Manual Handling
The Cinderella Hazard
Rodney Powell
Senior Scientific Officer (Ergonomics)
rodney.powell@commerce.wa.gov.au
MH Fatalities
1994 WA: 6 x 167 kg sheets of glass
1998 WA: 15 x 29 kg sheets of wire mesh
2002 NSW: 4 - 5 x 60 kg sheets p...
Reg 3.4
concerned
with all
hazards
associated
with manual
handling
From my
perspective:
 Sometimes OSH people rely too much
on JSAs
 Do accident investigations when a risk
assessment is m...
From my
perspective:
 Vocational Rehab. people too much into
“medical model” & focus on RTW mods
rather than what caused ...
Start
here
I am not endorsing any specific
products.
Photos are shown to give examples only (&
maybe provide some inspiration)
OUTLINE
 My overview of MT risk assessment
Overview of Risk Controls
How to develop your own solutions
(Participative E...
OUTLINE
 My overview of MT risk assessment
 Overview of Risk Controls
How to develop your own solutions
(Participative ...
What is “Manual Handling”/a ”Manual Task”?
What is “Manual Handling”/a ”Manual Task”?
Lifting Carrying
Pushing Pulling
Holding Restraining
Holding fixed posture
Hold...
What is “Manual Handling”/a ”Manual Task”?
Lifting Carrying
Pushing Pulling
Holding Restraining
Holding fixed posture
Hold...
Occupation
Duty 1
Task 1
Activity Activity Activity
Task 2
Activity Activity
Duty 2
Task 3
Activity Activity Activity Acti...
Weight/
Force



P
E
R
S
O
N
Understanding the
risk
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures



P
E
R
S
O
N
Posture has
a major
influence on
forces
exerted on
the spine.
The Effects of Body
Weight, Posture
& Load
Activity Force
Standing upright 100 %
The Effects of Body
Weight, Posture
& Load
Activity Force
Standing upright 100 %
Sitting erect 140 %
Twisting 450 132 %
Be...
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures



P
E
R
S
O
N
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
“Direct Risk Factors”
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
“Direct Risk Factors”
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
“Indirect Risk Factors/Sources of Risk”
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Nature of the Load
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Nature of the Load
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Nature of the Load
Work
Organisation
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Nature of the Load
Work
Organisation
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Nature of the Load
Work Environment
Work
Organ...
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Load Size, Shape & Nature
Work Environment
Wor...
Often the risk is a function of a
number of tasks with similar postures,
actions or movements
+ +
+
+ +
Occupation
Duty 1
Task 1
Activity Activity Activity
Task 2
Activity Activity
Duty 2
Task 3
Activity Activity Activity Acti...
BAD NEWS
Often the injury is cumulative and
there are no big problems
GOOD NEWS
There can be lots of simple solutions
OUTLINE
 A quick overview of MT risk assessment
Overview of Risk Controls
How to develop your own solutions
(Participat...
ELIMINATING
MANUAL HANDLING
TASKS
Implementation Cost:
$24.4 Million
Implementation Cost:
$24.4 Million
• 24% reduction in back
injury claims
• 41% reduction in days
lost due to back
injury c...
Canadian Extended
Care Facility
Hoist installation
Cost: $344,000
Paid back in decreased
Workers’ Compensation
claim costs...
US study:
6 Nursing Homes introduced hoists,
repositioning aids & “no lift” policies
Cost: $158,556
Repaid in 3 years in...
Direct
W. Comp
premium
costs
www.slp.wa.gov.au
Workers’ Compensation Policy Premium
Rates 2010/2011
Industry Rate Max.
Rate
Bricklaying Services 4.28% 8.56%
Plumbing Ser...
Replacement Labour Costs
Based on 2007/2008 MH LTI data:
 1 in 26 is off work for 1 day;
 1 in 19 is off work for 1 week...
