Young	
  people	
  with	
  complex	
  needs	
  
in	
  the	
  criminal	
  jus6ce	
  system	
  
	
  Presenter	
  :	
  Leanne...
Presenta6on	
  Outline	
  
• Context	
  of	
  the	
  problem	
  
• Defining	
  complex	
  needs	
  
• Background	
  to	
  t...
Context	
  of	
  the	
  problem
•  Concern	
  with	
  the	
  social	
  exclusion	
  and	
  criminalisaJon	
  of	
  a	
  gr...
Defining	
  complex	
  needs	
  
•  Associated with vulnerability and social marginalisation.
•  Multiple interlocking expe...
People	
  with	
  Mental	
  Health	
  Disorders	
  and	
  Cogni6ve	
  
Disability	
  (MHDCD)	
  in	
  the	
  Criminal	
  J...
The	
  UNSW	
  MHDCD	
  Study	
  approach	
  
Method:	
  Innova6ve	
  data	
  linkage	
  and	
  merging	
  
•  Cohort:	
  ...
SQL server, relational dataset
Cohort
ID
2,731
DCS
Police
Court
Housing
Justice
Health
Child
Services
Health
Disability
Le...
Descrip6on	
  of	
  the	
  MHDCD	
  Cohort	
  	
  
!  Full	
  Cohort	
  N=2,731	
  
!  Those	
  with	
  IQ	
  less	
  than...
MHDCD	
  Study	
  Cohort	
  
• 	
  	
  ~	
  ½	
  the	
  cohort	
  complex	
  diagnoses	
  (groups	
  not	
  mutually	
  
e...
Cogni6ve	
  Disability	
  in	
  the	
  MHDCD	
  cohort	
  
•  ID	
  =	
  >70IQ	
  
•  BID	
  =	
  <70-­‐	
  >80	
  IQ	
  
...
Aboriginal	
  persons	
  in	
  the	
  MHDCD	
  cohort	
  
•  86%	
  Indigenous	
  cohort	
  is	
  male,	
  14%	
  female.	...
Key	
  selected	
  findings:	
  the	
  experience	
  of	
  
young	
  people	
  with	
  complex	
  needs	
  in	
  the	
  
CJ...
3 inquiries used to describe YPCN in the CJS
1.  General	
  descrip4on	
  of	
  those	
  in	
  the	
  MHDCD	
  cohort	
  (...
School education
Those with
complex
needs and
cognitive
disability had
significantly
lower
education
attainment
5th Annual...
School Expulsion: MHDCD cohort compared
with Inmate Health Survey Sample	
  
Higher proportion of
those in the MHDCD
cohor...
Experiences	
  in	
  educa6on	
  -­‐	
  summary	
  
•  Diagnosed	
  groups	
  in	
  the	
  MHDCD	
  cohort	
  have	
  even...
Family	
  Context	
  	
  
•  23%	
  of	
  the	
  MHDCD	
  cohort	
  had	
  been	
  in	
  OHC	
  compared	
  with	
  19%	
 ...
Experience	
  of	
  Out	
  Of	
  Home	
  Care:	
  MHDCD	
  cohort	
  
compared	
  with	
  Inmate	
  Health	
  Survey	
  Sa...
Out	
  of	
  Home	
  Care	
  case	
  example:	
  Eddie	
  
Eddie	
  has	
  an	
  ID,	
  Borderline	
  Personality	
  Disor...
Impact	
  of	
  out	
  of	
  home	
  care	
  
Those	
  in	
  the	
  MHDCD	
  cohort	
  who	
  had	
  been	
  in	
  OHC	
  ...
Average	
  Age	
  First	
  Police	
  contact,	
  convic6on	
  &	
  
custody	
  
CD complex –
significantly lower
av. age 1...
Early	
  Police	
  contact	
  case	
  example:	
  MaUhew	
  
Matthew is diagnosed with a BID and MH
disorder. His first po...
Young people with complex needs and JJ
Current	
  situaJon	
  in	
  NSW	
  	
