to 1990 …o so…and et e or IS SO11064, part 1 of which inclu udes a 5-phase framework 2 for an ergonomic design process . s studies of the classical orders of architecture a o and He made s described the human fig gure as the pr rincipal source of ers. proportion among the orde ons It was Leonardo da Vinci who immortalised the proportio h The described by Vitruvius in the sketch known as T and Vitruvian Man which aligned anthropometrics a erative element of architecture ts e. geometry – the basic gene Now, hum man factors, erg gonomics and cognition over rlay these elements with hu uman-centred disciplines wh hich r-centred design and human/ma n achine interface es. guide user y B, D My view is that Steps 9A, 9B 9C and 9D are more im mportantly carrie out at Step 7 where the high level ed p de esign, or “Conceptual” framewo work, requires more energy m in the beginning and in reve g, erse order, be ecause the ognitive capabilities of the hu uman will determine what co inf formation can be effecively absorbed and managed, wh hich will deter rmine the num mber of scree ens at the op perators worksta ation and in the control room as overviews s or visible screens at other worksttations. r s Th will determin the layout an size of the workstations, his ne nd wh hich in turn will resolve the lay yout and size of the control f room, from which will follow the a h arrangement of the control f uite, from which can be desig h gned the complete control su ce entre, which flows to a succes ssful site selec ction, and a su uccessful staging and decampin plan. ng | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Pag 2 of 12 | ge
  • 3. Ccbedc To not be at this level of knowledge and certainty for e review and approval at Step 8 is risky for success sful ntred design. human-cen 1.5 Critica Built En al nvironmen nt Huma an/Machine Interface e es 1. .5.1 Traffic Discretion On of the more common detrim ne ments to maint taining high lev vels of concentr ration and situa ation awareness is invasion s of the control roo by non-esse om ential passers-through and ocial distractions – a transit loun s nge! so It is not my sugge estion that only e essential personnel inhabit the control centre – individual w workplaces will determine el, that for themselves in their b business mode but the anning and des sign must not ttrap these distra actions into pla the fabric of day-t to-day interface The control centre must es. c e on f be capable of isolation or inclusio as required from time to tim to operate th facility as effiiciently and prod me he ductively as pr racticable. No ow, screen-ba ased DCS pr resents advantages and op pportunities for the built environ t nment designer: o Screen-based DCS takes up less floor space, so d masterplannin and decamp ng elopment in ping for redeve place are more readily achiev eved; o Better circulation and dis screet exclusio of nonon sonnel form us sing the facility as a transit essential pers lounge; o More space is available fo equipment and support or a ons ng; rooms, ablutio and messin o More collab borative plann ning is achie evable by consolidating support func ctions such as planning, s ulators, etc.; permit centres, training, simu o More efficient access is ava ing service, ailable for havi maintenance and design eng gineers and tec chnicians in ol closer proximity to the contro centre. Phase D, and Step 9, is then simply the technical a s and documentation of the approved design for detailed d constructio at Step 9A preceding th environmen on A, he ntal, operationa and managem al ment systems de esigns at Steps 9B & 9C. 1.4 Th Built E he Environme ent Supports T Operat The tional Environment I propose that the built environme e ent supports the operationa environment, but I assume in doing so that the al n operationa environment p al provides suitabl interfaces, su le uch as screen n-based interfa aces, telecomm munications, vid deo conferencing and alarm regimes. Othe will have the ers of plines and fee into the b ed built carriage o those discip environme design team. ent Iso olation from field facilities and greater distances between the field instrume ents and the con e ntrol rooms, are issues for nagement mode el. the business man w b Distractions from poor traffic flow through the building and no on-essential cha atter in the conttrol room can be remedied with appropriate break-out spa aces and disc creet traffic pa atterns in the space planning After that it is, up to g. t pe ersonnel to tell the intruders to b bugger off. 1. .5.2 Workst tations Ex xercise was bu in to walkin up and dow the old uilt ng wn co ontrol room panels, but the mo odern DCS env vironment is se edentary. No matter how good the cognitive interf faces with scree enormation and alarms in the pr rocess automat tion based info system are the human ou e, utputs will be le than optima in ess al a built env vironment which is too noisy, under lit, over lit, poorly coloured, cramped, draughty, etc., flowing on to etention, produ uctivity, econom mic