Cost: $117,950
Saving: $89,230 pa in annual
plant, labour & maintenance
savings
Cost: 1-2 rows of boxes
Labour Savings:
$22,540 pa
ELIMINATING
MANUAL HANDLING
ACTIVITIES
Occupation
Duty 1
Task 1
Activity Activity Activity
Task 2
Activity Activity
Duty 2
Task 3
Activity Activity Activity Acti...
+ how much time do
employees spend
fetching &
looking for tools?
Max. MH Frequency Rate is
about 8
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Load Size, Shape & Nature
Work Environment
Wor...
INCREASING THE WEIGHT
OR
SIZE
BEFORE
50 kg bags of
soybean meal
AFTER
850 kg bulk bags
 Decreased damage through handling (increased
product quality
 Less time to unpack (forklift)
BEFORE
AFTER
Cost: $83,500
Labour Saving: $63,000 pa
DECREASING THE WEIGHT
OR
FORCE
UK Building Company:
Switched from 50 kg to 25 kg cement bags
Saved ₤ 1,500 per year in reduced wastage
2 side lifts (of a...
?? HARMONISATION ??
Changing the way things
are stored
Use Levers
18 kg
4.5 kg
Installation of pre-cast concrete steps at the London
2012 Olympic Stadium
Force required: 82 kg
BEFORE
Force required: 82 kg
Force required: 35 kg
AFTER
LIFTING
& HOLDING
AIDS
Manipulators &
Vacuum Lifters
CIBA Specialty
Chemicals of
Kwinana uses one
for bags.
LTI’s dropped from 7
pa before to an
average of 2 pa after
A perfect vacuum
could support 10
tonne/m2
Manipulators &
Vacuum Lifters
Stupid
Behaviour
or
inadequate
MH Aids?
Tool Balancers
Decreased forced by 90%
Doubled productivity
WHEELS
(turning a lift
into a push)
Re-inventing the wheel
is not a bad thing!
Or bigger
wheels
+ there are
powered tugs
(+ eliminate
forklift risk)
TROLLEYS
Photo: SafeWork SA
Photo: DEIR
Photo: WorkSafe Victoria Photos: WorkCover NSW
Worker designed trolley
doubled output
Breakage of
bricks
decreased
by 5%
Laying rate
per gang
increased
by 20% to
25%
CONVEYORS,
ROLLERS
&
BALL TRANSFER TABLES
Vertical Blind Maker.
Boxes of slats 34 – 68 kg
manually slid into bulk racks.
Introduced miniature
rollers & guides.
25 W...
Two Person
Lifts?
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Vacuum Lifters re-visited
(Posture + weight if shared)
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Load Size, Shape & Nature
Work Environment
Wor...
Don’t have to bend down as far
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Load Size, Shape & Nature
Work Environment
Wor...
Mid-thigh height: 780 mm
Hip height: 945 mm
Elbow height: 1115 mm
Shoulder height: 1450 mm
6% suffered from low back pain at a 4 ½ year
follow-up compared to 16% or workers who
did not use these controls
BEFORE AFTER
BEFORE
AFTER
BEFORE
AFTER
London Olympic stadium.
80,000 seats, 4 bolts per seat
Two holes drilled
at a time
Less need to
carry drills
Reduced noise
exposure
BEFORE
Pull along vacuum
cleaner with a 23
cm head
AFTER
Self-propelled vacuum
cleaner with a 69 cm
head.
Threefold saving in
time required
BEFORE
Less discomfort &
greater accessibility.
Work time decreased
by 50%
AFTER
BEFORE
Reduced handling. Total removal,
repair & reinstallation time
reduced by 33%
AFTER
BEFORE AFTER
BEFORE
AFTER
AFTER
68% less time indoors
64% less time outdoors
Potential saving on rubber bands $420,000 pa
In the past non-
office workers only
got hand-me-down
chairs
BEFORE
46% of time spent in “hazardous postures”
48% of time spent in “marginally hazardous
postures)
AFTER
93% of time spent in “marginally hazardous
postures)
Time taken to fill a crate: 41% less
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Load Size, Shape & Nature
Work Environment
Wor...
