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Flow-state in solid bulk cargo
& TML
The ship’s perspective
Richard Williams
27TH November 2013

Braemar Seascope
Braemar Shipping Services Plc
Shipbroking

Technical

Dry Cargo
Tankers / LNG / FSPO
Containers
Sale and Purchase
New Buil...
The Cargo shift Problem – and the Outcome

Braemar Seascope
Flow-State – The Ship’s Perspective

• Evolution of the issue and the regulatory response

• Identifying real world proces...
Global Regulation

IMO – the International Maritime Organization – is the United
Nations specialized agency with responsib...
The Ship’s viewpoint
• The load-port :
“… there’s no problem Captain, we’ve never had a problem with this
cargo...!”

• Th...
Shipboard inputs - liquefaction

•Global ship motions
•Structural response – slamming/whipping
•Engine/propeller induced v...
Evolution – Practice & Regulation
Iron Ore – can it liquefy? Does it?
BC Code 1979 – IRON ORE entry

• The code is more wh...
Real-World experience

Braemar Seascope
Viscous fluid state

Braemar Seascope
Splashing under hatchlids

Braemar Seascope
Wet fines compacted

Braemar Seascope
Free water (slurry) with intact cargo

Braemar Seascope
Wet base partial collapse

Wording in an actual submission for a new cargo to IMO:
• “The appearance of the surface of thi...
Control system boundaries
= Zone of Increased Risk
• Shipping operates in International “Law” domain
• Minerals production...
The problem
Producers’ viewpoint
•
•
•
•
•

Low confidence in pre-existing test methods for TML
Historically developed for...
Recent & Current progress
IMO Sub-committee Sept 2013
IMO Sub-Committee for Dangerous Goods, Solid Cargoes and
Containers ...
Technical Working Group
process
Marine Study involved real-ships real cargoes
• Vessel motions & forces
• Vessel stability...
Technical Working Group
Marine study – recorded vessel motion routes

Braemar Seascope
Ocean route exposure
Brazil comparison Australia – N Asia

Braemar Seascope
Technical Working Group
Marine study – Typical cargo hold

Braemar Seascope
Technical Working Group
Marine study - Laser scan of cargo end voyage

Braemar Seascope
Technical Working Group
Marine study – stow profile before & after

Braemar Seascope
Technical Working Group
“Marine study” conclusions *IRON ORE FINES
• Vessel motions & forces
– Ship size is a factor (surp...
Technical Working Group
“Test method” conclusions
• The existing tests do not take into account key material
properties
• ...
Technical Working Group
New IMSBC Code schedules
•
•
•
•

The pre-existing IMSBC Code includes no “FINES’ schedule
A new I...
IMO DSC18 Sept 2013 - outcomes
•
•
•
•
•

Modified test method
New IMSBC Code schedule IRON ORE FINES
Clarified criteria d...
IMO – other incoming changes
• Procedures for Sampling, Testing, Moisture management
• Procedures subject to approvals, ch...
Looking Ahead
• Delayed / staged in-force dates
• In Australia, consider in-force now
• Period of uncertainty during inter...
Smooth Sailing – Safe Arrivals
Thank you

Braemar Seascope
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Richard Williams, Braemar Seascope Pty Ltd: Flow-State in Solid Bulk Cargo and TML: The Ship’s Perspective

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Richard Williams, Business Development Manager, Braemar Seascope Pty Ltd delivered this presentation at the 2013 FE Tech Conference. The event focussed on the economics of processing and the beneficiation of iron ore. In light of the slowdown in demand for iron ore and pricing decreases, the need to process more efficiently and cost effectively is a challenge. The conference examined on how we can achieve greater value from the iron ore supply chain, with topics addressing optimisation and streamlining processes, applying improved technologies, understanding the ore body and how to properly characterise it, knowing the steel makers needs. For more information please visit the conference website: http://www.informa.com.au/fe-tech

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Transcript of "Richard Williams, Braemar Seascope Pty Ltd: Flow-State in Solid Bulk Cargo and TML: The Ship’s Perspective"