adversely affect staff re owledge capturing, and continuing improvemen nt. return, kno I will exam mine three impor rtant built enviro onment interfac ces: traffic disc cretion, worksta ations and the physical height of t the control centre. l I am an advocate of utilising m a manufactured sy ystems and co omponents for human machine interfaces whe suitable h e ere op ptions exist. Off-the-shelf design even those supplied by ns, the instrumentatio vendors who produce DCS equipment, on o re y and have not had projecth ar not inherently acceptable, a sp pecific ergonom and suppor services inpu such as mic rt ut, ha ardwired alarms phones, pub s, blic address sy ystems and other active comp ponentry. oor workspace design and chairs with significant e d Po sh hortcomings in adjustability a and support are serious a iss sues. A comfor rtable chair is n of itself a satisfactory not | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Pag 3 of 12 | ge
  • 4. Ccbedc ergonomic outcome, as comfort is subjective and sho c ortterm. Chair design is a co omplete subject of its own. Noise gen nerated by pc fa ans, panel alarms, radio and PA speakers, and radio com oor mmunications contribute to po c ambient co onditions and r require solutions in planning, colocation, and technical design with the ma anufacturers. mportant that th workstation are designed fo a he a or It is also im range of ta asks such as r report writing, training, using a and storing m manuals and an array of communicatio ons equipment and t, task sharing such as run-ups a and collaboration. ANCES OPTIMAL VISUAL ANGLES AND DISTA xed position m makes sense when examin ning The relax viewing dis stance. Average viewing distance is determin ned by factor rs that inclu ude eyesight accommodati on, convergen nce, and depth-of-focus. Acco ommodation is the distance a which eyes focus when there is nothing on at which to fo ocus. Eye musc cles must work 2½ times harder to 2 r focus at 12 inches than at 30 inches, contributing to n d eyestrain. Convergence is the inward eye movem ent or ce hich also leads to s required fo short-distanc viewing, wh eyestrain. Depth-of-focus is the range of distances that do f re o commodation a and not requir the eye to refocus. Acc convergen nce are both sh hortened when operator gaze is e lowered. T average "re The esting point" of convergence is 35 c inches at 3 degrees dow 45 inches at horizontal, and 53 30 wn, inches at 3 degrees up. 30 To maxim mize operator p performance an comfort, sellect nd workstation that lower m ns monitor height, keep screens a and items to b viewed at similar distances, increase ta be ask lighting on printed materia increase dis als, splay text size, a and sks . change tas periodically. e r-designed cons soles. Be careful of over Lo how the sig lines are cutt off by the key ook ght yboard shelf wh henever the op perator leans b back, and how the deep w sc creen positioning below the ke eyboard shelf encroaches e up pon the lower limb space. T This kind of co onfiguration sig gnificantly reduces the deskto width. It has locked the op op perator into an in nflexible worksp pace. Th workstation must provide capability for the ideal he e r po osture, but also enable postura variation, ex o ral xercise, and resilience to task moding. XAMPLE 1 EX ISO DIS 9 9355-4 present the dimensio ts onal guidelines in s th Figure A.2 for the 95 pe 2 ercentile, male postural referen nce 3 points . not adopted by any operator acros a ss They are n going to be a 12 hour sh and it would be folly to de hift, esign a workspa ace so rigidly as to not account for postural variati on, p ement to mov vement, individ dual preferenc ces, encourage exercise and shift-to-shift idiosyncrasies. He is a desk which is a discr ere w reet single oper rator panel, pr roviding sit-sta and opportunitties and mu ultiple-tiered sc creens. The des has ISO 9355 sk 5-compliant sight lines, but no cut-offs to any of the vie o a ewable screens including s, ov verviews. design should never be too clever, or too Console d prescriptive, and should be wary of ta asking on profiiles literally devolve from the ISO guidelines. e g which too l | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Pag 4 of 12 | ge
  • 5. Ccbedc Ag gain, there is plenty of desk ktop task space and fully e op penable cable race. But it is a non-discreet workstation, r w wh here a single de is the opera esk ational centre fo four units, or wh hich may be in normal m mode under on or two ne op perators… There is p plenty of deskto task space fo printed mate op or erial and enha anced keyboar rds, as well VOIP and VM MR handsets and speakers Fully openable cable ra s. ace perator side, w with accessibility is provided on the non-op tch vers stayed hat covers to eliminate the need to stow cov during serv vicing. …or in various co … ombinations of r run-up and shut t-down, with three or four op perators at one unit, and on operator e ne maining three un nits. managing the rem E EXAMPLE 2 his tand adjustmen impracticable as no one nt Th makes sit-st pe erson has discre territory, an all 12 screen have the eet nd ns ab bility to be dedicated to v d varying units in varying co ombinations. onguration is a solution to a difficu problem of no ult This config discreet, m multiple operator panels. r XAMPLE 3 EX Th configuration combines mu ltiple screens per operator his n p pa anel with a tiltin graphic cha table, all in a sit-stand ng art co onfiguration. | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Pag 5 of 12 | ge
