Botswana’s water resources, water demand and water infrastructure development strategy


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Dr O.T. Obakeng, Director, from Water Affairs Botswana has presented at the Botswana Coal and Energy Conference. If you would like more information about the conference, please visit the website:

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Botswana’s water resources, water demand and water infrastructure development strategy

  2. 2. PRESENTATION - STRUCTURE Water resources availabilitya) Surface Water Resourcesi) Occurrence / Distributionii) Existing and Planned Reservoirsb) Groundwater Resourcesi) Occurrence / Distributionii) Potential and Developed Resources Water demand and deficita) Water Demand Clustersb) Water Supply ( Available, Surplus, Deficit) Challenges Strategies/way-forward Important considerations
  3. 3. Surface Water ResourcesOccurrence/DistributionZambezi RiverLimpopo RiverOkavango RiverMolopo RiverOkavango DeltaOkwa valleySource: BotswanaAtlas
  4. 4. Available and Potential WaterResourcesSurface Water Resources Developed surface water resources= 88 680 000 m3/Year Potential surface water resources /Undeveloped = 567 680 000m3/Year
  5. 5. Groundwater Occurrence PatternsInfluenced by geology and climateLimited, both in quantity and qualityis unevenly distributed over the countryAnd considered non-renewableDepth to gw: < 40m in the N and E to >100m in the drier central and south-westernparts.
  6. 6. Available and PotentialW/ResourcesGroundwater Resources Developed Sustainable Groundwater Resources= 46 306 000 m3/Year (Does not include wellfieldsthat are operated by mines and other privatelyowned boreholes) Potential Groundwater Resources / Undeveloped= 5 501 500 m3/Year Unknowna) Saline Groundwater Resourcesb) Other Aquifers – e.g Sand rivers, CKGR,Sorilatholo, etc.c) Groundwater Recharge Rates Research required
  7. 7. Water Demand Clusters17 ClustersClusterNo.Cluster Name / Definition1 Kgalagadi South (Khokhotsa - Werda - Tshabong - Bokspits )2 Gaborone (Ramotswa - Lobatse - Kanye - Mochudi – Molepolole)3 Jwaneng – Letlhakeng-Sekoma4 Mahalapye5 Serowe – Palapye6 Tswapong7 Bobirwa8 Selibe-Phikwe and associated villages - not Bobonong9 Francistown
  8. 8. Water Demand Clusters17 ClustersCluster No. Cluster Name / Definition11 Nata –Gweta-Sowa Town12 Central East – Since merged with Clusters 8 & 1313 Boteti -including Orapa and Letlhakane14 Chobe- (Kasane - and river side villages andKavimba)15 Maun-(Maun, Toteng and Sehitwa and Delta villages)16 Ngamiland (North West Ngamiland and Pan Handlevillages)
  9. 9. 3 -Dimensional Surplus and Deficit(schematic) MapGreater GaboroneShashe and Lower Shashe DamsCluster 1Cluster 17
  10. 10. Water Demand/Deficit & Surplus - 2035ClusterNumberWater Demand(m3/day)Water Resource(m3/day)Surplus/Deficit(m3/day)Comment1 - KgalagadiSouth2,740 No regional waterresources available-2,740 Tsabong currentlyprovided for by asort of smallwellfield - series ofspread out boreholes2 - GreaterGaborone70,800 – Gabz Only115,500 - Rest of Cluster186,300 - in Total74,400 -111,900 Assumes averageinflow into bothGaborone andBokaa Dam3 - Jwaneng 34,00 - Jwaneng Mine5,700 - Rest of Cluster39,70065,000 39,000 Assumes largeoperationalwellfield developedat Botlhalotlau4 - Mahalapye 42,700 40,000 -2,700 Assumes full highpumping resourcefrom Masama
  11. 11. Water Demand/Deficit & Surplus - 2035ClusterNumberWater Demand(m3/day)Water Resource(m3/day)Surplus/Deficit(m3/day)Comment5 - Serowe -Palapye30,100 12,800 -17,3006 - Tswapong Not part of study Not part of study7 - Bobirwa Not part of study Not part of study8 - Phikwe 40,300 - BCL Mine4,600 - Rest of Cluster44,900 - in Total53,300 8,400 Letsibogo Dammain resource9 -Francistown46,100 221,700 175,600 Assumes LowerShashe DamCompleted - Damon boundary ofCluster 8 and 910 - North East Not part of study Not part of study
  12. 12. Water Demand/Deficit & Surplus - 2035ClusterNumberWater Demand(m3/day)Water Resource(m3/day)Surplus/Deficit(m3/day)Comment11-Nata/Gweta6,300 32,700 26,400 Assumes MosetseDam and Gwetadeveloped12 - CentralEastNo Longer a separateClusterNo Longer aseparate ClusterThis Cluster wasamalgamated intoClusters 13 and 813 - Orapa 48,200 - Orapa Mine3,200 - Rest ofCluster51,400 - in Total43,000 -8,400 AssumesLetlhakane Mineclosed. Flat ratefor Orapa - doesnot include SalineOption14 - Kasane 2,900 Extensive fromChobeUncertain and notincluded in studyPotentially hugetransfer fromChobe /Zambezi
  13. 13. Water Demand/Deficit & Surplus - 2035ClusterNumberWater Demand(m3/day)Water Resource(m3/day)Surplus/Deficit(m3/day)Comment15 - Maun 15,200 22,000 6,800 Assumes newwellfields Gomoti,Kunyere alldeveloped16 -Ngamiland5,900 30,000 24,100 ExtensiveGroundwateravailable althoughnot developed at all17 - Ghanzi -Kang5,400 22,900 17,500 Ncojane Basin fullydeveloped
