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Trade-offs between Light Rail vs Bus Rapid Transit for Sydney

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Professor Graham Currie, Chair of Public Transport, Institute of Transport Studies, Monash University delivered this presentation at the 2013 NSW State Transport Infrastructure Summit. …

Professor Graham Currie, Chair of Public Transport, Institute of Transport Studies, Monash University delivered this presentation at the 2013 NSW State Transport Infrastructure Summit.
The State Transport Infrastructure Series of events represent the leading forums in Australia to assess the future plans for transport infrastructure development and financing across Australia. For more information, please visit http://www.statetransportevents.com.au

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  • 1. www.monash.edu.au Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management NSW Transport Infrastructure Summit 8th August 2013 Sydney Harbour Marriot Trade-offs between Light Rail vs Bus Rapid Transit for Sydney Professor Graham Currie Chair of Public Transport, Institute of Transport Studies, Monash University
  • 2. 2Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Agenda 1. Introduction 2. People Prefer Rail! 3. Beware the Streetcar! 4. The Transfer Problem 5. Other Factors 6. Conclusions
  • 3. 3Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management This paper aims to inform the Light Rail vs Bus Rapid Transit debate • Authorities face difficult decisions in using limited funds • Much debate is polarised within industry divides – we need ‘facts’ not ‘faith’ upon which to base decisions • Includes results from many research papers to inform the debate: – Currie G (2005) ‘The Demand Performance of Bus Rapid Transit’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol 8 No 1 – Currie G (2006) ‘Do Melbourne Trams Have a Future?’ ARRB Conf Oct-Nov 2006 – Currie G (2006) ‘Bus Transit Oriented Development – Strengths and Challenges Relative to Rail’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol. 9, No. 4, 2006 – Currie G and Delbosc A (2013) ‘Exploring Comparative Ridership Drivers of Bus Rapid Transit and Light Rail Transit Routes’ Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2013 pp47-65 – Currie G and Burke (In Press) ‘Light Rail in Australia – Performance and Prospects’ 36th Australasian Transport Research Forum, Brisbane Australia 2013 – Currie G and Delbosc A (Under review) ‘Assessing Bus Rapid Transit System Performance in Australasia’ 13th International Conference Series on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport (Thredbo 13, Oxford UK Sept 2013
  • 4. 4Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management It is structured as follows: Beware the Streetcar! The Transfer Problem People Prefer Rail! Other Factors Conclusion
  • 5. 5Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Agenda 1. Introduction 2. People Prefer Rail! 3. Beware the Streetcar! 4. The Transfer Problem 5. Other Factors 6. Conclusions
  • 6. 6Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Behavioural research can be used to explore passenger preference for transit modes Same: • Walk Access Time • Wait Time (Frequency) • Fare • Reliability • In-Vehicle Travel Time • Walk Egress • Reliability How many will use on-street Bus vs Light Rail?
  • 7. 7Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management When measured for on-street bus, light rail and heavy rail interesting results emerge 86 76 76 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 Bus (On-Street) Light Rail Heavy Rail Weighted Travel Time (Mins) Source: Based on Currie G (2005) ‘The Demand Performance of Bus Rapid Transit’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol 8 No 1 Typical Comparison of Weighted Trip Time – On-Street Bus, Light Rail, Heavy Rail Mode 10 Minute Benefit for Rail OR A 10 Minute MODE SPECIFIC FACTOR
  • 8. 8Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management The evidence shows much variation by mode but a general trend to preference for rail Source: Currie G (2005) ‘The Demand Performance of Bus Rapid Transit’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol 8 No 1 20 0 2 3 15 16 8 4 1 10 18 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 M anchester - Car Av Holland - High UK - Car Available Dublin - Bus Users UK - Bus Users Sydney - peak W ardm an 13 W ardm an 12B On Street Bus vs Light Rail – Mode Specific Factors City/System ModeSpecificConstant 4 6 2 3 12 16 7 7 -56 -27 -5 4 4 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Intnl.-Low Holland -High UK -CarAvailable Dublin -Bus Users UK -Bus Users Sydney -peak W ardm an 19B W ardm an 7B AVERAG E On Street Bus vs Heavy Rail – Mode Specific Factors City/System ModeSpecificConstant
  • 9. 9Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Why does rail have a perceived benefit over Bus? • The cause of the mode specific factor benefit of rail is related to comparative quality of bus vs rail in relation to: – Stops/Stations – Network Knowledge – Ride Quality – Expectations of Reliability – Expectations of Priority – Expectations of Speed
