When all you have is a
hammer, everything
looks like a nail.
June 2014
Leigh Garrett B.Ed; Grad Dip OHS&W; MBA; FAIM; FAIC...
History Speaks
The First Probation Act 1887 Australia
“The manufacture of gaol-birds is one of the processes
which the maj...
Young People as Offenders
A comparison of the proportion of total
offenders who were aged 10–24 in 2009–10
(48%) with the ...
Proportion of contact
Despite the strong relationship between age and offending
behaviour, the majority of young people ne...
The nature of youth offending
• The nature of youth offending is typified by high
risk taking-behaviour and strong influen...
The nature of youth offending
• Research on adolescent brain development demonstrates that
the second decade of life is a ...
Age distribution
Headline Indicator
Personal safety is an important part of the aspiration for
safety.
The victimisation rate for physical ...
ABS Headline Themes : General
Safety in Australia has progressed because the victimisation
rate for physical assault (our ...
ABS Headline Themes: General
Safety of personal property is an important part of the aspiration for
safety.
Malicious prop...
ABS Headline Themes : General
Crime in Australia has progressed in recent years because
the victimisation rate for malicio...
Offending Rates
Offending rates were highest for both males
and females aged 15–19 years. Within this
age category, most v...
Are Youth Crime Victimisation and
Offending Increasing?
Overall, there was a significant decrease in
estimated victimisati...
Young people and their experiences of
victimisation : selected offences
Physical assault was the most common form of
assau...
Are Youth Crime Victimisation and
Offending Increasing?
Estimated victimisation rates for sexual assault
slightly decrease...
Punishment as the solution
• Is punishment the best way to improve behaviour?
• Does punishment work at all?
• If it works...
Trajectory into CJS
• Risk Factors Present
• The failure of current systems detailed at the
conference.
• Early disengagem...
Growing out of crime
Youth Victimisation
• Young people are not only disproportionately
the perpetrators of crime; they are also
disproportiona...
The victim offender cycle
• The victim offender cycle is an oft-cited phenomena but
research struggles to provide an empir...
The victim offender cycle
“Child maltreatment” versus “victimisation” (1)
Child maltreatment refers to forms of abuse and ...
Linkages victims and offending
G.C. Curtis (1963) “Cycle of violence” theory
David Finkelhor - Youth victimisation derails...
RJ v Adversarial
Adversarial Approach:
“what happened, who is to blame, what
punishment or sanction is needed?”
Restorativ...
Adversarial v Restorative
Focus is in the past
Preoccupied with blame
Deterrence linked to
punishment
Focus in past, p...
RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
RESTORATIVE JUSTICE DEFINITION
Restorative Justice is a range of processes that
advocates that the peo...
What does this mean?
people who are most directly impacted by a situation
are the best people to solve it
work together
re...
Support (encouragement, nurture)
FAIRNESS Adapted from Watchtel/McCold,adapted from Glasser
HIGH
FIRMNESS
Control(limitset...
Shame can over-ride guilt
“…punishment increases feelings of
shame and humiliation, and
decreases feelings of guilt; and t...
Re-Integration
• It is vital that we have in place all of the social supports and
systems to both protect young people and...
Change our thinking
“Our thinking has created problems
which cannot be solved by the same
level of thinking”
Albert Einste...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Leigh garrett

186

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
186
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Leigh garrett

  1. 1. When all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail. June 2014 Leigh Garrett B.Ed; Grad Dip OHS&W; MBA; FAIM; FAICD. Chief Executive Officer OARS Community Transitions
  2. 2. History Speaks The First Probation Act 1887 Australia “The manufacture of gaol-birds is one of the processes which the majority of existing systems of justice and prison discipline carry out to the greatest perfection. The most numerous class of offenders are those that drift into evil courses simply because they have made one false move and it is easier to go on as they have begun than retrace their steps.” Maurice Salom, MLC 1887
  3. 3. Young People as Offenders A comparison of the proportion of total offenders who were aged 10–24 in 2009–10 (48%) with the proportion of the general population who were aged 10–24 in Australia as at December 2009 (23%), clearly shows the higher proportion of young people in the offender population (graph S13.1).
