Prof. Scott Donne, University of Newcastle: Supercapacitors in light rail regenerative braking systems
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Prof. Scott Donne, University of Newcastle: Supercapacitors in light rail regenerative braking systems

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Professor Scott Donne, Associate Professor, School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle delivered this presentation at the 2014 Light Rail conference in Melbourne. Across the ...

Professor Scott Donne, Associate Professor, School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle delivered this presentation at the 2014 Light Rail conference in Melbourne. Across the globe the conception and delivery of light rail projects has been growing at an incredible rate. Seen as an efficient and sustainable way to alleviate the congestion that cripples the expansion of many key urban zones, light rail is fast becoming a central solution in the evolution of Australia's major urban areas. In order to work towards a congestion free future, it is imperative that federal and state governments support light rail projects.

Light Rail 2014 explored all the possible funding options for light rail projects, while also looking at international case studies, the latest rolling stock, braking technology, among many more. For more information about the event, please visit the conference website: http://www.informa.com.au/lightrailconference

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Prof. Scott Donne, University of Newcastle: Supercapacitors in light rail regenerative braking systems Prof. Scott Donne, University of Newcastle: Supercapacitors in light rail regenerative braking systems Presentation Transcript

  • Supercapacitors  in  Light  Rail     Regenera3ve  Braking  Systems  
  • Outline   •  Introduc)on   –  Energy  conserva)on  and  efficiency   –  Move  away  from  fossil  fuels   •  Regenera)ve  breaking  –  what  is  it?   •  Energy  storage   –  What  op)ons  are  available?   –  Supercapacitors  –  what  are  they,  and  what  do  they  offer?   •  Examples  of  previous  use   –  Other  applica)ons   •  Rail  examples   •  Research  in  this  area  at  the  University  of  Newcastle   •  Summary   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 2
  • Energy  Dependence   TWh Total energy consumption and source March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 3
  • Problems  with  Fossil  Fuel  Derived  Energy   Limited Resource Emissions March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 4
  • Transi<on  to  Renewable  Energy   What is required? 1. Efficient processes 2. Energy storage March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 5
  • Regenera<ve  Breaking   •  Regenera)ve  braking  is  an  energy  recovery  mechanism  which  slows   a  vehicle  down  by  conver)ng  its  kine)c  energy  into  another  form,   which  can  be  either  used  immediately  or  stored  un)l  needed.   •  Conven)onally  this  energy  is  dissipated  as  heat  upon  braking.   A moving vehicle has a lot of kinetic energy. E.g., a 40 tonne train travelling at 20 km/h has 0.62 MJ of energy to dissipate before it comes to a complete halt. March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 6
  • Energy  Storage   •  Many  different  forms   •  Electrochemical  energy  storage   –  Supercapacitors   –  BaKeries   –  Fuel  cells   ICE •  Addi)onally   –  Cyclability   –  Environmental   –  Cost   •  Supercapacitors   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 7
  • Capaci<ve  Energy  Storage   •  Electroly)c  capacitors  (105  W/kg;  10-­‐2  Wh/kg)   •  Supercapacitors  (104  W/kg;  10  Wh/kg)   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 8