  • 6. Ccbedc 1. .5.4 Other HMIs H Th here is a vast ar rray of other HM in the built environment MIs e on which there are experienced consultants to advise and n for which to desig and deliver so gn olutions. his haustive list: Th is not an exh Co ontrol Room De Controls, Lighting Controls Personal Stora esk s, age, Manuals & Printed Material, C/AV Components, Printing & C Copying, Station nery & VC Pa aper Storage, Int teractive Lines – Sight, Circulat ation, Collaborat tion, the The mechanism design e ensures the screens rise with t art remain vertical as they do so. tilting cha table, but r Because o the time zone managed in this control roo of es om, each opera ator has a pair of side drawer for the stand -by rs charts cov vering each adja acent time zone to that which he e is currently monitoring on the screens an the tilting de y n nd esk. These had to be only 15mm deep and a horizonta d a ally configured drawer slide was developed to support a d t 750mm w wide open draw wer, but retain the two draw wers within 38m of the unders mm side of the desk ktop. 1.5.3 Ce eiling Heigh hts ISO11064- cl. 4.3.2 an Figure 5 pr -3 nd rovide for vertiical 3 space prov visions . Su upport Facilitie es Br reakout, Discuss sion & Meeting Se ervers & Equipm ment Mess & Ablutions s ngineers & Tech hnicians En Ca able Management Identification, Signal Quality, Acc cessibility Light rtificial & Natura Adjustability al, Ar Am mbient Temper rature Ge eneral, Hot-spots, Cold-spots, D Draughts He Loads eat Eq quipment, Huma ans, Windows, D age Doorway Leaka (A Airlocks) No oise & Vibratio on Eq quipment (Fans, Radios, Alarm Chatter/Hall ms), lway Meetings, Intrude ers/Visitors, Foo otfall, Cleaners, Vacuums, djacent Spaces, Plant, Hydraul ics & Pneumatics, , Ad Pr ressure Vessels Structure-born s, ne Ai Quality & Radiation ir As sbestos, VOCs (Volatile Organiic Compounds), Co onstruction Dust, ust Pr rocess By-produ Fumes & Du (Airlocks) uct, Electromagnetic (RF), Ultraviolett, Laser ( Any analys of sight lines and lighting in the control cen sis s ntre will indicat that sufficien height needs to be provided to te nt d enable satisfactory accommodation of overview scree ens priate diffusion of indirect lighting. and approp The critica ality is clear in centres whic have a hea n ch avy dependenc upon large t ce trending screens, video walls a and situational overviews. In certain circumstanc n ces, ceiling heights need to h accommod date tiered floo oring, but the considerations for c tiered floo oring are a subject of their own, and will be referred to briefly in the ne chapter. o ext | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Pag 6 of 12 | ge
  • 7. Ccbedc 2. A Aesthetic & Déco cs or All built int terventions – th aesthetics an décor of a b he nd built environme – have impa ent acts upon the hu umans who inha abit it. e nd There are technical an measurable aspects of the aesthetic a decorative e and elements. “Aesthetics and “décor” a words to wh s” are hich most will ha ave assigned m meaning, but b them I am re by eferring to all b built environme interventions to which our organs respond: ent s o Eyes: L Light, colour, co ontrast o Ears: N Noise, sound o Nose: O Odours o Skin: S Specific heat Our brain, the ultimate pr rocessor and manager organ, w will th physical, psychological, emotional a and react wit intellectual responses, m most of which psychologists a p and l cognitive human factor professional will hold a rs ls are le e. measurabl and predictive Critically, a much as we design, occupy and use our b as y built ur spaces, ou built spaces impact upon and influence us. s Decorative “interventions” as inputs, all have consequ ent e ”, “outputs”. built environmen interventions we nt It is feasible through the b s e” c nce employ as we “decorate the control centre to enhan alert, vigila behaviour. ant 2.1 Ey yes 2.1.1 Li ight Light is a t topic far too complex for this small session, a s and must be given appropriate consideration by knowledgea e able rienced consulta ants in referenc to the gamut of ce t and exper ce: its influenc o The a ability to clearl see objects and informat ly s tion withou strain and bur ut rden; o The a ability to manage biological and anatomiical rhythm and balance. m Anatomica studies show that, with light, we discern a al w and integrate c colour, shape an contrast to analyse motion a nd and thus our p place in our env vironment, to kn now if it is night or t day, sunny or dull. y ghting is not jus a decorative or