  • 10. 10Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Stations have more amenities and are easy to locate than bus stops • The cause of the mode specific factor benefit of rail is related to comparative quality of bus vs rail in relation to: – Stops/Stations – Network Knowledge – Ride Quality – Expectations of Reliability – Expectations of Priority – Expectations of Speed
  • 11. 11Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Rail lines are easy to understand – bus routes are spaghetti • The cause of the mode specific factor benefit of rail is related to comparative quality of bus vs rail in relation to: – Stops/Stations – Network Knowledge – Ride Quality – Expectations of Reliability – Expectations of Priority – Expectations of Speed
  • 12. 12Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management A rail ride is comfortable, buses require a hand hold • The cause of the mode specific factor benefit of rail is related to comparative quality of bus vs rail in relation to: – Stops/Stations – Network Knowledge – Ride Quality – Expectations of Reliability – Expectations of Priority – Expectations of Speed
  • 13. 13Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Traffic makes buses more unreliable than rail • The cause of the mode specific factor benefit of rail is related to comparative quality of bus vs rail in relation to: – Stops/Stations – Network Knowledge – Ride Quality – Expectations of Reliability – Expectations of Priority – Expectations of Speed
  • 14. 14Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Rail never waits at traffic signals – bus does • The cause of the mode specific factor benefit of rail is related to comparative quality of bus vs rail in relation to: – Stops/Stations – Network Knowledge – Ride Quality – Expectations of Reliability – Expectations of Priority – Expectations of Speed
  • 15. 15Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Rail is perceived as faster – bus in traffic with on-vehicle fare collection is slow • The cause of the mode specific factor benefit of rail is related to comparative quality of bus vs rail in relation to: – Stops/Stations – Network Knowledge – Ride Quality – Expectations of Reliability – Expectations of Priority – Expectations of Speed
  • 16. 16Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management However (limited) evidence also suggests well designed bus systems can have similar MSC’s Source: Currie G (2005) ‘The Demand Performance of Bus Rapid Transit’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol 8 No 1 9 12 9 20 12 0 5 10 15 20 25 UK CarAvailable Dublin -Bus Users UK Bus Users Adelaide AVERAG E On Street Bus vs Bus Rapid Transit – Mode Specific Factors City/System Quality Stops/Stations Simple Networks Good Ride Quality High Reliability Priority Over Traffic High Speed
  • 17. 17Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management LRT ridership is higher than BRT but so are service levels 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 Passengerspervehiclekm Vehicle trips per annum BRT (Australia) Light Rail (Australia) Light Rail (USA) Light Rail (Europe) Source: Currie G and Delbosc A (2013) ‘Exploring Comparative Ridership Drivers of Bus Rapid Transit and Light Rail Transit Routes’ JOURNAL OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2013 pp47-65
  • 18. 18Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Contemporary history of Australasian BRT vs LRT ridership Bus Rapid Transit System Light Rail Transit 2006 2010 2012 2006 2010 2012 Adelaide Busway(ANEB) 7.0 8.0 8.4 Melbourne 145.3 175.6 191.6 Sydney L-P Transitway(SLPT) 1.9 2.6 2.8 Sydney 2.5 2.8 3.9 Sydney Blacktown-Parklea Busway (SBPT) n/a 0.8 1.1 Adelaide 2.1 2.9 2.9 Sydney Parramatta-Rouse Hill Busway (SPRHT) n/a 2.3 3.3 Brisbane South East (BSEB) 26.0 47.1 46.7 Brisbane Nrthrn (BNB) n/a 13.0 32.4 Brisbane Eastern Busway (BEB) n/a 5.4 25.9 Melbourne SmartBus (MSBN)1 1.7 5.6 19.3 Melbourne DART (MDART) n/a n/a 3.5 Auckland Northern Busway n/a 1.8 5.8 Total 36.6 86.6 149.2 Total 149.9 181.3 198.4 Ridership (Annual (M)) Ridership (Annual (M)) Source: Currie G and Burke (In Press) ‘Light Rail in Australia – Performance and Prospects’ 36th Australasian Transport Research Forum, Brisbane Australia 2013 Currie G and Delbosc A (Under review) ‘Assessing Bus Rapid Transit System Performance in Australasia’ 13th International Conference Series on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport (Thredbo 13, Oxford UK Sept 2013
  • 19. 19Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Agenda 1. Introduction 2. People Prefer Rail! 3. Beware the Streetcar! 4. The Transfer Problem 5. Other Factors 6. Conclusions
  • 20. 20Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Melbourne is the worlds largest light rail system
  • 21. 21Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Unfortunately it’s a “streetcar” system
  • 22. 22Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Indeed its THE biggest (western) city streetcar system 167 66 49 44 31 25 24 24 23 18 14 13 12 9 9 1 1 0 17 4 4 3 1 48 41 9 8 7 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Tram/LRT Track Km in Mixed Traffic with Median Operations German Cities French Cities UK Cities USA Cities MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA
  • 23. 23Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Mixed Traffic service impedes performance 40 34 32 31 30 30 26 26 25 25 25 22 21 21 21 21 21 20 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 19 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 14 14 13 12 12 10 10 9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Skagen, Guadalajara, Toulouse, Washington, Laon, Stuttgart, Hong Kong, Strasbourg, New York, M annheim, Los Angeles, Rotterdam, Tunis, Hong Kong, M ainz, Heidelberg M unich, Riga, Berlin, Oslo, Paris, Budapest, Zwickau, Constanta, Amsterdam, Creil, Vienna, Zagreb, Genève M ELBOURNE Torino, Toronto, Tallinn, Würzburg, M ilano, Lisbon, Average Speed (KPH)Source: UITP Databank Average Operating Speeds – World Tram/Light Rail Systems City/System Melbourne (15/16 kph) Melbourne Tram Reliability • 33% of services are considered to be NOT running on time • On time defined as arriving more than 1 min early of more than 6 mins late Source: Track Record
  • 24. 24Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management As traffic is growing, trams are getting slower and more unreliable 20 25 30 35 40 1999Aug-Sept OctDec 2000JanMar AprJun JulSept OctDec 2001JanMar AprJun JulSept OctDec 2002JanMar AprJun JulSept OctDec 2003JanMar AprJun JulSept OctDec Quarter %TramServicesNotOnTime Yarra Trams Swanston Trams Source: ITS analysis of ‘Track Record’ Data Average Operating Speed (Kph)Share of Services NOT ON Time Source: Department of Infrastructure
  • 25. 25Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management In addition its not DDA Accessible and needs to be by 2032 Despite Low Floor Tram Not DDA Accessible Road is Blocked During Boarding
  • 26. 26Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management A good solution are ‘super stops’ – but they take up road space
  • 27. 27Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Agenda 1. Introduction 2. People Prefer Rail! 3. Beware the Streetcar! 4. The Transfer Problem 5. Other Factors 6. Conclusions
  • 28. 28Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Passengers don’t like transferring between transit modes to complete journeys 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Walk Wait UX Wait IVT Transfer Walk Total Typical Weighted Bus Travel Time Travel Time Element PassengerWeightedTravelTime(Mins) Transfer Issue • Represents over 30% of total perceived travel time • Evidence shows transfer penalties can vary considerably with quality of the transfer location : • Utility of Transfer Includes: – Walk transfer time (weighted) – Wait transfer time (weighted) – PLUS a fixed transfer penalty Unprotected Area, Open Air, Uncoordinated Transfer, Low Frequency 32 Minutes Protected Area, Covered, Coordinated Transfer, High Frequency 4 Minutes Source: Currie and Willis (98) Australasian Transport Research Forum
  • 29. 29Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Evidence shows transfer ‘penalties’ vary but are generally significant in size 18 37 22 30 6 30 8 10 8 50 5 22 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 C hicago -Low C hicago -H igh O ttaw a -Low O ttaw a -H ighH onalulu Taipai O slo -LowO slo -H igh Perth -W orkStockholmEdinburgh AV ER AG E Bus-Bus Transfer Penalties City/System TransferPenalty(mins) 15 28 12 25 18 19 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Boston -Low Boston -H igh Edm onton -Low Edm onton -H igh Edm onton AV ER AG E Bus-LRT Transfer Penalties City/System TransferPenalty(mins) Bus-Heavy Rail Transfer Penalties City/System TransferPenalty(mins) Heavy Rail-Heavy Rail Transfer Penalties City/System TransferPenalty(mins) 6 11 23 13 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Perth -W orkSydney -Peak Stockholm AV ER AG E 6 15 8 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Sydney Peak Stockholm Edinburgh AV ER AG E Source: Currie G (2005) ‘The Demand Performance of Bus Rapid Transit’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol 8 No 1
  • 30. 30Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management They also vary by mode – quality of the transfer environment is again the determining factor Source: Currie G (2005) ‘The Demand Performance of Bus Rapid Transit’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol 8 No 1 22 19 13 10 9 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 Bus-Bus Bus-LRT Bus-Suburban Rail Suburban Rail-Rail Suburban Rail-Subw ay Subw ay-Subway City/System Average All Mode Transfers Transfer Penalty
  • 31. 31Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management The average transfer penalty for LRT is 19 minutes – a significant deterent Source: Currie G (2005) ‘The Demand Performance of Bus Rapid Transit’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol 8 No 1 22 19 13 10 9 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 Bus-Bus Bus-LRT Bus-Suburban Rail Suburban Rail-Rail Suburban Rail-Subw ay Subw ay-Subway City/System Average All Mode Transfers Transfer Penalty
  • 32. 32Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management A major LRT design issue is how to avoid ‘forcing’ transfers from bus networks
  • 33. 33Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Bus services run DIRECTLY (No transfer) into the CBD
  • 34. 34Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Only Light Rail Running the Full Length of the Route Would Avoid a ‘Forced’ Transfer Key Question 1 • Can you afford to convert every bus route in Sydney to Light Rail? • If Not Where (and who) has to have a ‘forced’ transfer?