Work Environment Controls
 Housekeeping
Common Law Case
Ward v/s Eagle Mining
Employee carrying two “quite heavy” cartons. Could not see
hole in paving.
Tripped a...
Work Environment Controls
 Housekeeping
 Layout
UK Case
Product bin heights changed in factory
(Cost: ₤4,000)
Payback in 2 ½ weeks through decreased work
time & decreased...
Work Environment Controls
 Housekeeping
 Layout
 Plant & vehicles
Impact from
stepping down
from trucks:
up to 2.16 BW
Jumping down:
up to 7.1 BW
BEFORE
AFTER
Took 10 minutes longer to
load containers (45 mins v. 35
mins)
But containers filled to 95%
capacity (v. 89%)
Saving...
Weight/
Force
x
Actions &
postures
x Repetition/
Duration



P
E
R
S
O
N
Load Size, Shape & Nature
Work Environment
Wor...
Work Organisation Controls
 How many times are things handled?
 Sometimes it makes more sense to focus
on the product ...
BEFORE
Beer delivered
to garage,
then
transported
to rear of
shop, then
sold at
counterSpirit producer sells 6,500
cases o...
AFTER
Customers pay
for beer in
shop &
collect
direct from
garage
54% decrease in the
distance walked
Work Procedure
1. Run to verge & pick up household’s full crate
2. Carry crate to truck & empty it
3. Return crate to verg...
Work Procedure – buy 1 extra crate
1. Run to verge with extra crate, drop it & pick up household’s full
crate
2. Carry cra...
Work Organisation Controls
 How many times are things handled?
 Where are things stored?
Work Organisation Controls
 How many times are things handled?
 Where are things stored?
41 kg
Work Organisation Controls
 How many times are things handled?
 Where are things stored?
Work Organisation Controls
 How many times are things handled?
 Where are things stored?
Work Organisation Controls
 How many times are things handled?
 Where are things stored?
 How well are things maintaine...
Work Organisation Controls
 How many times are things handled?
 Where are things stored?
 How well are things maintaine...
Software
 How many mouse clicks, tabs etc?
> 6 mouse clicks
to save stuff in
the correct
folder
1 mouse click to
save stuff in
the correct
folder
US Phone Company Directory Assistance
After
US Phone Company Directory
Assistance Centres
 0.6 second improvement in processing time.
 Over 1 year across 5 states t...
PPE (?)
PPE (?)
OUTLINE
 A quick overview of MT risk assessment
 Estimating the costs of injury
 Overview of Risk Controls
How to deve...
Advantages of Participative
Ergonomics
PRACTICAL
BENEFITS
Reduced injury risk
More cost-effective
solutions
ORGANISTAION...
Finish Study at at engineering plant.
Did a bunch of improvements. Sick
leave fell by 25%
But you need the right training!
Employees need to:
Understand the risks
Motivated & empowered to suggest solutions
If you only train
employees how to lift
the box, they’ll never
think outside it!
In summary
Complete task
elimination may be
cost-effective
Or bits of tasks
& don’t forget
MH is also
pushing and pulling
& don’t forget
levers
Reducing the
weight can also
have other
benefits
& don’t forget
MH is also about
postures
& think outside
your industry
Train employees
to think outside
the box
OUTLINE
 A quick overview of MT risk assessment
 Estimating the costs of injury
 Overview of Risk Controls
How to deve...
www.commerce.wa.gov.au/Worksafe
Industries > Construction > More information
www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/success_stories.html
http://ergo.berkeley.edu/casestudies/
Copies in the WorkSafe
library
QUESTIONS?
rodney.powell@commerce.wa.gov.au
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems
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Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems

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Rodney Powell delivered the presentation at the 2014 Perth Safety in Action Conference.