luminance element, but st e Lig a critical part of the health and alertness levels of the 12t s our tors, when, suc as at night and early ch t ho shift operat morning, they will need to rem main alert and effective to iminate errors, injury and accid dents. eli 2. .1.2 Colour What is Colour? W Fo a human, colo is the visible and measurab result of or our e ble ou ability to differentiate a range of light frequencies which ur e ar constant in nature and the re ame for all erefore, the sa hu umans. The wa avelengths of llight are the sa ame for all ob bservers. The human eye can d distinguish about 10million co olours. Ph hysiological diff ferences and damage can interrupt or i ch hange the me essages pass sing to the brain, and ps sychologists in this field have suggested that responses t ar variously, bu discernibly in re ut nfluenced by culture, age c an gender. That is why it is important to note that nd s o dif fferences exist between colou psychology and colour ur sy ymbolism, colou harmony an colour prefe ur nd erence, and ex xperts exist to assist in u o understanding them and de esigning appr ropriate interv ventions in the built en nvironment. So ome professiona have quantif als ified how colour affects the r hu uman and dete ermined a syste of suitably applying 4 em co olouring systems to the 4 gro oups of human personality an behaviour. nd Co olour psycholog is the study o colour as a determinant gy of d of human beha aviour, and is modelled on six basic rinciples: pr o colour can ca specific mea arry aning. sed in learned meaning or o colour meaning is either bas biologically innate meaning. es utomatically o perception of a colour cause evaluation au by the person perceiving. n ocess forces co olour motivated behaviour. o evaluation pro y cally. ence automatic o colour usually exerts its influe has to do with context as o colour meaning and effect h well. olour Interven ntion In The Control Ce e entre Built Co En nvironment Co olour interventio in the contro centre built environment ons rol e must be condu ucive to supp porting the ac ctions and e responses of the operators in tthe intensity of the control nt often mundane monitoring room environmen where the o an sed periods of crucia or critical al ca be interspers with small p ac ctivity. It should genera ally be light an on the warm side of nd eutral, with sect tions of colours which are sol reliable, s lid, ne qu uietly supportive and require v e very little eye adjustment. a Sm details of colours which ffocus the mind should be mall d pr rovided but spar ringly. | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Pag 7 of 12 | ge
  • 8. Ccbedc o endicular to Aligning tasks and screens withi n 5-10 of perpe xternal window is the only orientation capable of ws y c ex co ombatting adver light sources in front of the operator or rse s reflected in the screens. It is imp m practicable to manage this sue with orientation alone b because of curved multiiss sc creen arrays an maintenance of sight lines throughout nd e the control centre e. econdary daylig managemen must be employed, with, ght nt Se as a minimum, 90% daylight blin s nds and certifie black-out ed bli inds (complete with black-out jambs). Ideally a tertiary y, 50 daylight blind, as a sepa 0% arate blind or as a dualmechanism blind, has significantt advantages for dull days. , We must be cautious to provide colours, patterns a o and which are not “tr rendy” and will survive for a lo ong textures w time in term of their emotive qualities. ms The Wrigh Theory – Colour Affects ht The 1984 paper “Theory of Colour Psychology and Colo our 4 Wright FRSA (Fe ellow of the Ro oyal Harmony” by Angela W as e Society of Arts) sets out a number of idea that combine to unified theory o colour psych of hology and colo our make a u harmony. It suggests the existence of patterns within the e p ectrum that are reflected in patterns of hum e p man visual spe behaviour. The theory r . resulted from exploration of the e questions: following q o How does colour influence mood and behaviour? d do ave esthetic respons ses o Why d individuals ha different ae to the same colour? affective differe ences are there between differ rent o What a version of the same spectral hue? ns o Are the any universally attractive co ere olours? Angela Wr right proposes that: o Respo onse to colou is virtually universal a ur y and subjec ctive, but predict table. o True r response to all aesthetic influences is larg gely uncons scious (by as m much as 80%). o Object tive colour harm mony is a reality. . o Colour affects specif psychologica modes, there r fic al eby influen ncing mood and behaviour in th observer. he o There are mathema atical relationsh hips between the s, able shades tints and tones, making for measura interve entions. What this means is that whimsy, style, trend and fash hion iable reference points. are not reli 2.1.3 Co ontrast While ISO 11064 clause 4.3.4 makes a stat W 4-3 4 tement that windows are “no necessarily ffor illumination”, attention