  4. 4. Proportion of contact Despite the strong relationship between age and offending behaviour, the majority of young people never come into formal contact with the criminal justice system. The longitudinal study by Allard et al. (2010) found that of all persons born in Queensland in 1990, 14 percent had one or more formal contacts (caution, youth justice conference or court appearance) with the criminal justice system by the age of 17 years, although this varied substantially by Indigenous status and sex. Indigenous juveniles were 4.5 times more likely to have contact with the criminal justice system than non-Indigenous juveniles. Sixty-three percent of Indigenous males and 28 percent of Indigenous females had had a contact with the criminal justice system as a juvenile, compared with 13 percent of non-Indigenous males and seven percent of non-Indigenous females (Allard et al. 2010).
  5. 5. The nature of youth offending • The nature of youth offending is typified by high risk taking-behaviour and strong influence of peers. • Juveniles (those aged 10-16 years in Queensland and 10-17 years in all other Australian jurisdictions) commit more property than violent crimes, and generally commit less serious crimes such as graffiti, vandalism, shoplifting, fare evasion, motor vehicle theft, unlawful entry and road traffic offences.
  6. 6. The nature of youth offending • Research on adolescent brain development demonstrates that the second decade of life is a period of rapid change, particularly in the areas of the brain associated with response inhibition, the calibration of risks and rewards and the regulation of emotions • Mental illness is also over-represented among juveniles in detention compared with those in the community.
  7. 7. Age distribution
  8. 8. Headline Indicator Personal safety is an important part of the aspiration for safety. The victimisation rate for physical assault is considered a good measure of progress for safety. This is because, second to face-to-face threatened assault, it is the most prevalent type of offence against a person experienced in Australia and can have far-reaching consequences. Crimes committed against individuals can impact directly on the physical, financial and emotional wellbeing of the victim, as well as indirectly on the people around them. However, we recognise that personal safety is only one dimension of safety.
  9. 9. ABS Headline Themes : General Safety in Australia has progressed because the victimisation rate for physical assault (our headline progress indicator for safety) was lower in 2012-13 than in 2008-09. In 2008-09, the proportion of people who were victims of physical assault was 3.1%, while in 2012-13, the proportion was 2.7%. This corresponds to an estimated 527,400 victims of physical assault in Australia in 2008-09, compared to an estimated 498,000 victims in 2012-13.
  10. 10. ABS Headline Themes: General Safety of personal property is an important part of the aspiration for safety. Malicious property damage is the most prevalent type of household crime experienced in Australia. The victimisation rate for malicious property damage is considered a good measure of progress for crime because it is one of the aspects of crime that shows change over time.
  11. 11. ABS Headline Themes : General Crime in Australia has progressed in recent years because the victimisation rate for malicious property damage, our progress indicator for crime, was lower in 2012-13 than in 2008-09. In 2008-09, the proportion of households that were victims of malicious property damage was 11.1%, while in 2012-13, the proportion was 6.3%. This corresponds to an estimated 912,500 Australian households that experienced malicious property damage in 2008-09 compared to 555,900 Australian households in 2012-13,
  12. 12. Offending Rates Offending rates were highest for both males and females aged 15–19 years. Within this age category, most violent offending peaked around 17 years of age. However, the rate of sexual assault offending by 15 year olds (64 per 100,000) was greater than that of 17 year olds (56 per 100,000).
  13. 13. Are Youth Crime Victimisation and Offending Increasing? Overall, there was a significant decrease in estimated victimisation rates for physical assault and threatened assault between 2008– 09 and 2009–10. For the youth population, there was a significant decrease for youth aged 15–17 in physical assault (9% to 6%) and threatened assault (8% to 5%). For youth aged 18–24, there was a significant decrease for threatened assault (7% to 5%).
  14. 14. Young people and their experiences of victimisation : selected offences Physical assault was the most common form of assault experienced by the youth population in 2009–10. In the 12 months prior to interview, 6% of persons aged 15–17, and 6% of persons aged 18–24, experienced at least one physical assault. These rates are more than double the estimated victimisation rates for physical assault for persons aged 25 years and over (2.3%). ABS 2012
  15. 15. Are Youth Crime Victimisation and Offending Increasing? Estimated victimisation rates for sexual assault slightly decreased between 2008–09 and 2009–10, at 0.6% and 0.5% respectively for those aged 18– 24, and 0.3% to 0.2% for those aged 25 and over. While the victimisation rates for these selected personal offences have generally decreased over time, the proportion of youth victims has remained relatively high. In 2008–09, 32% of victims of total assault (including physical and threatened assault) were aged 15–24, compared with 29% in 2009–10.