  
•  Psychological	
  disorder:	
  87%	
  of...
Comparing	
  people	
  with	
  complex	
  needs	
  in	
  the	
  
MHDCD	
  cohort	
  with	
  JJ	
  and	
  no	
  JJ	
  histo...
Contact	
  with	
  Juvenile	
  Jus6ce	
  
Sig.	
  higher	
  rate	
  of	
  
being	
  a	
  JJ	
  client	
  
for	
  cogniJve	...
Age	
  and	
  paUern	
  of	
  contact	
  for	
  MHDCD	
  cohort	
  
with	
  JJ	
  and	
  no	
  JJ	
  history	
  
•  Indivi...
First	
  police	
  contact	
  and	
  JJ	
  
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
MH_ID MH_BIDMH_AODID_AODBID_...
JJ	
  Custodial	
  episodes	
  &	
  Length	
  Of	
  Stay	
  
CD complex
significantly more JJ
custodial episodes
than MH &...
Age	
  at	
  first	
  record	
  in	
  DJJ	
  involvements	
  
First
Alerts
First
Asse
ss
First
Class
ificati
on
First
Com
m...
New	
  Conceptualisa6on	
  of	
  Disability	
  in	
  CJS	
  
•  Highly	
  disadvantaged	
  places	
  early	
  in	
  life	
...
Understanding	
  complex	
  needs	
  for	
  young	
  
people	
  in	
  contact	
  with	
  the	
  CJS	
  
•  Complex	
  set	...
Addressing	
  complex	
  needs	
  for	
  young	
  people	
  in	
  
contact	
  with	
  the	
  CJS	
  
•  Comprehensive	
  r...
References
Archer,	
  W.	
  D.	
  (2009).	
  IntroducJon:	
  Challenging	
  the	
  school	
  to	
  prison	
  pipeline.	
  ...
References
Carney,	
  T.	
  (2006)	
  Complex	
  Needs	
  at	
  the	
  Boundaries	
  of	
  Mental	
  Health,	
  JusJce	
  ...
Relevant	
  forthcoming	
  publica6ons	
  and	
  contacts	
  
Dowse,	
  L.,	
  Cumming,	
  T.	
  M.,	
  	
  Strnadová,	
  ...
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Dr Leanne Dowse, Senior Lecturer in Social Research and Policy, School of Social Sciences, The University of New South Wales - Young People with Complex Needs and the Criminal Justice System

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Leanne Dowse delivered this presentation at the 5th Annual Juvenile Justice Summit 2014. This Summit hears from key state government representatives and youth justice organisations on the significant issues moving forward for juvenile justice in Australia.

For more information, please visit http://www.communitycareconferences.com.au/juvenilejustice14

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Transcript of "Dr Leanne Dowse, Senior Lecturer in Social Research and Policy, School of Social Sciences, The University of New South Wales - Young People with Complex Needs and the Criminal Justice System"