ot must be given to the environm t mental rating of the shell o uilding which ma obligate the b ay building owner or tenant to bu maintain that rating by means w which may inclu reliance ude pon daylight to minimise e nergy consum mption. The up ba alance has to be achieved in th design and may include e he m the distribution of savings across multiple buildin utilities. s ng ask nd ns Ta surfaces an VDU screen In fulfilling the ISO requirement, interventions at the desks O a re ar necessary: reduce screen reflection, and glare from the desk surface and the field of vision around the screen. esktops must be coloured to suit the dom o minant task De ba ackground, pape or screen, to minimise eye strain. er Th intensity and clarity of ima he ages on mode screens ern go oes somewhat to managing s screen reflection but this ns, do not alleviate the need for c oes e critical attention to be given to indirect lightin solutions, att appropriate heights and ng h ositions. It re einforces the need to giv ve careful po co onsideration to the design of a s suitable ceiling height. Sc creen graphics is another subje beyond the influence of ect the built environm ment team, but the project spo onsors must nsure that it is considered in concert and fa acilitate the en clo ose relationship between the PAS/DCS team and the p ms bu environment team. uilt 2.2 Ears Lik light and colour, the wavele ke engths of sound and noise d ar the same for all listeners, and the huma ability to re an dif fferentiate, conc centrate and re espond to noise and sound ar influenced by physiology, iinjury and ability, but can re modified and honed with training g. ISO 11064 4-3 clause 4.3 contains a very simple a 3.4 and direct state ement: “A glare e-free usage of displays shall be f guaranteed d”. 2. .2.1 Noise Windows & Views Ac coustic manage ement of nois is achieved with built se en nvironment inter rventions, such as mass, cavit insulation ty an air-gaps, to insulate an exte nd ernal noise sour rce, contain a noise on the so ource-side of a barrier, preven structurent orne external no oise, and to abs sorb noise and prevent its bo reflection from an internal source e. and The conflicting demands of windows and views a perational visual conditions hav to be manag ve ged optimal op in the design. I refer to noise as aural stimuli w r s which we want to eliminate. It includes plant and equipment,, conversation, footfall and a ructure-borne noise. str | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Pag 8 of 12 | ge
  • 9. Ccbedc fectiveness. In my definition, I am meaning re einforced, or eff ge enerated sound – speakers and alarms. d On the noise has been elimina nce ated or manage acoustic ed, management of sound is achiev s ved with built environment e terventions to eliminate reverbe e eration so a source is only int he eard once, or with an appropria degree of clarity which w ate c en nsures the satisf factory quality o the sound. of Th interventions are in sound re he einforcement de esigned and ov verseen by acou ustic engineers a technicians and s. 2.3 Nose Selection of air-gap glaz zing will mainta the open a ain and e vide conducive feel of the control centre and prov nd ting conversational privacy an quiet breakouts and meet rooms. Th elimination of odors is a sttatutory obligation, fulfilled he o with the selection and use of built environment e e int terventions wh hich have no VOCs (Volatile Organic Co ompounds), and fall within sta d ated requiremen for safe nts pr roducts of com mbustion when welding and cutting are inv volved, in any part of the life cy p ycle. 2.4 Skin Th ambient and surface temper he ratures are the same for all s oc ccupiers of the space, but the significant physiological e an psychologica differences are difficult to manage. nd al re While the main W ntenance of a mission-critic cal working en nvironment with suitable te hin emperature and humidity ranges is essential to making good decision ambient ns, rtificial and natu heating, ural temperature is managed with art ooling and ven ntilation interve ntions and are impacted e co up little by aest pon thetic and décor interventions. r eak Sound is a line-of-sight energy with the ability to le orners. It cannot be stopped without physiical around co barriers. A open-plan environment will be “noisy” with out Any cultural oural interven ntions to liimit and behavio conversational and artificial noise. ons stic Workstatio can include perforated paneling with acous backing a and glazed pa artitions to im mprove the au ural environme ent. Planning must include break-outs, ph hone rooms a and ooms to manage this noise with built environm ent e h meeting ro interventio ons. Such a sp pace can doub as the vis ble sitor e zed Vestibule with a flexible arrangement of sliding glaz panels. coustically-rated ceiling and wall paneling a d w and Carpet, ac resilient pinboards, even furniture and humans, contrib bute ng n e. to managin reverberation within a space The interventions are in t the building fab