  16. 16. Punishment as the solution • Is punishment the best way to improve behaviour? • Does punishment work at all? • If it works, is there a linear relationship between the dose of the punishment and the level of behaviour change? • What happens if the dose is too high? • Punishment in youth offending is typified by incarceration. • There has been an increase in sentencing children as adults for particularly horrid crimes. • Mandatory minimum sentencing has been tried. • Punishment as a behaviour modifier starts at school.
  17. 17. Trajectory into CJS • Risk Factors Present • The failure of current systems detailed at the conference. • Early disengagement with school • Protective Factors not Present • Over representation Indigenous young people. • The profile of young females in the CJS is increasing as offences become more violent. • Family Violence
  18. 18. Growing out of crime
  19. 19. Youth Victimisation • Young people are not only disproportionately the perpetrators of crime; they are also disproportionately the victims of crime (see Finkelhor et al. 2009; Richards 2009). • Young people aged 15 to 24 years are at a higher risk of assault than any other age group in Australia and males aged 15 to 19 years are more than twice as likely to become a victim of robbery as males aged 25 or older, and all females (AIC 2010). Statistics also show that juveniles comprise substantial proportions of victims of sexual offences
  20. 20. The victim offender cycle • The victim offender cycle is an oft-cited phenomena but research struggles to provide an empirical basis. • Obviously anger would be of crucial importance for retaliatory crimes, possibly triggering future victimisation and even leading to cycles of offending and victimisation. Horst Entorf 2012 • Child sexual abuse shows increasingly alarming evidence of this cycle.
  21. 21. The victim offender cycle “Child maltreatment” versus “victimisation” (1) Child maltreatment refers to forms of abuse and neglect experienced by children e.g. physical, sexual, emotional In Australia, “less than 10 per cent of concerns reported to child protection services will subsequently involve statutory protective intervention to keep a child safe” (Australian Institute of Criminology, 2012). From the legal perspective, victimisation can only occur if a case of abuse or neglect constitutes a criminal offence.
  22. 22. Linkages victims and offending G.C. Curtis (1963) “Cycle of violence” theory David Finkelhor - Youth victimisation derails “normal and healthy developmental trajectories” (Finkelhor, 2007: 10) “The relationship between child victimisation and juvenile offending is now well recognised in the fields of child development, mental health and criminal justice” (Widom & Wilson, 2009: 256) Some Australian studies support the causal link between child victimisation and youth offending: Weatherburn & Lind (2006) found the experience of child abuse and neglect was a strong predictor of engagement in youth offending Cashmore (2011) used trajectory analysis of juvenile offenders in Queensland to demonstrate this linkage
  23. 23. RJ v Adversarial Adversarial Approach: “what happened, who is to blame, what punishment or sanction is needed?” Restorative Approach: “what happened, what harm has resulted and what needs to happen to make things right?”
  24. 24. Adversarial v Restorative Focus is in the past Preoccupied with blame Deterrence linked to punishment Focus in past, present & future Emphasis on resulting harm Deterrence linked to relationships and personal accountability
  25. 25. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE RESTORATIVE JUSTICE DEFINITION Restorative Justice is a range of processes that advocates that the people most effective at finding a solution to a problem are the people who are most directly impacted by the problem, creating opportunities for those involved in a conflict to work together to understand, clarify resolve the incident and work together towards repairing the harm caused.
  26. 26. What does this mean? people who are most directly impacted by a situation are the best people to solve it work together repairing the harm caused
  27. 27. Support (encouragement, nurture) FAIRNESS Adapted from Watchtel/McCold,adapted from Glasser HIGH FIRMNESS Control(limitsetting,discipline) HIGH punitive restorative neglectful permissive TO WITH NOT FOR Authoritarian stigmatizing Authoritative reintegrative Social Development Operating Domains
  28. 28. Shame can over-ride guilt “…punishment increases feelings of shame and humiliation, and decreases feelings of guilt; and those are exactly the psychological conditions that give rise to violent behaviour, in which the rage that has been provoked by being humiliated is not inhibited by feelings of guilt” (Gilligan, 2001)
  29. 29. Re-Integration • It is vital that we have in place all of the social supports and systems to both protect young people and prevent them moving into the criminal justice system. • If this prevention fails, it is crucial to intervene early in the criminal trajectory of young people with high quality services and treatment as far as possible using incarceration as a last resort. • When young people who are incarcerated get released we must provide high quality support and ongoing treatment to reduce the risks of-re-offending
  30. 30. Change our thinking “Our thinking has created problems which cannot be solved by the same level of thinking” Albert Einstein
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×