  1. 1. Young  people  with  complex  needs   in  the  criminal  jus6ce  system    Presenter  :  Leanne  Dowse   Research  Team:  Eileen  Baldry,  Leanne  Dowse,  Jung-­‐ Sook  Lee,  Julian  Trofimovs,  Terry  Cumming,  Iva   Strnadová,  Melissa  Clarence,  Han  Xu   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  2. 2. Presenta6on  Outline   • Context  of  the  problem   • Defining  complex  needs   • Background  to  the  MHDCD  in  the  CJS  project   • Selected  key  findings   • Early  lives  of  people  with  complex  needs  in  the  CJS   • Juvenile  JusJce  involvement  for  people  with  complex   needs  in  the  CJS   • Discussion/Conclusions:  understanding  and  addressing   complex  needs  in  young  people  in  the  CJS   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  3. 3. Context  of  the  problem •  Concern  with  the  social  exclusion  and  criminalisaJon  of  a  group  of   young  people  with  disabiliJes.   •  As  young  people  (and  later  as  adults)  this  group  figure  significantly  in   policing,  jusJce  and  prisons,  both  as  vicJms  and  offenders.     •  Needs  are  complex.   •  Trajectory  into  the  CJS  begins  early  in  life.     •  Responsive  welfare  provision  and  early  intervenJon  can  be  effecJve   in  addressing  social  exclusion  and  reducing  vulnerability  for  young   people  at  risk  of  entering  the  criminal  jusJce  system.   •  BUT  specific  experience  for  young  people  who  have  complex  needs   and  are  at  risk  of  CJS  involvement  is  poorly  understood     •  In  Australia  and  comparable  jurisdicJons  current  systemic  and   welfare  responses  appear  to  have  only  limited  impact  on  prevenJng   early  contact  from  escalaJng  into  a  cycle  of  incarceraJon  and  re-­‐ incarceraJon.   •  Need  for  mulJ-­‐systemic  pathway  understanding    and  advocacy   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  4. 4. Defining  complex  needs   •  Associated with vulnerability and social marginalisation. •  Multiple interlocking experiences and factors that span health and social issues (Rankin & Regan 2004). •  Includes: (a) mental health disorder; (b) cognitive disability including intellectual and developmental disability and acquired brain injury; (c) physical disability; (d) behavioural difficulties; (e) precarious housing; (f) social isolation; (g) family dysfunction; (h) problematic drug and/or alcohol use (i) risk of harm in early life (k) early educational disengagement (l) contact with the criminal justice system (Archer, 2009; AIHW, 2012; Baldry, Dowse, & Clarence, 2012; Carney, 2006; Draine & Salzer, 2002; Hamilton, 2010; Keene, 2001 MacDonald, 2012).
  5. 5. People  with  Mental  Health  Disorders  and  Cogni6ve   Disability  (MHDCD)  in  the  Criminal  Jus6ce  System  study   •  ARC  Linkage  Project  2007-­‐2010  UNSW   •  CIs:  Eileen  Baldry,  Leanne  Dowse,  Ian  Webster   •  PIs:  Tony  Butler,  Simon  Eyland,  Jim  Simpson   •  Partner  OrganisaJons:  CorrecJve  Services  NSW,  JusJce  Health,  NSW   Police,  Housing  NSW,  NSW  Council  for  Intellectual  Disability,  Juvenile   JusJce  NSW   •  ARC  Linkage  Project  2011-­‐2014  Indigenous  Australians  with  mental   health  disorders  and  cogni4ve  disability  in  the  CJS   •  Nested  studies  uJlising  the  MHDCD  dataset     •  Young  People  with  Complex  needs  in  the  CJS  2013,  Cis:  Leanne  Dowse,   Jung-­‐Sook  Lee,  Terry  Cumming,  Iva  Strnadová,  Cumming,  RA:  Julian   Trofimovs  (UNSW  Faculty  of  Arts  and  Social  Sciences  Research  Grant)   http://www.mhdcd.unsw.edu.au/ 5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  6. 6. The  UNSW  MHDCD  Study  approach   Method:  Innova6ve  data  linkage  and  merging   •  Cohort:  2001  Inmate  Health  Survey  &  CSNSW  Statewide  Disability   Service  database  –  purposive  sample  not  representaJve   •   Data  on  each  individual  drawn  from:   •  The  Centre  for  Health  Research  in  CJS  Health  NSW  (+data  from  2009   survey)   •  NSW  Department  of  CorrecJve  Services  –  adult  custody   •  BOCSAR  –  reoffending  database  -­‐  courts   •  NSW  Police  –  events,  charges  and  custody   •  Juvenile  JusJce  –  clients  and  custody   •  Housing  NSW  –  applicaJon  and  tenancy   •  ADHC  –  disability  service   •  Legal  Aid  NSW  –  advice,  applicaJon   •  NSW  Health  (mortality,  pharmacotheraphy,  hospital  admissions)   •  Community  Services  –  out  of  home  care   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  7. 