The 2014 Perth Safety in Action Conference focused on enhancing compliance, productivity and affordability for big and small business. Highlights included an international keynote address from Neville Rockhouse, the Safety and Training Manager for Pike River Coal in New Zealand.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://www.safetyinaction.com.au/SIAPerth14

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Rodney Powell - WorkSafe WA - Cost effective solutions to manual handling problems

  1. 1. Manual Handling The Cinderella Hazard Rodney Powell Senior Scientific Officer (Ergonomics) rodney.powell@commerce.wa.gov.au
  2. 2. MH Fatalities 1994 WA: 6 x 167 kg sheets of glass 1998 WA: 15 x 29 kg sheets of wire mesh 2002 NSW: 4 - 5 x 60 kg sheets particleboard 2007 WA: 220 kg slab of engineered stone 2007 NSW: 20 x 70 kg sheets of glass 2008 WA: 20 x 46 kg sheets particleboard
  3. 3. Reg 3.4 concerned with all hazards associated with manual handling
  4. 4. From my perspective:  Sometimes OSH people rely too much on JSAs  Do accident investigations when a risk assessment is more appropriate
  5. 5. From my perspective:  Vocational Rehab. people too much into “medical model” & focus on RTW mods rather than what caused injury & not asking why do it in the first place?
  6. 6. Start here
  7. 7. I am not endorsing any specific products. Photos are shown to give examples only (& maybe provide some inspiration)
  8. 8. OUTLINE  My overview of MT risk assessment Overview of Risk Controls How to develop your own solutions (Participative Ergonomics) Where to find solutions (Resources)
  9. 9. OUTLINE  My overview of MT risk assessment  Overview of Risk Controls How to develop your own solutions (Participative Ergonomics) Where to find solutions (Resources)
  10. 10. What is “Manual Handling”/a ”Manual Task”?
  11. 11. What is “Manual Handling”/a ”Manual Task”? Lifting Carrying Pushing Pulling Holding Restraining Holding fixed posture Holding awkward posture Repetitive movements
  12. 12. What is “Manual Handling”/a ”Manual Task”? Lifting Carrying Pushing Pulling Holding Restraining Holding fixed posture Holding awkward posture Repetitive movements
  13. 13. Occupation Duty 1 Task 1 Activity Activity Activity Task 2 Activity Activity Duty 2 Task 3 Activity Activity Activity Activity
  14. 14. Weight/ Force    P E R S O N Understanding the risk
  15. 15. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures    P E R S O N
  16. 16. Posture has a major influence on forces exerted on the spine.
  17. 17. The Effects of Body Weight, Posture & Load Activity Force Standing upright 100 %
  18. 18. The Effects of Body Weight, Posture & Load Activity Force Standing upright 100 % Sitting erect 140 % Twisting 450 132 % Bending Forwards 300 171 % Sitting bending forwards 190% Standing upright & 10 kg in each hand 142 % Bending forwards 300 & 10 kg in each hand 279 %
  19. 19. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures    P E R S O N
  20. 20. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N
  21. 21. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N “Direct Risk Factors”
  22. 22. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N “Direct Risk Factors”
  23. 23. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N “Indirect Risk Factors/Sources of Risk”
  24. 24. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Nature of the Load
  25. 25. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Nature of the Load
  26. 26. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Nature of the Load Work Organisation
  27. 27. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Nature of the Load Work Organisation
  28. 28. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Nature of the Load Work Environment Work Organisation
