Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
YOUTH GAMBLING:
A GROWING
PROBLEM?
A/Prof Nicki Dowling
Deakin University
n...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
• Forms of gambling associated with problems: poker machines,
horse-racing,...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PREVALENCE: PARTICIPATION
•Age restrictions generally prohibit children and...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PREVALENCE: GAMBLING ACTIVITIES
Source: Dowling et al. (2010)
Gambling acti...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PREVALENCE: WITH WHOM?
Source: Dowling et al. (2010)
Gambling activity Alon...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PREVALENCE: PROBLEM GAMBLING
• Rates generally range from 4 to 8% (2 to 4 t...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
DIAGNOSIS
• Addiction and related disorder
• Persistent and recurrent malad...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
SCREENING AND ASSESSMENT
•Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory
(CAGI)
•Di...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS
•Personality factors
–Findings relating to impu...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
• Impaired coping
–Problem gambling associated with unhelpful coping styles...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
•Gambling attitudes and beliefs
–Youth problem gamblers display more positi...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
• Family problems
– Parental attachment
– Parental monitoring
– Sibling ris...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PATHWAYS INTO PROBLEM GAMBLING
•Pathways Model (Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002)...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PATHWAY 1 YOUTH PROBLEM
GAMBLERS
•Consistent students with intact families
...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION
FOR PATHWAY 1
• Gambling-related educational cu...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PATHWAY 2 YOUTH PROBLEM
GAMBLERS
•Contains the largest proportion of youth ...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION FOR
PATHWAY 2
•Educational programs (as for Pat...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PATHWAY 3 YOUTH PROBLEM
GAMBLERS
•Easiest to identify as they are often
abs...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION
FOR PATHWAY 3
•Effective harm minimisation diff...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN YOUTH
GAMBLING PROBLEMS
•Internet gambling
–Gambling ...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN YOUTH
GAMBLING PROBLEMS
•“Technological convergence”
...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN YOUTH
GAMBLING PROBLEMS
•Gambling and social networki...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
YOUTH OFFENDING
• Very limited Australian data
• Prevalence of problem gamb...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
WHY MIGHT GAMBLING AND
CRIME BE RELATED?
1. problem gambling leads to offen...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
GAMBLING-OFFENDING CYCLE (PC, 1999)
Experience
phase
of wins
Encourage
more...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
JUDICIAL RESPONSES TO GAMBLING-
RELATED CRIME
• Submissions made on behalf ...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CJS
• Educate and train CJS personnel
• Prohibitions ag...
Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B
REFERRALS
•Gamblers Help telephone line: 1800 858 858 (24 hr
hotline)
•Onli...
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A/Prof Nicki Dowling, Associate Professor of Psychology, School of Psychology, Deakin University - Youth Gambling: A Growing Problem?

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Nicki Dowling delivered this presentation at the 5th Annual Juvenile Justice Summit 2014. This Summit hears from key state government representatives and youth justice organisations on the significant issues moving forward for juvenile justice in Australia.

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A/Prof Nicki Dowling, Associate Professor of Psychology, School of Psychology, Deakin University - Youth Gambling: A Growing Problem?