7. SQL server, relational dataset Cohort ID 2,731 DCS Police Court Housing Justice Health Child Services Health Disability Legal Aid Juvenile Justice 5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  8. 8. Descrip6on  of  the  MHDCD  Cohort     !  Full  Cohort  N=2,731   !  Those  with  IQ  less  than  70  N=680   !  Those  with  IQ  70-­‐80  N=783   !  Those  with  diagnosed  Mental  health  disorder  N=965   !  Those  with  No  diagnosis  N=339   !  Those  with  Substance  abuse  disorder  =  1276   !  Women  =  11%   !  Indigenous  Australians  =  25%   !  ~40%  had  been  Juvenile  JusJce  clients   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  9. 9. MHDCD  Study  Cohort   •     ~  ½  the  cohort  complex  diagnoses  (groups  not  mutually   exclusive).  Eg  MH_ID  group  may  also  have  substance  abuse   disorder.   •   ~  2/3  of  those  with  cogniJve  disability  have  complex  needs.   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  10. 10. Cogni6ve  Disability  in  the  MHDCD  cohort   •  ID  =  >70IQ   •  BID  =  <70-­‐  >80  IQ   •  ABI  =  persons  with  brain  injury  that  significantly   affects  their  cogniJve  and  social  capabiliJes   !  1464  people  in  the  cohort  had  an  idenJfied  cogniJve   disability   !  Approx  2/3rd  in  the  CD  group  experience  addiJonal   compounding  /  complex  needs  including  mental   health  disorder  or  drug  and  alcohol  use  disorder.   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  11. 11. Aboriginal  persons  in  the  MHDCD  cohort   •  86%  Indigenous  cohort  is  male,  14%  female.     •  91%  Indigenous  cohort  idenJfied  with  MHDCD;   most  complex  needs;  eg  of  those  with  MHD  77%   have  AOD  with  36%  also  CD.   •  significantly  higher  number  and  rate  of  convic6ons   than  non  Indigenous  persons   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  12. 12. Key  selected  findings:  the  experience  of   young  people  with  complex  needs  in  the   CJS   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  13. 13. 3 inquiries used to describe YPCN in the CJS 1.  General  descrip4on  of  those  in  the  MHDCD  cohort  (n=2731)  and   case  studies  drawn  out.   2.  Comparison  of  prisoners  with  complex  needs  and  prisoners   without  complex  needs  -­‐  individual,  educaJonal,  and  family   background  of  those  in  the  MHDCD  cohort  who  took  part  in   NSW  Inmate  Health  Survey  (n=493)  and  those  without  MHDCD   who  also  took  part  in  the  IHS  (n=419).   3.  Comparison  of  those  with  complex  needs  in  contact  with  the  JJ   (n=914  718  had  been  in  JJ  custody;  196  JJ  clients  only  )  and  those   who  had  not  had  contact  with  the  Juvenile  Jus4ce  System  (n=   1,643)  using  MHDCD  dataset.   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  14. 14. School education Those with complex needs and cognitive disability had significantly lower education attainment 5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  15. 15. School Expulsion: MHDCD cohort compared with Inmate Health Survey Sample   Higher proportion of those in the MHDCD cohort both males (41%v 33%) and females (35%v29%) had ever been expelled from school. Much larger % reported being suspended. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 men women men women Total sample Cohort sample % Ever been expelled from a school No Yes 5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  16. 16. Experiences  in  educa6on  -­‐  summary   •  Diagnosed  groups  in  the  MHDCD  cohort  have  even  lower  levels   of  educaJon  than  general  prisoner  populaJon.     •  Those  with  some  form  of  CogniJve  Disability  have  the  worst   levels  of  educaJon.   •  Complex  groups:  over  80%  have  no  formal  qualificaJon  with   majority  leaving  school  without  compleJng  Yr10   •  Comparison  between  MHDCD  cohort  and  non-­‐MHDCD  prisoner   (HIS)  cohort  shows  that  those  in  the  MHDCD  cohort  had  higher   proporJons     •  leaving  school  without  a  qualificaJon   •  being  expelled  and  suspended  from  school   •  arending  special  school  (12%  V  8%)   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  17. 