  14. 14. Water sector challenges Growing spatial mismatch between water resourcesand water demand, requiring transfer schemes. High variability of annual run-off related to highlyvariable rainfall patterns, limiting the safe yields ofdams; Lack of suitable high yielding dam sites, especiallynear demand centers, leading to high evaporationrates from dams; Most surface-waters are subjected to compliance tothe SADC Protocol on Shared water courses;16
  15. 15. Water sector challenges Limited g/w resources with high variations inrecharge rates coupled with salinity problems e.g.greater part of the Kalahari Escalating domestic, urban and peri-urban waterdemand and high water losses Contamination of water sources- sanitation islagging behind, sanitation is not a question oflatrines, it is also very much a matter of planning,city treatment facilities, preservation of wellfieldsetc.17
  16. 16. DWA strategies for availing waterfor the people & development18 Institutional restructuring Water infrastructure development Water conservation and demandmanagement Capacity building
  17. 17. Institutional restructuring strategy19 To address the above challenges, MMEWR is currentlyundertaking institutional restructuring of its water sectorbased on the NWMPR 2006 recommendations of separatingthe resource management role from the water supply servicerole . This reform was motivated by the recognition that the existinggovernment policies and organizational structures may not beadequate and modern to manage scarce resources of thecountry. The water authorities were reduced to two, namely; DWA andWUC. The review of the legal framework and establishment of thetwo legal bodies being, Water Resources Council, and Water& Energy Regulator is currently underway and expected to becompleted by 2014. DWA and WUC are currently realigning themselves tocarryout the new roles of being a resource manager andwater supply respectively.
  18. 18. Water infrastructure developmentstrategy20Strategic infrastructure development strategy ismeant to facilitate wise/ conjunctive use of bothsurface and ground water resources whichentails The planning, design and construction of major waterinfrastructure;Dams Under Construction: Dikgatlhong (400 MCM, Feb.2012) Thune (90 MCM, 2013), Lotsane (42 MCM, Aug.2012).Strategic Pipelines: North South Carrier (NSC 2) and
  19. 19. Water infrastructuredevelopment strategyWellfields development will be continued (e.g.Botlhapatlou, March 2012)Infrastructure for artificial recharge in areas such asMaun, Thune etc will be put in placeInfrastructure that will facilitate the utilization of salinegroundwaters etc. will be put in placeWaste water recycling infrastructure will be developedin areas such as Palapye – Serowe, Ghanzi,Gaborone.
  20. 20. Water conservation and demandmanagement strategy22Strategy for water conservation and demandmanagement entails (NWMPR 2006):◦ Review of the existing policies anddevelopment of action plans◦ Development of effective water systemsmonitoring protocols, assessment, monitoringand evaluation of water resources
  21. 21. Water conservation and demandmanagement strategy23As part of WCDM strategy: Establish an independent quality monitoring andevaluation division as part of the Regulator formonitoring and evaluation of services provided in thewater sector both at project implementation and servicedelivery (timeliness, water quality, cost and waterconservation). Establish water quality testing laboratories. In addition, the review of the status of all water supplysystems and national metering will be undertaken inorder to determine the future investments required interms of capital expenditure
  22. 22. Important considerations Surface water must be used preferentially togroundwater wherever possible even if this meanshigher water costs. Saline water should be considered as an alternativefor process water at all mines Water efficient practices should be a must in alloperations.Nowadays technology exist to make this happen
  23. 23. Important considerations•Water supply projects for private and public sector (includingparastatals) should be integrated.(For example the recent BPC Paje wellfield area project will besupplying water from north of Serowe to Palapye whilst the NSC isgoing to be providing water from Palapye to Serowe – i.e.: there will betwo pipelines carrying water in opposite directions along the samesection of road.)•Industry should be encouraged to move/locate in areas where waterresources are more plentiful.•New Large industrial developments should be encouraged (financiallyeven?) to locate where water resources are not so scarce
  24. 24. Important considerations Coal Deposits/Methane occurrence inBotswana is/are found in the same rockunits that constitutes Botswana’s majoraquifer (Karoo). Coal development activities should takecognizant of Wellfields, Rivers and Dams(Developed and Potential) and it’snegative impact on these resources,should be kept at the bare minimum.
  25. 25. Ke a lebogaThank you