  1. 1. Flow-state in solid bulk cargo & TML The ship’s perspective Richard Williams 27TH November 2013 Braemar Seascope
  2. 2. Braemar Shipping Services Plc Shipbroking Technical Dry Cargo Tankers / LNG / FSPO Containers Sale and Purchase New Building Demolition Research Port construction Naval Architecture Vessel & condition surveys Ship construction supervision Environmental Logistics Pollution control Incident response Port Agency Customs clearance Containers Braemar Seascope
  3. 3. The Cargo shift Problem – and the Outcome Braemar Seascope
  4. 4. Flow-State – The Ship’s Perspective • Evolution of the issue and the regulatory response • Identifying real world process • Reviewing recent developments, future possibilities Braemar Seascope
  5. 5. Global Regulation IMO – the International Maritime Organization – is the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine pollution by ships. Braemar Seascope
  6. 6. The Ship’s viewpoint • The load-port : “… there’s no problem Captain, we’ve never had a problem with this cargo...!” • The discharge -port : “… why did you bring that stuff here?” “…In the resulting viscous fluid state cargo may flow to one side of the ship with a roll one way but not completely return with a roll the other way. Thus the ship may progressively reach a dangerous angle of list and capsize.” Braemar Seascope
  7. 7. Shipboard inputs - liquefaction •Global ship motions •Structural response – slamming/whipping •Engine/propeller induced vibration •Effect of ship size •Importance of length of time/voyage Braemar Seascope
  8. 8. Evolution – Practice & Regulation Iron Ore – can it liquefy? Does it? BC Code 1979 – IRON ORE entry • The code is more what you call "guidelines" than actual rules.1 1Captain Barbarossa “Pirates of the Caribbean” Braemar Seascope
  9. 9. Real-World experience Braemar Seascope
  10. 10. Viscous fluid state Braemar Seascope
  11. 11. Splashing under hatchlids Braemar Seascope
  12. 12. Wet fines compacted Braemar Seascope
  13. 13. Free water (slurry) with intact cargo Braemar Seascope
  14. 14. Wet base partial collapse Wording in an actual submission for a new cargo to IMO: • “The appearance of the surface of this cargo shall be checked regularly during voyage. • “If free water above the cargo or fluid state of the cargo is observed during voyage, the master shall take appropriate actions to prevent cargo shifting and potential capsize of the ship, • “and give consideration to seeking emergency entry into a place of refuge. Braemar Seascope
  15. 15. Control system boundaries = Zone of Increased Risk • Shipping operates in International “Law” domain • Minerals production operates in Local Law domain • Ships at a loading terminal sit in between Maritime Practice .... ? Minerals Production Increased Risk zone Overlaps or gaps in practices/ risk-controls Regulatory jurisdictions interact/misalign Braemar Seascope
  16. 16. The problem Producers’ viewpoint • • • • • Low confidence in pre-existing test methods for TML Historically developed for mineral concentrates Not directly applicable to iron ore Duration of codified tests > online sampling, testing Risk of cargo loaded > allowable moisture • Problem exists now for ‘wet ore’ producers • Problem extends as mines develop toward wetter ores Braemar Seascope
  17. 17. Recent & Current progress IMO Sub-committee Sept 2013 IMO Sub-Committee for Dangerous Goods, Solid Cargoes and Containers eighteenth session (DSC 18) Met at the IMO headquarters in London 16th -20th September 2013 • Reviewed results from Technical Working Group • TWG comprised of representatives from BHP Billiton, Rio Tinto and Vale • Australian & Brazilian Competent Authorities involved • Research verified by independent review. Braemar Seascope
  18. 18. Technical Working Group process Marine Study involved real-ships real cargoes • Vessel motions & forces • Vessel stability • Cargo observations Test method study • Adjusted method adapted from existing PFT Braemar Seascope
  19. 19. Technical Working Group Marine study – recorded vessel motion routes Braemar Seascope
  20. 20. Ocean route exposure Brazil comparison Australia – N Asia Braemar Seascope
  21. 21. Technical Working Group Marine study – Typical cargo hold Braemar Seascope
  22. 22. Technical Working Group Marine study - Laser scan of cargo end voyage Braemar Seascope
  23. 23. Technical Working Group Marine study – stow profile before & after Braemar Seascope
  24. 24. Technical Working Group “Marine study” conclusions *IRON ORE FINES • Vessel motions & forces – Ship size is a factor (surprise!!) – Measured accelerations are less than predicted • Vessel stability – Capesize vessel stability not compromised <50% cargo shift – Smaller vessels have less tolerance to cargo shift • Cargo observations – Laser scans reveal less movement than expected – Wet Brazilian ores drainage manageable by bilge pumping – Australian ores no free water experienced * These outcomes should not be applied to other cargo types Braemar Seascope
  25. 25. Technical Working Group “Test method” conclusions • The existing tests do not take into account key material properties • a new test procedure "modified Proctor/Fagerberg test (PFT) procedure" better serves for iron ore fines • “Recalibrated” PFT better suits IOF properties (PFT”D” test) • TML for IOF is best determined by using the PFT D method • …and the moisture corresponding to the point where the compaction curve intersects the 80% saturation line. Braemar Seascope
  26. 26. Technical Working Group New IMSBC Code schedules • • • • The pre-existing IMSBC Code includes no “FINES’ schedule A new IRON ORE FINES schedule is accepted for inclusion Group A – subject to liquefaction applies Testing for TML and actual moisture apply • A set of criteria distinguishing from lump ore Iron Ore Fines is iron ore containing both: – 10 per cent or more of fine particles less than 1mm, and – 50 per cent or more of particles less than 10mm. • Additional criteria excluding fines > 35% goethite Braemar Seascope
  27. 27. IMO DSC18 Sept 2013 - outcomes • • • • • Modified test method New IMSBC Code schedule IRON ORE FINES Clarified criteria differentiating FINES / LUMP New IMSBC Code schedule IRON ORE (for lump) Qualification according to Goethite content • Cargo trimming requirements Braemar Seascope
  28. 28. IMO – other incoming changes • Procedures for Sampling, Testing, Moisture management • Procedures subject to approvals, checks and audit (AMSA) • Access to stockpiles for ship’s representative check sampling Braemar Seascope
  29. 29. Looking Ahead • Delayed / staged in-force dates • In Australia, consider in-force now • Period of uncertainty during interim period Braemar Seascope
  30. 30. Smooth Sailing – Safe Arrivals Thank you Braemar Seascope
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