17. Family  Context     •  23%  of  the  MHDCD  cohort  had  been  in  OHC  compared  with  19%   non-­‐MHDCD  cohort   •  Of  those  in  the  MHDCD  cohort  who  had  been  in  OHC  60%  have   complex  diagnoses,  with  80%  of  this  group  having  a  cogniJve   impairment.   •  No  difference  in  raised  by  family  between  ages  0-­‐10  but  from   11-­‐16  significant  difference  where  MHDCD  group  (45%)  more   likely  to  move  into  OHC  than  non-­‐MHDCD  (40%).   •  IntergeneraJonal  disadvantage  greater  for  MHDCD  cohort   •  Larger  proporJon  of  MHDCD  cohort  (18%)  having  a  parent  who   had  been  incarcerated  compared  to  non-­‐MHDCD  cohort  (12%)   •  Higher  proporJon  of  MHDCD  cohort  (11%)  having  a  parent  who   had  also  been  in  OHC  compared  with  non-­‐MHDCD  cohort  (9%).   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  18. 18. Experience  of  Out  Of  Home  Care:  MHDCD  cohort   compared  with  Inmate  Health  Survey  Sample   Women in the MHDCD cohort have a much higher incidence of having experienced OOHC than those in the total IHS sample 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 men women men women Total sample Cohort sample % Ever been OOHC No Yes 5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  19. 19. Out  of  Home  Care  case  example:  Eddie   Eddie  has  an  ID,  Borderline  Personality  Disorder  and   an  AOD  history  from  age  6.  He  was  first  placed  in  OHC  at   age  9  for  2  weeks,  and  over  the  following  6  years  was   placed  in  9  different  foster  homes  which  oten  only   lasted  between  5  days  to  2  weeks.  Eddie  had  first  police   contact  at  age  11  and  his  first  custodial  episode  at  age   13.  He  was  regularly  imprisoned  for  breaching  bail   condiJons  which  stated  that  he  could  only  go  out   accompanied  by  a  responsible  adult.   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  20. 20. Impact  of  out  of  home  care   Those  in  the  MHDCD  cohort  who  had  been  in  OHC  had:   •  Younger  age  at  first  police  contact     •  Twice  as  many  police  contacts  over  their  lives   •  Twice  as  many  custodial  episodes  over  their  lives   •  Three  Jmes  as  likely  to  have  been  incarcerated  as   a  juvenile   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  21. 21. Average  Age  First  Police  contact,  convic6on  &   custody   CD complex – significantly lower av. age 1st contact with police. High victimisation Those who were JJ clients sig. lower av. age of police contact for CD complex (12-13) 5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  22. 22. Early  Police  contact  case  example:  MaUhew   Matthew is diagnosed with a BID and MH disorder. His first police contact was at age 7, and he had contact with the police on 20 occasions by the age of 10. By the age of 18 he had 349 police contacts for escalating crimes. 5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  23. 23. Young people with complex needs and JJ Current  situaJon  in  NSW     •  Psychological  disorder:  87%  of  Juvenile  detainees  idenJfied   to  have  at  least  1  psychological  disorder   •  Intellectual  Disability:  14%  of  juvenile  detainees  idenJfied   as  having  ID  (sig  above  the  populaJon  norm  of  2%),  with  7%   of  non-­‐Aboriginal  young  people  and  20%  Aboriginal  young   people  found  to  have  IQ  below  70.   •  Borderline  Intellectual  Disability:  1/3rd  (32%)  of  juvenile   detainees  found  to  have  BID,  with  26%  of  non  Aboriginal   young  people  and    39%  of  Aboriginal  found  to  have  IQ   between  70  -­‐79)  (again  sig  above  populaJon  norm  of  7%).   (Indig  et  al  2010  Young  People  in  Custody  Health  Survey)     5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  24. 