  • 35. 35Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Key Question 2 • Do you have CBD Space for LRT in one corridor PLUS buses from the rest of Sydney? • IF NOT – Most of the Sydney Bus Network Would have Forced Transfers
  • 36. 36Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Key Question 3 • Can you build an LRT system even in one Sydney corridor to avoid the Streetcar Problem?
  • 37. 37Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Agenda 1. Introduction 2. People Prefer Rail! 3. Beware the Streetcar! 4. The Transfer Problem 5. Other Factors 6. Conclusions
  • 38. 38Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 5. Other Factors a) Cost b) Capacity and Performance c) Environment d) Development Impacts
  • 39. 39Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management BRT is cheaper to build than Light Rail… 34.79 13.49 8.97 0.68 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Light Rail Busways Bus on HOV Lanes Bus On Arterial Transit Systems Source: US General Accounting Office “Mass Transit – Bus Rapid Transit Shows Promise” Report to Congressional Requesters September 2001 Figure 2 : Capital Costs per Mile – Light Rail and BRT Systems $US Millions per Mile US Evidence
  • 40. 40Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management BRT is cheaper to build than Light Rail… UK Evidence
  • 41. 41Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management ..so you can build more mass transit for the dollar available • Curitiba’s BRT investment was 300 times less costly than an equivalent subway system (Hensher, 1999) • Bogota – TransMilenio busway 100% city wide transit system for the same cost as one railway line covering a small share of the city (16%) (Cain et al, 2006) How much of Australian cities can you cover for the cost of LRT?
  • 42. 42Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Rouen (France) changed from LRT to BRT investment for sound financial reasons • Transit investment: – 1994 – 2 light rail lines – 2001 – 3 BRT lines • Why BRT? – Construction costs divided by 5 – Operating costs divided by 1.4 – Total construction period halved – Flexibility of buses vs LRT
  • 43. 43Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 5. Other Factors a) Cost b) Capacity and Performance c) Environment d) Development Impacts
  • 44. 44Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management LRT claims speed and capacity advantages... 32 Kph 16 Kph 48 Kph 64 Kph 80 Kph
  • 45. 45Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management LRT claims speed and capacity advantages... ...but look at the EVIDENCE 45,000 Bogota TransMilenio 32 Kph 16 Kph 48 Kph 64 Kph 80 Kph Adelaide NE Busway Brisbane SE Busway Sources: Currie G (2006) ‘BRT in Australasia: Performance, Lessons Learned and Futures’ Journal of Public Transportation Volume 9, No. 3, 2006 Special Edition: Bus Rapid Transit St Kilda Road Group Melbourne
  • 46. 46Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Sydney Bus Congestion
  • 47. 47Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Is BRT at Volume a Solution? Brisbane SE Busway a.m. peak = 294 buses/hr, 20K pax/hr
  • 48. 48Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Is BRT at Volume a Solution? Transmilenio, Bogota a.m. peak = 42K pax/hr
  • 49. 49Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 5. Other Factors a) Cost b) Capacity and Performance c) Environment d) Development Impacts
  • 50. 50Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Light Rail runs on “clean” electricity while bus runs on “dirty” diesal
  • 51. 51Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management But in Melbourne, there isnt much difference Co2 Emissions per Passenger Km - Melbourne Source: ‘Public transport’s role in reducing greenhouse emissions’ Position Paper July 2008 Commissioner for Environmental Sustainability, Melbourne Australia
  • 52. 52Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management 5. Other Factors a) Cost b) Capacity and Performance c) Environment d) Development Impacts
  • 53. 53Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management The positive impact of LRT/rail on transit oriented development (TID) are well documented