  1. 1. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B YOUTH GAMBLING: A GROWING PROBLEM? A/Prof Nicki Dowling Deakin University nicki.dowling@deakin.edu.au Presentation to the 5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit March 24 2014
  2. 2. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B • Forms of gambling associated with problems: poker machines, horse-racing, casino gambling • Prevalence (Productivity Commission, 1999) –82% gambled in previous year – 50% gambled weekly or more in previous year – 2.1% moderate to severe gambling problems – Recent state-wide prevalence rates are approximately 1% • Gender ratio –Women comprise (PC, 1999): – 52% of gamblers – 48% of regular gamblers – 40% of problem gamblers (cf. 14% in 1991) – ~50% of clients accessing PG support services • Comorbidity – Nicotine dependence (60.1%) – Substance use disorders (57.5%) – Mood disorders (37.9%) – Anxiety disorders (37.5%) EPIDEMIOLOGY
  3. 3. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PREVALENCE: PARTICIPATION •Age restrictions generally prohibit children and adolescents engaging in gambling activities •Gambling participation estimates in meta- analytic studies (National Research Council, 1999; Shaffer et al., 1999): –Lifetime: 39% to 92% (median = 85%) –Past year: 52% to 89% (median = 73%) •In Australia: –South Australia: 62.5% past year; 14.7% at least weekly (15-17 years) (Delfabbro & Thrupp, 2003) –ACT: 70.4% past year; 10.0% at least weekly (11-19 years) (Delfabbro et al., 2005) –Victoria: 67.5% past year (12-18 years) (Dowling et al., 2010)
  4. 4. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PREVALENCE: GAMBLING ACTIVITIES Source: Dowling et al. (2010) Gambling activity Never At least once Once a month or more often Scratch tickets/lottery 52% 43% 3.6% Sports 81% 14% 3.3% Horse or dog racing (TAB) 78% 19% 1.8% Horse or dog racing (racetrack) 85% 12% 1.0% Internet 93% 4% 1.8% Table/cards (casino) 94% 3% 1.1% Poker machines 92% 6% 1.0% Card games (home/school) 58% 30% 10.5%
  5. 5. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PREVALENCE: WITH WHOM? Source: Dowling et al. (2010) Gambling activity Alone Parents Siblings Other relatives Friends Scratch tickets/lottery 13% 60% 13% 11% 3% Sports 16% 34% 6% 8% 35% Horse or dog racing (TAB) 6% 62% 13% 11% 23% Horse or dog racing (racetrack) 3% 55% 11% 20% 35% Internet 41% 12% 3% 12% 41% Table/cards (casino) 12% 4% 16% 4% 52% Poker machines 8% 24% 16% 8% 57% Card games (home/school) 7% 20% 25% 20% 67%
  6. 6. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PREVALENCE: PROBLEM GAMBLING • Rates generally range from 4 to 8% (2 to 4 times adult samples) with an additional 10 to 15% described as at- risk • In Australia: –3.3 to 4.4% problem gamblers and a further 15% mild problems (Delfabbro & Thrupp, 2003; Delfabbro et al., 2005) –0.7% problem gamblers with 4.4% at-risk gamblers (Dowling et al., 2010) • Longitudinal study of developmental pathways (Winters et al., 2005) –3-wave data set that spans mid-adolescence to young adulthood –Most prevalent group was resistors (60%) –New incidence cases (21%) –Desistors (13%) –Persistors: Only 4% of cases
  7. 7. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B DIAGNOSIS • Addiction and related disorder • Persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behaviour (12 months). 4 or more of: 1.Preoccupation with gambling 2. Needing increasing amounts of money to achieve desired excitement 3. Repeated unsuccessful attempts to cut down or stop 4. Restlessness or irritability when attempting to cut down or stop 5. Gambling to escape from problems or relieve dysphoric mood 6. Chasing losses 7. Lying to others to conceal extent 8. Jeopardising or losing significant relationship, job, or career opportunity 9. Relying on others for bail out • National definition: “Problem gambling is characterised by difficulties in limiting money and/or time spent on gambling which leads to adverse consequences for the gambler, others or for the community” (Neal, Delfabbro, & O’Neil, 2005)
  8. 8. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B SCREENING AND ASSESSMENT •Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory (CAGI) •Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Adapted for Juveniles (DSM-IV-J)/Multiple response (DSM-IV-MR-J) •Massachusetts Gambling Screen (MAGS) •South Oaks Gambling Screen – Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA)
  9. 9. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS •Personality factors –Findings relating to impulsivity, excitability, disinhibition, intensity-seeking, risk-propensity –Suggest youth problem gamblers tend to be impatient, overactive, impulsive, and easily distracted, with an inability to foresee negative consequences and to stop responding despite unfavourable contingencies •Emotional distress –Higher rates of a range of mental health issues, such as anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and attempts –Particularly females