  • Supercapacitor  Performance   •  Advantages   •  Disadvantages   –  High  power   –  Rela)vely  low  energy   •  Up  to  104  W/kg   •  High  charge-­‐discharge  rates   •  Small  )me  constants  (<1  s)   •  <10  Wh/kg   •  Discharge  does  not  last  long   –  Rela)vely  high  cost   –  Excellent  cyclability     •  >105  cycles   –  Very  high  efficiency   •  >99%  of  ini)al  capacitance  a^er  105   cycles   Environmental  performance   •  queous  systems   A •  on-­‐aqueous  systems   N March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 9
  • Examples  –  Garbage  Truck   •  Oshkosh  truck  hybrid  garbage  vehicle   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 10
  • Examples  –  Excavator     •  Diesel-­‐electric  hybrid  excavator   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 11
  • Examples  –  Gantry  Crane   •  Hybrid  rubber-­‐)red  gantry  crane   –  7  MJ  Capacitor  –  efficient  regenera)ve  energy  capture   –  ~40  %  fuel  savings  and  significant  emissions  reduc)on   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 12
  • Rail  Examples   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 13
  • Rail  Examples   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 14
  • Rail  Examples   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 15
  • University  of  Newcastle  –  Applied  Electrochemistry   BaFery  Systems   Zn/MnO2   Li/MnO2   LixMnO2   LiFePO4   ACuO2   Zn/air   Supercapacitors   Collaborators   CSIRO  (Australia)   FMC  Lithium  (USA)   Litronik  (Germany)   Pure  Energy  (Canada)   Duracell  (USA)   Timcal  (Switzerland)   Delta  EMD  (Australia)   Ac)vated  carbon   MnO2   Fe3O4   Conduc)ng  polymers   Fuel  Cell  Research   O2  reduc)on  catalysts   (aqueous  and  non-­‐aqueous)   Direct  carbon  fuel  cell   Microbial  fuel  cell   Photo-­‐electrochemical  cells   Redox  mediators  for  DSSC   CSIRO  (Australia)   University  of  Nantes  (France)   University  of  Surrey  (UK)   Collaborators   CSIRO  (Australia)   Chemical  Energy  Storage   H2  produc)on  (Hybrid  Sulfur  Cycle)   Thermochemical  S/SO2/SO42-­‐  system   Corrosion   Cast  iron  corrosion   Titanium  corrosion   In-­‐situ  condi)on  evalua)on   March 5, 14 Collaborators   MIT  (USA)   CSIRO  (Australia)   Coal  Innova)on  NSW   NSW  DPI   Collaborators   Delta  EMD  (Australia)   Sydney  Water   University  of  Technology,  Sydney   Hunter  Water   Light Rail 2014 Collaborators   CSIRO  (Australia)   General  Atomics  (USA)   Chars   N-­‐modified  chars   Microbial  fuel  cells   Collaborators   Anthroterra   NSW  DPI   DAFF/GRDC   16
  • Capaci<ve  Energy  Storage   •  Pseudo-­‐capacitance   Electrolyte   M+   e-­‐   Conduc)ve  material   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Ac)ve  material   17
  • Materials  for  Supercapacitors   K.  Naoi  and  P.  Simon;  Electrochemical  Society  Interface,  34,  Spring  2008.   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 18
  • Summary  –  Power  and  Energy   Fuel cells March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 19
  • Summary   •  Energy  storage  is  a  key  aspect  of  improving  energy  efficiency   •  Supercapacitors  are  an  energy  storage  technology  typified  by  high   specific  power  and  excellent  cyclability   •  Supercapacitors  are  well  suited  for  high  power,  repe))ve  pulse   applica)ons   •  In  rail  (and  other  large  scale)  applica)ons  they  have  the   demonstrated  ability  to  improve  energy  efficiency  by  ~40%   •  Our  research  has  led  to  higher  energy  materials   March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 20
  • Ques3ons?  
  • March 5, 14 Light Rail 2014 Slide 22
  • Acknowledgements   •  University  of  Newcastle   –  Ariana  Cormie   –  Andrew  Cross   –  Madeleine  Dupont   –  Andrew  Cross   –  Andrew  Gibson   –  $$$$   •  CSIRO  Energy  Technology   –  Dr.  Tony  Hollenkamp   –  Dr.  Tony  Pandolfo   –  $$$$   March 5, 14 •  University  of  Nantes,  France   –  Prof.  Thierry  Brousse   –  Prof.  Olivier  Crosnier   –  Alban  Morel   –  Mickael  Drozd   –  Paul  Arcidiacono   –  Laurane  Loup   Light Rail 2014 23