INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDY: Improving the operation of extra-long freight trains in difficult geographical environments
 

INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDY: Improving the operation of extra-long freight trains in difficult geographical environments

on

  • 565 views

Michael Roney, General Manager Technical Standards & Chief Engineer, Engineering Services, from Canadian Pacific, Canada has presented at the Heavy Haul Rail South America. If you would like more ...

Michael Roney, General Manager Technical Standards & Chief Engineer, Engineering Services, from Canadian Pacific, Canada has presented at the Heavy Haul Rail South America. If you would like more information about the conference, please visit the website: http://www.railconferences.com/heavyhaulrail/southamerica

Statistics

Views

Total Views
565
Views on SlideShare
390
Embed Views
175

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0

2 Embeds 175

http://www.railconferences.com 169
http://107.21.30.39 6

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDY: Improving the operation of extra-long freight trains in difficult geographical environments INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDY: Improving the operation of extra-long freight trains in difficult geographical environments Presentation Transcript

  • Running Long Trains in DifficultGeographic EnvironmentsMichael RoneyGeneral ManagerTechnicalStandards
  • Agenda Overview of Canadian Pacific Operational Challenges of Difficult Geography Making Long Trains More Productive and Less Destructive Technologies That Can Help1
  • 2Canadian Pacific Track kms. 26,800 Total employees: 16,097 Annual revenue tonne-km: 195,544 Million 2012 Revenues: $5.2 Billion 2012 Net income: $570 Million 2012 Adj. EPS: $3.34 Global reach through ports of Vancouver, Montreal, Philadelphiaand New York Prime connections to all Class I US railwaysVision: To be the safest, most fluid railway in North America
  • 3Canadian Pacific’s Network
  • Geographic Challenges4 Extreme curvature and grades Extreme cold Extreme heat Service outages
  • Heavy Haul Long Trains and Axle LoadsWorldwideRailway Axle Load(tonnes)Standard TrainLength(wagons)Future standardtrain length(wagons)/axleloads (tonnes)USA (coal) 33 135 wagonsCanada 33 129-140 152-170Australia (Pilbarairon ore)• BHPBilliton• Rio Tinto• FMG373640204 wagons236240333 wagonSouth Africa• Iron ore• Coal3026216 wagons200332 wagonsBrazil• Vale iron ore 33 330 wagons 37 tonnesChina• Daquin 25 210 wagons 36 tonnesRussia 20 30 tonnesSweden• LKAB Iron Ore 30 68 wagons
  • Train DesignCP’s long train strategy is underwayTrain Type 2008 2010 2012Export coal 124 129 152Exportpotash124 142 170Merchandise 86 105 115Intermodal 63 90 1056
  • CP has taken a scientific approach to maximizing use ofdistributed power in an extreme geographyLocomotives:- AC locos: high HP, tractive & retarding capabilities- Driving axles = 12 … highest rating in industry- Low HP/T strategy results in high tractive effort on grades … up to 800 kN (180k) & then 930 kN(210k) with HTE- Inability to mix lower HP into DP configs & unable to use 36 driving axles due to drawbar/knucklelimits & track fastening limitations … 30 driving axles sub-optimizes haulage … so robotize with 3-loco tonnageGeography/Track:- Very challenging geography, grades up to 2.4%, curves up to 11-degrees (150m radius)- Locations where heavy unit trains exhibit repetitive run-in/run-out events, which inflict acumulative toll on equipment and infrastructure, weakening both … DP designs mitigate forces- Timber sleepers with elastic fastening on curves sharper than 300m radius»DP placement is both an enabler and neutralizer for the impact of long, heavytrains, operated with AC power on challenging geography with a tightHP/tonne7
  • CP has used experience, science and technology tosafely increase train lengths in difficult geography … Work with industry leading suppliers such as TTCI, Wabtec, GE and Rail Sciences toensure best possible technology CP’s approach progresses from design to simulation, then field testing before trainmodels are approved- This approach, along with proactive regulator communications was key to avoidingregulatory intervention on train marshaling in Canada- Result is standard bulk models, plus a variety of base designs for intermodal andmanifest trains to suit operational needs from conventional to 4,300m (powered by 5locomotives in 4 locations) 2 AC locomotives can be run conventional head end but this caps train size and 3 ormore AC locomotives need to be distributed8
  • Long Trains with distributed powerbenefit all aspects of railway operations Lower lateral forces Reduced friction Enhanced locomotive andlabour productivity Improved safety Responds to volumevariability9Lower lateral forces
  • Lateral force distribution with locomotive placement10
  • 11Lateral Force Detector Strategy Initiated in 2007 … 6 sites inoperation Objective was to validate &quantify field results of designchanges AEI match process electronicallylinks train symbol Multi-year data base, withthousands of train records “Gold-mine” of data to confidentlyimplement more productive &less destructive trains …invaluable with regulators as wellScience of locomotive placement can preserve track infrastructure
  • 12Long Intermodal Trains Ascending Albert CanyonMultiple-remote trains are up to 80% longer/heavier, but have lowerdestructive lateral forces in curves»Train 110 at Albert Canyon:14k @ 2-1-1-1-0 vs 7k @ 2-0-1-60%-40%-20%0%20%40%60%80%100%Weight Length LR Lat.Force HR Lat.Force14k vs 7k
  • What is TrAM (Train Area Marshalling) ?- Permits distributed power in intermodal & merchandise designs, beyond traditionaluse in bulks- Condenses a lot of science and complexity down to simple field application:• “Pre-build” function allows validation of marshalling, by track or by train, prior to any build activities, to reduceswitching and rework• “TrAM Check” function is used to verify marshalling for enroute trains that perform work … again, proactiveverification checks, results in placement instructions to crews to avoid re-work• Any TrAM Alerts generated must be have restrictions issued to trains and corrective actions required• CP has not experienced a train accident due to poor train marshalling since implementation of TrAM in 2005.TrAM automates & simplifies complex marshaling rules that were formerly morerestrictive as they needed to apply to all trains generically13