  10. 10. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B • Impaired coping –Problem gambling associated with unhelpful coping styles, such as emotion-based, avoidant, and distraction oriented –More major negative life events –May be gender-specific patterns • Alcohol and substance use –Tobacco use, alcohol, marijuana and other illicit substance • Risk-taking behaviours –Problem gambling among adolescents viewed as part of a constellation of other antisocial, risk-taking, and delinquent behaviours –Particularly for males RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS
  11. 11. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B •Gambling attitudes and beliefs –Youth problem gamblers display more positive gambling attitudes –More likely to report winning money as a reason for gambling –Stronger beliefs that gambling is a potentially profitable activity –Rate perceived ability as higher •Gambling expectancies –Three positive outcome expectancies: • Enjoyment/arousal • Self-enhancement • Making money –Two negative outcome expectancies: • Overinvolvement • Emotional impact RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS
  12. 12. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B • Family problems – Parental attachment – Parental monitoring – Sibling risk behaviours – Poor perceived familial social support – Family problems – Low family connectedness • Other risk factors: – male gender, early onset of gambling experiences, coming from lower socio-economic classes, paternal pathological gambling, access to gambling venues, high extroversion, low conformity and self- discipline, models for deviant behaviour, parent-friends normative conflict, low self-esteem RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS
  13. 13. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PATHWAYS INTO PROBLEM GAMBLING •Pathways Model (Blaszczynski & Nower, 2002) –Three major entry pathways into problem gamblers 1.‘normal’ or non-pathologically disturbed gamblers •secondary depression and anxiety 2.emotionally disturbed or vulnerable gamblers •predisposing psychopathology and life events 3.biologically-based impulsive gamblers •neurologically induced impulsivity •Pathways Model for Youth (Nower & Blaszczynski, 2004)
  14. 14. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PATHWAY 1 YOUTH PROBLEM GAMBLERS •Consistent students with intact families •Gambling facilitates social interactions with peers for temperamentally shy youth •Gambling facilitates peer bonding, stimulation, excitement and skill demonstration for adventuresome youth •Often able to escape detection by educators and parents
  15. 15. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION FOR PATHWAY 1 • Gambling-related educational curricula to dispel cognitive distortions and educate on probabilities, odds, randomness and effect of reinforcement schedules (see Derevensky, Gupta, Dickson, & Deguire, 2001) • Optimal curricula: –Gambling-related supplements for existing courses –Complete program modules, requiring one to two class days –Short educational programs for educators, school counsellors, parents, mental health providers, and other adults • Youth who develop gambling problems despite education efforts should be referred by teachers to school counsellors • Treatment providers should employ CBT for gambling (see Gupta & Derevensky, 2000)
  16. 16. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PATHWAY 2 YOUTH PROBLEM GAMBLERS •Contains the largest proportion of youth gamblers •More readily identifiable in educational settings than Pathway 1 youth •Parents often absent from the home and unwilling/unable to actively work with teachers •Usually average to poor students •Eager for peer support for feelings of inadequacy and loneliness •Antisocial behaviours typically consequence of attention seeking or consorting with “bad crowd” •Respond well to redirection and retraining
  17. 17. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION FOR PATHWAY 2 •Educational programs (as for Pathway 1) •Educational information supplemented by supportive counselling •School counsellors screen youth for problem gambling and comorbid issues and collect detailed family history •Involvement of school staff to formulate educational plan that incorporates family education and processing sessions •Referral to treatment providers (as for Pathway 1)
  18. 18. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PATHWAY 3 YOUTH PROBLEM GAMBLERS •Easiest to identify as they are often absent or disruptive: engage in behaviours that result in reprimands, suspensions, and expulsion •Poor students often absent from school •Prefer activities that provide stimulation or outlet for aggression and frustration •Penchant for computer or video games
  19. 19. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION FOR PATHWAY 3 •Effective harm minimisation difficult •Efforts to reduce potential harm with specialised curricula and special programs of limited value •In-school peer support groups targeting addiction issues •Creative use of detention periods •Treatment required •But lack motivation for treatment; schools should require treatment compliance
  20. 20. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN YOUTH GAMBLING PROBLEMS •Internet gambling –Gambling available via range of technologies –Past year internet gambling in Australia = 8.1% –Internet gamblers are more likely to: •be young males •demonstrate more gambling involvement •report higher participation on most gambling activities •prefer horse or dog racing and sports betting