  • 54. 54Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Research aimed to identify TOD pros (and cons) of bus relative to rail – rail is a clear winner -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Advantage to Rail Weaknesses StrengthsandWeaknesses Advantage to Bus Permanence, Magnitude, Risk Newness Different Markets Park and Ride Industry Capabilities Pedestrian Access Parking Restraint Urban Density Scale Dilution Noise and Pollution Frequency/ Speed Bus Stigmatization Track Record Complementarity Flexibility - Choice Flexibility - Adaptability Service Frequency Transfers Cost Effectiveness Strengths Large DevelopmentsSmall Developments ? Strengths and Weakness of LOCAL BUS vs RAIL in Relation to Transit Oriented Development Source: Currie G (2005) ‘‘Bus Transit Oriented Development – Strengths and Challenges Relative to Rail’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol. 9, No. 4, 2006
  • 55. 55Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management The same research indicated well designed bus systems can (almost) match rail performance Advantage to Rail StrengthsandWeaknesses Advantage to Bus Strengths and Weakness of BUS RAPID TRANSIT vs RAIL in Relation to Transit Oriented Development Source: Currie G (2005) ‘‘Bus Transit Oriented Development – Strengths and Challenges Relative to Rail’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol. 9, No. 4, 2006 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Weaknesses Permanence, Magnitude, Risk Newness Different Markets Park and Ride Industry Capabilities Pedestrian Access Parking Restraint Urban Density Scale Dilution Noise and Pollution Frequency/ Speed Bus Stigmatization Track Record Complementarity Flexibility - Choice Flexibility - Adaptability Service Frequency Transfers Cost Effectiveness Strengths BRT with New Look Vehicles ? BRT with Grade Separated Pedestrian Access If green fuels and vehicles are Segregated from pedestrians
  • 56. 56Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Agenda 1. Introduction 2. People Prefer Rail! 3. Beware the Streetcar! 4. The Transfer Problem 5. Other Factors 6. Conclusions
  • 57. 57Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management It is a ‘no brainer’ that Australian cities need quality public transport solutions
  • 58. 58Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Transit with rail like qualities is preferred by users and has urban development benefits Source: Currie G (2005) ‘The Demand Performance of Bus Rapid Transit’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol 8 No 1 20 0 2 3 15 16 8 4 1 10 18 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 M anchester - Car Av Holland - High UK - Car Available Dublin - Bus Users UK - Bus Users Sydney - peak W ardm an 13 W ardm an 12B On Street Bus vs Light Rail – Mode Specific Factors City/System ModeSpecificConstant -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Advantage to Rail Weaknesses StrengthsandWeaknesses Advantage to Bus Permanence, Magnitude, Risk Newness Different Markets Park and Ride Industry Capabilities Pedestrian Access Parking Restraint Urban Density Scale Dilution Noise and Pollution Frequency/ Speed Bus Stigmatization Track Record Complementarity Flexibility - Choice Flexibility - Adaptability Service Frequency Transfers Cost Effectiveness Strengths Large DevelopmentsSmall Developments ? Strengths and Weakness of LOCAL BUS vs RAIL in Relation to Transit Oriented Development Source: Currie G (2005) ‘‘Bus Transit Oriented Development – Strengths and Challenges Relative to Rail’ Journal of Public Transportation Vol 8 No 1
  • 59. 59Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management However streetcars should be rejected
  • 60. 60Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Segregated ‘traffic free’ rights of way are needed
  • 61. 61Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Research indicates the user priorities for an optimum transit upgrade whatever the mode Quality Stops/Stations Simple Networks Good Ride Quality High Reliability Priority Over Traffic High Speed Direct Transfer Free Trip
  • 62. 62Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Removing Bus Congestion is a good “rationale” for LRT BUT what about the transfer problem?
  • 63. 63Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management www.worldtransitresearch.info
  • 64. 64Institute of Transport Studies (Monash) The Australian Research Council Key Centre in Transport Management Join the ITS (Monash) LinkedIn group to keep informed of our activities