and rely up bric pon the tested properties of the materials. cleaner noise is best mitigated by the use o a s d of Vacuum c ducted sys stem enabling the noise sourc to be remov ce ved from the ro oom. 2.2.2 So ound By sound I refer to aural s stimuli which we need to hear, but e at the c correct levels for comfort and operatio onal Bu the Specific Heat of materia must be considered to ut als un nderstand the im mpact of the d decorative decis sions in the bu environment when humans come into dir uilt t s rect contact with the surface materials we spe m ecify. Sp pecific Heat is the amount of he required to change the eat o temperature of 1kg of a substa ance by 1 C, measured in m J/kg: kJ 0.39 Copper r (M Mohs 3.0) 49 Steel (M Mohs 4.5) 0.4 0.51 Diamon nd (M Mohs 10.0) Concre ete 0.75 Stone Mohs 3.5 varies) ) (M 0.80 0.84 Glass (M Mohs 5.5) 0.87 Aluminium (M Mohs 2.9) 0.90 Brick Plaster 1.00 Charco oal 1.00 Porcela ain 1.07 Paper/laminated plastiic 1.34 1.36 Mineral fibre insulation n Wool fe elt 1.38 Leather 1.50 1.90 Cork 2.00 Hardwo ood 2.01 Rubber r 2.50 Softwoo od 3.4 40 Bees wax w (M Mohs 0.2) 3.50 Human tissue he S xplains why hard surfaces Th physics of Specific Heat ex su uch as stainles steel and s ss stone feel cold and soft d, su urfaces, such as leather and wood, feel les cold, but a ss ne ever warm. o In a room with an ambient temp n perature of 22 C, all of the C o urfaces in the ro oom will be at 2 C. But the human hand 22 su o o in the room will be 28 C and thei r inside forearm 32 C. e m When the human touches sometthing in the room the hand W m, or forearm will be at a higher te r e emperature than the object n touched and hea will flow from the hotter human to the at m older touched surface, at a rate proportio onal to the co co onductivity of th surface (eg: faster through metal and he | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Pag 9 of 12 | ge
  • 10. Ccbedc slower thro ough wood) an the temperat nd ture of the part of t the anatom my. The faster the heat flows from the hand or inside forea r arm when it touches a surfac the colder th surface will be ce, he hough it is not at a temperatu perceived to be, even th ure n face in the room m. colder than any other surf Ian Nimmo is the president of USA-based Us Centred e ser esign Services Incorporated, a and he writes extensively De on the need to understand ope n u erators’ needs or how they o wo ork during various operation nal phases. I absolutely co oncur with him when he says th a control roo w hat om’s design sh hould be based on improving operational pe d erformance, 5 no a design for th sake of being different. ot he g Similarly, as the forear rm has a hig gher temperatu ure, will ed surfaces w be perceive to be colder when touched by the forearm than by the hand, even th m, e hough the surfa ace temperatur has not chan re nged. ore The Mohs hardness valu s ues show how the harder, mo durable an robust mater nd rials will be in th high end of the he Specific H Heat values. (T Those not listed are too soft to t measure, like wood, or mixtures, such as concrete a and brick.) he Clearly, th built environment interventions will either be cold to the touch, or liable to be destroy within 5 yea e e yed ars. This is a critical decision when heavy industry w work are e he The patterns a going to be stressful to th materials. T issue is o less concer where “offic of rn ce” work patte rns prevail. 2.5 Brain The ultima processing organ is the human brain wh ate hich will receiv and process all the stimu from the bu ve s uli uilt, operationa and virtual env al vironments. As a desig team we dep gn pend upon the research and in put r by cognitive, psychol logical, biotic and acous stic ermine the mos appropriate a st and professionals as we dete built interventio ons, material selections, light s ting effective b and colour ring. One very important field not to be overlooked is the d o nce of the he ealth and effe ectiveness of the maintenan operators at their jobs a they deal with the biologiical as w es. disruption of shift structure gnisably referred to as “Circadian Rhythm”, it iis a Most recog multi-discip plined aspect and sponsor and busine rs ess managers should not be p persuaded that the responses a are be simply to b found in lighting solutions. Many of th aspects are managed in built interventio e b ons, he but many are related to health planni o ing, job planni ng, g d with monitoring and feedback, training and evaluation w administra ative controls, policies and procedures for monitoring, enha ancing and reco overy. alertness m There are appropriately e equipped practitioners who sho ould be involved in the materia selections for, and finishing of, al environment in w which personne are expected to el d the built e ffectively and safely for the du uration of 12 ho our operate ef shifts, thro ough variously-organised cycles, to maintain a n 24-hour mission-critical op peration. environment des sign team need to be suppor ds rted The built e by the inc clusion of