  29. 29. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Load Size, Shape & Nature Work Environment Work Organisation Characteristics of the Employee Tools & Equipment
  30. 30. Often the risk is a function of a number of tasks with similar postures, actions or movements + + + + +
  31. 31. Occupation Duty 1 Task 1 Activity Activity Activity Task 2 Activity Activity Duty 2 Task 3 Activity Activity Activity Activity Task 4 Activity Activity Activity Duty 3 Task 5 Activity Activity
  32. 32. BAD NEWS Often the injury is cumulative and there are no big problems GOOD NEWS There can be lots of simple solutions
  33. 33. OUTLINE  A quick overview of MT risk assessment Overview of Risk Controls How to develop your own solutions (Participative Ergonomics) Where to find solutions (Resources)
  34. 34. ELIMINATING MANUAL HANDLING TASKS
  35. 35. Implementation Cost: $24.4 Million
  36. 36. Implementation Cost: $24.4 Million • 24% reduction in back injury claims • 41% reduction in days lost due to back injury claims • Payback within 5 years
  37. 37. Canadian Extended Care Facility Hoist installation Cost: $344,000 Paid back in decreased Workers’ Compensation claim costs within 2 ½ years
  38. 38. US study: 6 Nursing Homes introduced hoists, repositioning aids & “no lift” policies Cost: $158,556 Repaid in 3 years in decreased workers’ comp. costs Workers’ comp. claims from patient aggression also decreased by 72%
  39. 39. Direct W. Comp premium costs www.slp.wa.gov.au
  40. 40. Workers’ Compensation Policy Premium Rates 2010/2011 Industry Rate Max. Rate Bricklaying Services 4.28% 8.56% Plumbing Services 3.12% 6.24% Hospitals 1.91% 3.82% Structural Steel Fabrication 2.96% 5.92% Nursing Homes 3.55% 7.10% Meat Processing 4.28% 8.56% Supermarkets 2.19% 4.38%
  41. 41. Replacement Labour Costs Based on 2007/2008 MH LTI data:  1 in 26 is off work for 1 day;  1 in 19 is off work for 1 week;  1 in 3 is off work for 1 month;  1 in 4 is off for > 3 months. What are the implications for your workplace?
  42. 42. Cost: $117,950 Saving: $89,230 pa in annual plant, labour & maintenance savings
  43. 43. Cost: 1-2 rows of boxes Labour Savings: $22,540 pa
  44. 44. ELIMINATING MANUAL HANDLING ACTIVITIES
  45. 45. Occupation Duty 1 Task 1 Activity Activity Activity Task 2 Activity Activity Duty 2 Task 3 Activity Activity Activity Activity Task 4 Activity Activity Activity
  46. 46. + how much time do employees spend fetching & looking for tools?
  47. 47. Max. MH Frequency Rate is about 8
  48. 48. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Load Size, Shape & Nature Work Environment Work Organisation Characteristics of the Employee Tools & Equipment
  49. 49. INCREASING THE WEIGHT OR SIZE
  50. 50. BEFORE 50 kg bags of soybean meal
  51. 51. AFTER 850 kg bulk bags  Decreased damage through handling (increased product quality  Less time to unpack (forklift)
  52. 52. BEFORE
  53. 53. AFTER Cost: $83,500 Labour Saving: $63,000 pa
  54. 54. DECREASING THE WEIGHT OR FORCE
  55. 55. UK Building Company: Switched from 50 kg to 25 kg cement bags Saved ₤ 1,500 per year in reduced wastage 2 side lifts (of a 20 kg total load) can reduce lower back compression by up to 1/3
  56. 56. ?? HARMONISATION ??
  57. 57. Changing the way things are stored
  58. 58. Use Levers
  59. 59. 18 kg 4.5 kg
  60. 60. Installation of pre-cast concrete steps at the London 2012 Olympic Stadium
  61. 61. Force required: 82 kg BEFORE
  62. 62. Force required: 82 kg Force required: 35 kg AFTER
  63. 63. LIFTING & HOLDING AIDS
  64. 64. Manipulators & Vacuum Lifters
  65. 65. CIBA Specialty Chemicals of Kwinana uses one for bags. LTI’s dropped from 7 pa before to an average of 2 pa after
  66. 66. A perfect vacuum could support 10 tonne/m2 Manipulators & Vacuum Lifters
  67. 67. Stupid Behaviour or inadequate MH Aids?