  21. 21. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN YOUTH GAMBLING PROBLEMS •“Technological convergence” •Gambling and video gaming –Similarities between the two behaviours –Emergent social gambling experiences within the virtual world context –High player involvement and perception of skill –Inflated payout rates in “demo” games on online gambling sites –“Pop-up” messages advertising gambling games –‘Play for free’ gambling games on social networking sites risk factor for problem gambling
  22. 22. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN YOUTH GAMBLING PROBLEMS •Gambling and social networking –Over one-quarter of 9-11 year olds have a profile –Spending money on virtual goods – e.g., Farmville –Spending money on virtual chips to play poker for points –Gambling with virtual money promotes: – Development and practice of gambling strategies – Greater familiarity and acceptance of gambling as normal – Development of positive gambling beliefs and cognitive distortions –Exposure to the excitement of gambling wins – Inflated sense of long-term profitability of gambling •Gambling and mobile phones –Increased accessibility –Low rates of internet and mobile phone gambling
  23. 23. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B YOUTH OFFENDING • Very limited Australian data • Prevalence of problem gambling among adolescent offender populations is 4-12% in the UK (Maden et al., 1996) • Study in Florida’s juvenile justice system found that 17% of adolescents attributed their imprisonment to gambling (Lieberman & Cuadrado, 2002) • Review of 20 prevalence studies of middle/high school youth in US found problem gamblers were at least twice more likely to be recently involved in illegal activities and/or problems with the police (Jacobs, 2000) • Much evidence that youth problem gambling is part of a constellation of other antisocial, risk-taking and delinquent behaviour, particularly for males
  24. 24. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B WHY MIGHT GAMBLING AND CRIME BE RELATED? 1. problem gambling leads to offending via a causal pathway 2. offending might lead to problem gambling 3. a third factor may be common to both phenomena 4. in an individual case there may no specific relationship between the two problematic behaviours
  25. 25. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B GAMBLING-OFFENDING CYCLE (PC, 1999) Experience phase of wins Encourage more frequent play in expectation of major wins Frequent play  frequent losses Financial difficulties “Chasing losses”  ↓ income and ↑ debt Crime to obtain money to service debt and continue gambling Experience phase of wins Encourage more frequent play in expectation of major wins Frequent play  frequent losses Financial difficulties “Chasing losses”  ↓ income and ↑ debt Crime to obtain money to service debt and continue gambling
  26. 26. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B JUDICIAL RESPONSES TO GAMBLING- RELATED CRIME • Submissions made on behalf of defendants often raise problem gambling in mitigation of sentence HOWEVER • 76% of persons convicted of fraud motivated by gambling were given full-time custodial sentences (PriceWaterhouse Coopers, 2003) • Almost 2/3 of offenders with gambling problems received custodial sentences (Crofts, 2002) • Generally, gambling is treated rather as “a symptom of an underlying problem than the cause of criminality” (R v Molesworth [1999] NSWCCA 43, 12 March 1999, per Adams J). • Failure by an individual to take action to deal with a recognised gambling problem may even amount to an aggravating factor in sentencing • Gambling seems usually to be taken into account as an explanation for the crime committed, but not as an excuse • Problem gambling is rarely viewed by courts as a mitigating factor or one that requires special rehabilitative procedures
  27. 27. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CJS • Educate and train CJS personnel • Prohibitions against gambling within correctional facilities • Explore adoption of gambling courts • Routine screening for problem gambling at intake to correctional facilities • Problem gambling assessment, treatment and support within case management model at correctional facilities • Community corrections orders seen as primary sentencing response to offences involving problem gamblers where court wishes to respond with some rehabilitative sentence • Magistrates’ case file records should include a data item on problem gambling • Community corrections offender records should provide assessment data linked to general records
  28. 28. Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B REFERRALS •Gamblers Help telephone line: 1800 858 858 (24 hr hotline) •Online support: www.gamblinghelponline.org.au •Gamblers Anonymous: 9696 6108 or info@gansw.org.au •Australian Hotels Association Self-Exclusion Program (Gaming): 9654 3491 •Crown Casino self-exclusion: 1800 801098 •TABCORPs (Wagering) self-exclusion program: 1800 882 876
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