prof fessionals to provide workpla p ace evaluation and design su upport with scie entific expertise on ntimate knowled dge human performance and fatigue, and in ors hours workplace es. of the facto to introduce into extended-h The aesthe etics and décor cannot overwh r helm the person nnel or impede their cognitive and physica capabilities, the e al centre’s a aesthetics mus be reasonab subdued a st bly and capable of lasting, both in style and dura f n ability, more tha n a decade or so without t transience, ban nality or mate erial on. esponses to lig ght, deterioratio There are physiological re colour, tex xture and the “specific heat” of materials wh o hich have effec on operators and occupa cts ants. While tren ndy colours and finishes may initially appear exciting and fre esh, d t end they becom tedious and benign with time and desce me into featuri ism, which is de etrimental to res sponsive operat tors on 12-hour shifts and in 24/7 situations. r | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Page 10 of 12 | e
  • 11. Ccbedc 3. Future As we de esign our futur re, where shou we keep o uld our attention fo successful c for control centre built environmen b nts, in the con ntext of the con ntrol centre being functional a and reliable thr roughout its pla anned life, and to take on futu ure technology and busin y ness requirem ments with liittle disruption? ? Cable man nagement, engineer and techn nician access, n new generation equipment, refurbishment, adaptation a n and decamping will be key co g onsiderations, and I propose t a that we will best prepare our built environments to e date the future b being: by accommod Flexible… capable of changing use, changing syste … c ems and adapt ting to enhance systems and changes in the ed business m model. 3.2 Scalab bility Th control centr must be cap he re pable of scaling, especially wh here the organis sation has majo growth and ac or cquisition in its business plan. s Th particularly means addres his ssing multiple operational modes, multiple field cen ntres, multiple energy ependencies, an in the end, s nd neering/data de sufficient engin ce entre/server room/equipment ro oom support. Sc calability is no just the ca ot apacity of the centre to ac ccommodate more componen m nts. It must be done in b co onjunction with cognitive analy ysis of the additional PAS tasks being considered. able managem ment, engineer and technicia access, an Ca refurbishment, an decamping w be key con nd will nsiderations in the built environment. Scalable… to change capacity an … nd accommod ate additional roles, tasks and asset acquisit d tions and integr rate es; field centre and Accessibl le… for retriev ving services, duplicating lega d acy equipment and fitting equ t, uipment into the building. 3.1 Fl lexibility The contr centre must not be locke in to proce rol t ed essspecific lay youts and fixtures. Any specif ficity in the des sign of a sp pace, like tie ered, daised and theatre-llike configurations which are not readily adaptable to oth e her models, and sh hould be imple emented with v very business m careful con nsideration of t their demountab bility. Generic a and open desig gns, clean spac ces, moveable compartments a c and flexible service systems a capable of changing use a are and to ystems, particu ularly in regard to adapting t enhanced sy cable man nagement – zoning and sectio oning for comm ms., UPS, radio and active co o, omponents, in cable races wh c hich are accessible and unifo orm, and uncom mpartmented. T The dation of active components must be planned for accommod and not “ac ccessorised”. … 3.3 Acces ssibility In the context of this presenta o ation, accessib bility means apable of retrieving servic ces, duplicatin ng legacy ca eq quipment and cabling, and fittting equipment & cabling c t int the building, and includes th whole built environment to he e ch hain and support services, access for plant and machinery, lifting clearances,, and all the ordinary e rovisions for bu uilders and trad dies to physica get this ally pr stu up and into the buildings which house the control uff o ce entres. Ac ccess for cable management,, engineer and technician e ac ccess, refurbishment, decampiing and constru uction must be provided and maintained in the control centre built e d n c en nvironment design right from the beginning. e Sufficient c consideration m must be given to the fact that, not o only in the life of the cont centre, but in the time it tak e trol kes to design and build it, components may change a m and n iewed and upg graded. The b built distribution systems revi environme will fail if it locks in one system with too ent t specific an contrived a so nd olution. | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Page 11 of 12 | e