  68. 68. Tool Balancers
  69. 69. Decreased forced by 90% Doubled productivity
  70. 70. WHEELS (turning a lift into a push)
  71. 71. Re-inventing the wheel is not a bad thing!
  72. 72. Or bigger wheels
  73. 73. + there are powered tugs (+ eliminate forklift risk)
  74. 74. TROLLEYS
  75. 75. Photo: SafeWork SA Photo: DEIR Photo: WorkSafe Victoria Photos: WorkCover NSW
  76. 76. Worker designed trolley doubled output
  77. 77. Breakage of bricks decreased by 5% Laying rate per gang increased by 20% to 25%
  78. 78. CONVEYORS, ROLLERS & BALL TRANSFER TABLES
  79. 79. Vertical Blind Maker. Boxes of slats 34 – 68 kg manually slid into bulk racks. Introduced miniature rollers & guides. 25 W.C claims per year None in year afterwards
  80. 80. Two Person Lifts?
  81. 81. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N
  82. 82. Vacuum Lifters re-visited (Posture + weight if shared)
  83. 83. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Load Size, Shape & Nature Work Environment Work Organisation Characteristics of the Employee Tools & Equipment
  84. 84. Don’t have to bend down as far
  85. 85. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Load Size, Shape & Nature Work Environment Work Organisation Characteristics of the Employee Tools & Equipment
  86. 86. Mid-thigh height: 780 mm Hip height: 945 mm Elbow height: 1115 mm Shoulder height: 1450 mm
  87. 87. 6% suffered from low back pain at a 4 ½ year follow-up compared to 16% or workers who did not use these controls
  88. 88. BEFORE AFTER
  89. 89. BEFORE AFTER
  90. 90. BEFORE AFTER
  91. 91. London Olympic stadium. 80,000 seats, 4 bolts per seat
  92. 92. Two holes drilled at a time Less need to carry drills Reduced noise exposure
  93. 93. BEFORE Pull along vacuum cleaner with a 23 cm head
  94. 94. AFTER Self-propelled vacuum cleaner with a 69 cm head. Threefold saving in time required
  95. 95. BEFORE
  96. 96. Less discomfort & greater accessibility. Work time decreased by 50% AFTER
  97. 97. BEFORE
  98. 98. Reduced handling. Total removal, repair & reinstallation time reduced by 33% AFTER
  99. 99. BEFORE AFTER
  100. 100. BEFORE
  101. 101. AFTER
  102. 102. AFTER 68% less time indoors 64% less time outdoors Potential saving on rubber bands $420,000 pa
  103. 103. In the past non- office workers only got hand-me-down chairs
  104. 104. BEFORE 46% of time spent in “hazardous postures” 48% of time spent in “marginally hazardous postures)
  105. 105. AFTER 93% of time spent in “marginally hazardous postures) Time taken to fill a crate: 41% less
  106. 106. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Load Size, Shape & Nature Work Environment Work Organisation Characteristics of the Employee Tools & Equipment
  107. 107. Work Environment Controls  Housekeeping
  108. 108. Common Law Case Ward v/s Eagle Mining Employee carrying two “quite heavy” cartons. Could not see hole in paving. Tripped and fell onto her wrists. Awarded $431,393 damages
  109. 109. Work Environment Controls  Housekeeping  Layout
  110. 110. UK Case Product bin heights changed in factory (Cost: ₤4,000) Payback in 2 ½ weeks through decreased work time & decreased wastage
  111. 111. Work Environment Controls  Housekeeping  Layout  Plant & vehicles
  112. 112. Impact from stepping down from trucks: up to 2.16 BW Jumping down: up to 7.1 BW
  113. 113. BEFORE
  114. 114. AFTER Took 10 minutes longer to load containers (45 mins v. 35 mins) But containers filled to 95% capacity (v. 89%) Saving in transport costs: ₤48,000 p.a.