  • Train marshalling factors reviewed by TrAM1. Trailing tonnage- Flags cars for which draft forces behind wagon could produce an excessive L/V ratio based onphysical characteristics of track (grade and curvature)- Based on wagon length, wagon type, and gross weight of car or platform- Separate results for each TrAM area- Reason for this check – prevents derailments caused by excessive L/V ratios2. Draft forces- Calculates maximum draft forces behind each locomotive position in train- Flags those locations in train where maximum allowable draft forces are exceeded (>2AC’s)- Reason for this check – prevents train separations (broken knuckle, broken drawbar) caused byexcessive draft forces, as well as excessive forces on the track structure (lateral forces)3. Buff forces- Calculates maximum buff forces ahead of each remote locomotive position in train- Flags those locations in train where maximum allowable buff forces are exceeded (>1AC)- Reason for this check – prevents excessive forces on the track structure and preventsderailments caused by excessive buff forces acting on very light wagons surrounded by heavierwagons (jackknifing derailments)4. Remote Zone- Reviews weight of a group of wagons ahead of each remote locomotive position in a mixed train- Size of group of wagons depends on number of remote locomotives at that location- Flags those wagons which do not meet minimum weight requirements for this position in the train- Reason for this check – prevents derailments caused by buff forces acting on very light wagonsimmediately ahead of the remote locomotive(s) (jackknifing derailments)Remote Zone Remote Zone14
  • Train marshalling factors reviewed by TrAM5. Cushioned drawbars- Reviews train make-up based on number of wagons with cushioned drawbars in train, and where they arelocated in the train relative to wagons without cushioned drawbars- Flags trains for which a speed restriction is required in certain locations with undulating trackcharacteristics, or which must be remarshalled- Reason for this check – prevents derailments and lading damage due to excessive in-train buff anddraft forces caused by added slack action generated by cars with cushioned drawbars6. Maximum train length to last remote locomotive- Calculates train length to last remote locomotive, and flags trains which exceed the maximum length- Reason for this check – ensures that in a situation of loss of communication between the controllinglocomotive and the last remote locomotive, a 20 lb brake pipe reduction will cause the remote locomotiveto return to idle7. Dynamic brake- In a train with DP, calculates the maximum allowable dynamic brake that the locomotive engineer mayuse to ensure that the additive effect of dynamic brake between sections of the train does not cause theretarding force to exceed 890 kN (200,000 lbs) anywhere in the train- Reason for this check – prevents excessive forces on the track structure, and excessive buff forces inthe train that may lead to derailments15
  • Train marshalling factors reviewed by TrAM8. Ascending grade weight zone- Reviews head end of a conventional train and determines if the head end cars on a train meet theminimum weight requirements for an ascending grade weight zone- Flags conventional trains for which locomotive consist is restricted at certain locations because head endcars do not meet minimum weight requirements for an ascending grade weight zone- Reason for this check – prevents stringline type derailments in certain areas of ascending grades andhigh curvature9. Maximum locomotive haulage- Calculates locomotive haulage capacity at each location on a DP train- Flags those locations on a train where maximum locomotive haulage is exceeded- Reason for this check – prevents excessive forces on the track structure10. Long/short car combination- Compares length of each car or platform with adjacent car or platform- Flags locations where the difference in length between cars coupled together exceeds maximumpermitted- Also reviews any short 2-axle scale test cars for correct placement at rear of train- Reason for this check – prevents derailments on curves caused by excessive lateral forces introducedby a long car/short car combination16
  • 17Modular and easily adapts to origin traffic requirementsLong Intermodal Train Strategy»Long trains are a cornerstone operating strategy for CPR
  • Smart Railway Technologiesenhancing CP’s safety and service reliabilitywith long trains Equipment and track infrastructurehealth- Equipment Health Monitoring System(EHMS)- Technology Driven Train Inspection(TDTI)- Automated track inspection- Winter gauge restraint trackmeasurement Operational Efficiency- Distributed Power (DP)- TrAM 2- Electronically Controlled PneumaticBrakes (ECP)- Trip Optimizer technology- Use of hot and cold wheel detectors inplace of manual brake inspections18
  •  Enhanced locomotive, crew and train slot productivity, as well as fuel consumption Improved train handling, air flow and brake propagation Reduced buff and draft forces, lowering risk of train separation or accident Reduced average and peak forces on infrastructure, lowering risk of geometry loss andreducing maintenance expense Extending life of rail, ties, ballast and equipment, lowering replacement capital Creates safer operationsDistributed Power & Proper Long Train Design»AC power, locotrol, wayside monitoring and TrAM are all integrated componentsthat have unlocked bigger, safer trains with multiple benefits:19
  • 20Other Technologies that Improve Long TrainService Reliability Modernized and standardized motive power Networked wayside detectors with trending Micro-alloyed wheels and rails Preventive rail grinding to conformal wheel/rail profiles Setting train speeds with consistent HP/tonne and runningat 10% underbalanced cant deficiency. Maintain rail friction at < 0.4 Maintain traffic density at no greater than 80% of linecapacity, or 70% in extreme weather conditions. Implement driver advisory systems with intermediatetiming points Run at 10% underbalanced superelevation Automated brake shoe measurement and managementsystems. Address optimal weight to tare ratio ahead of axle loadincrease. Address rail weld quality, bridges and weak embankmentlocations before increasing axle loads.
  • Running Long Trains in DifficultGeographic EnvironmentsMichael RoneyGeneral ManagerTechnicalStandards