  • 12. Ccbedc 3.4 In ntegrated Delivery of the o O Operationa & Built al Environments The built e environment de esigner will be secondary to the PAS, IT, T Telco and IT tea ams – the opera ational designer – rs who will en nsure that contr systems work rol k. The impor rtant role of the built environm e ment designer is to s make sure that the built e e environment fits the operators a and brings the operational s e systems to the efficiently a em and effectively. . Then the built environm ment must present a compete ent, e ch satisfies the effective and attractive image whic nts akeholders, not forgetting that the requiremen of all the sta corporation as a stak n, keholder, has somewhat of a f requiremen to “show off” at a corporate level, especially to nt y shareholde and investors, but also to attract and hold on ers a to the best operational personnel. t Integrated Delivery Of A Built Solution d n The future will see improvement in the integrated deliv e very of the built solution, as distinct from th delivery of the he integrated solution. ne If everyon does their job well, the solution will be integrated. It’s the integration of the deliv . very process wh hich I want bro ought into focus in the role of the control cen s ntre built enviro onment design c consultant in the future. e Facilitatio on The built environment design team acts as mento a ors, gathering proce esses, and gua facilitating information g ard ghting upon “ “solutions” bef fore ever hav ving against lig defined the problem. e Legislativ Compliance ve The built environment designer has to keep abreast of o t ging planning and building legislation a g and ever-chang correctly in nterpret it. Materials & Technology o materials, their availability, le r ead He has to understand m times and minimum order staging dela and costs, a rs, ays and gical advances, product rang , ges, keep up with technolog ducts, and assoc ciated litigation. failed prod User Cent tred Design Re ealisation The design team promote user-centred design realisat n es tion at the schematic design phase, not as a trouble-shoot ting fter d exercise af delivery and occupation. En nvironmental Is ssues Manage energy, sustainability a and environmental impact hich are routine architectural co onsiderations. wh Fo example, less equipment = reduced heat lo = lower or s oad en nergy consum mption = lon nger life = increased su ustainability. Ad daptive Reuse Ad daptive Reuse as a design imp a pact is broadly an external co onstraint to ma aximise environ nmental sustain nability and minimise resour rce wastage iin the event of centre bandonment. ab It is incumbent upon organisattions to address external onstraints as part of the environ nmental respons sibilities. co Ad daptive Reuse is also huge ely advantageo ous to the or rganisation wh hich utilises iits design opportunities im maginatively and with collaborattive functionality y. Th built environ he nment must be subdued and capable of ac ccommodating, with minimum disruption and cost, the d po otential changes s. Bu forms canno be successfu in the long term if they uilt ot ul t ar too specific, prescriptive, and lock out adapt re p d tation. 3.6 Maste erplanning & Effective g Decam mping for the Future To put all this into a plan for the future, the evol o o lution of the bu usiness must be masterpla anned with an effective n de ecamping strate egy which toge ether allows tha evolution at with minimal redundancy, was stage of resources, and do own-time. Ev verything about the design of th built environm he ment will be to support the virtual and ope v erational enviro onments, to orne of design failures. And to develop a o mitigate errors bo h nd masterplan which decamps in an efficient an effective ream to maintain operationa efficiency th al hrough the str pr roject. My focus for the future is to e y e ensure that or rganisations wh hich have embarked upon a control cent tre project, co omplete it with sufficient built-in capability and flexibility to s n sc cale and adapt to somewhat un s. nknown futures For those wh are embarking upon an upgrade, that they are ho as ssisted to explo the resourc oit ces made avail lable, or to eff fectively stage their project th hrough a mast terplan and se eamless decamp ping. Operation Feedback nal The team should be retained to collect operatio m onal experience – the Knowl es ledge Base referred to earlier to r apply to fu urther projects, just as ISO 11064-1 would ha ave us do at St 11. tep 3.5 Ex xternal Im mpacts Client brie should be requiring the built environm ent efs response t include multit to tudinous externa factors. al Hierarchie es Know and acknowledge the business hierarchies a d e s and politics and work within co d orporate governance. HS&E Issu ues Manage H Health, Safety & Environment requirements, b oth r from the or rganisation and across the building industry. eferences: Re 1 Le Corbusier “Vers une Arch hitecture” 1923 uite 2 ISO 11064 su 3 ISO 9355 suite la olour Psycholog and gy 4 Wright, Angel “Theory of Co Colour Harmo ony” 1984 at http tp:// /the-wright-theor ory 5 Nimmo, Ian at a http://mycontr /1/100/ | F:Projec cts1215 IIR Con nferenceSessio onRussell Ocke endon Session Presentation Pa aper for website e.docx | | Page 12 of 12 | e