  115. 115. Weight/ Force x Actions & postures x Repetition/ Duration    P E R S O N Load Size, Shape & Nature Work Environment Work Organisation Characteristics of the Employee Tools & Equipment
  116. 116. Work Organisation Controls  How many times are things handled?  Sometimes it makes more sense to focus on the product rather than the employee
  117. 117. BEFORE Beer delivered to garage, then transported to rear of shop, then sold at counterSpirit producer sells 6,500 cases of beer per year to staff
  118. 118. AFTER Customers pay for beer in shop & collect direct from garage
  119. 119. 54% decrease in the distance walked
  120. 120. Work Procedure 1. Run to verge & pick up household’s full crate 2. Carry crate to truck & empty it 3. Return crate to verge 4. Run to next house 5. Repeat steps 2-4
  121. 121. Work Procedure – buy 1 extra crate 1. Run to verge with extra crate, drop it & pick up household’s full crate 2. Carry crate to truck & empty it 3. Run to next house 4. Repeat steps 2-3
  122. 122. Work Organisation Controls  How many times are things handled?  Where are things stored?
  123. 123. Work Organisation Controls  How many times are things handled?  Where are things stored? 41 kg
  124. 124. Work Organisation Controls  How many times are things handled?  Where are things stored?
  125. 125. Work Organisation Controls  How many times are things handled?  Where are things stored?
  126. 126. Work Organisation Controls  How many times are things handled?  Where are things stored?  How well are things maintained?
  127. 127. Work Organisation Controls  How many times are things handled?  Where are things stored?  How well are things maintained?  Can the sequence of work be improved?
  128. 128. Software  How many mouse clicks, tabs etc?
  129. 129. > 6 mouse clicks to save stuff in the correct folder
  130. 130. 1 mouse click to save stuff in the correct folder
  131. 131. US Phone Company Directory Assistance
  132. 132. After
  133. 133. US Phone Company Directory Assistance Centres  0.6 second improvement in processing time.  Over 1 year across 5 states this resulted in a saving of $3 million
  134. 134. PPE (?)
  135. 135. PPE (?)
  136. 136. OUTLINE  A quick overview of MT risk assessment  Estimating the costs of injury  Overview of Risk Controls How to develop your own solutions (Participative Ergonomics) Where to find solutions (Resources)
  137. 137. Advantages of Participative Ergonomics PRACTICAL BENEFITS Reduced injury risk More cost-effective solutions ORGANISTAIONAL BENEFITS More employee ownership Greater perceived management commitment Improvements to trust, communication, support, Culture (?)
  138. 138. Finish Study at at engineering plant. Did a bunch of improvements. Sick leave fell by 25%
  139. 139. But you need the right training! Employees need to: Understand the risks Motivated & empowered to suggest solutions
  140. 140. If you only train employees how to lift the box, they’ll never think outside it!
  141. 141. In summary
  142. 142. Complete task elimination may be cost-effective
  143. 143. Or bits of tasks
  144. 144. & don’t forget MH is also pushing and pulling
  145. 145. & don’t forget levers
  146. 146. Reducing the weight can also have other benefits
  147. 147. & don’t forget MH is also about postures
  148. 148. & think outside your industry Train employees to think outside the box
  149. 149. OUTLINE  A quick overview of MT risk assessment  Estimating the costs of injury  Overview of Risk Controls How to develop your own solutions (Participative Ergonomics) Where to find solutions (Resources)
  150. 150. www.commerce.wa.gov.au/Worksafe Industries > Construction > More information
  151. 151. www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/success_stories.html
  152. 152. http://ergo.berkeley.edu/casestudies/
  153. 153. Copies in the WorkSafe library
  154. 154. QUESTIONS? rodney.powell@commerce.wa.gov.au

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