24. Comparing  people  with  complex  needs  in  the   MHDCD  cohort  with  JJ  and  no  JJ  history   For  those  with  JJ  history  there  is  a  significantly  higher  proporJon  of  :   •  Males  -­‐  91%  of  those  with  JJ  history  v  86%  of  those  no  JJ  history   •  Aboriginal  persons  -­‐  35%  of  those  with  JJ  history  v  21%  of  those  no  JJ   history     •  A  history  of  OHC  -­‐  27%  of  those  with  JJ  history  v  4.5%  of  those  no  JJ   history     •  MulJple  diagnoses  ie  complex  needs  -­‐  81%  of  those  with  JJ  history  v   69%  of  those  no  JJ  history   •  CogniJve  disability  -­‐  ID  or  BID  -­‐  66%  of  those  with  JJ  history  v  52%  of   those  no  JJ  history   •  Alcohol  and  other  drug  use  disorders  –  83%  of  those  with  JJ  history  v   74%  of  those  no  JJ  history   •  The  only  tested  variable  on  which  no  significant  difference  was  found   between  the  two  groups  was  the  presence  of  Mental  Health  Disorder.   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  25. 25. Contact  with  Juvenile  Jus6ce   Sig.  higher  rate  of   being  a  JJ  client   for  cogniJve   complex  groups  -­‐   between  40%  to   60%;     But  ~  20%  for   those  with  no   diagnosis  or  MH   only   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  26. 26. Age  and  paUern  of  contact  for  MHDCD  cohort   with  JJ  and  no  JJ  history   •  Individuals  with  JJ  contact  had  (as  expected)  earlier   contact  with  all  aspects  of  the  criminal  jusJce  system.   •  The  average  age  for  first  contact  with  JJ  was  15  years   •  Contact  with  police  occurred  significantly  earlier  for   those  with  JJ  history  (av  age  13.1yrs)  as  compared   with  those  with  no  JJ  history  (av  age  18.5  yrs)   •  Age  at  first  adult  custody  episode  was  significantly   lower  for  those  with  JJ  history  (av.  Age  19.2  yrs)  as   compared  with  those  with  no  JJ  history  (av  age  27.2   yrs)   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  27. 27. First  police  contact  and  JJ   0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 MH_ID MH_BIDMH_AODID_AODBID_AOD ID BID MH PD/AODNo DiagnosisTotal PoliceContactsBeforeFirstDJJCustody Age Avg Age First Police Contact Avg Age First DJJ Custody Police Contacts Pre First DJJ Custody Av.  age  first  Police  &  JJ   contact  &  number  police   contacts  prior  to  custody:   All  CD  significantly  higher   police  contacts  before   becoming  a  JJ  client   &  were  younger  at  first   police  contact  and   younger  at  first  custody   than  no  diagnosis  group.     5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  28. 28. JJ  Custodial  episodes  &  Length  Of  Stay   CD complex significantly more JJ custodial episodes than MH & no diagnosis. All groups significantly shorter av. days than no diagnosis groups (largely remand) 5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  29. 29. Age  at  first  record  in  DJJ  involvements   First Alerts First Asse ss First Class ificati on First Com munit y First Custo dy First DJJ First Notes First Speci alist First YJC First YJCC on First YLSI Minimum Age 11 9 16 10 10 8 12 11 11 8 12 Maximum Age 19 19 21 21 19 21 25 19 18 18 19 Mean of Age 15.67 15.18 17.43 15.27 15.37 14.95 16.52 15.98 15.56 13.83 16.14 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Many in this MHDCD subgroup have lowest minimum age possible for DJJ detention (10) and informal contacts below the legal threshold for formal charging 5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  30. 30. New  Conceptualisa6on  of  Disability  in  CJS   •  Highly  disadvantaged  places  early  in  life  &  funneled   into  a  liminal  marginalised  community/criminal   jus6ce  space  (Baldry  2013)   •  Not  falling  through  the  cracks,  rather,  as  young   people  on  the  conveyor  belt  /  given  a  Jcket  on  the   CJS  train.  SystemaJc  and  parerned  (Baldry  2013).   •  The  lack  of  appropriate  support  and  services  and  the   use  of  control  agencies  for  persons  experiencing   mulJple  disadvantages  together  with  mental  and/   or  cogniJve  disability,  compounds  these  life  issues   crea6ng  complex  needs    (Baldry  &  Dowse  2012).     5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  31. 31. Understanding  complex  needs  for  young   people  in  contact  with  the  CJS   •  Complex  set  of  vulnerabiliJes  across  individual,  social  and   insJtuJonal  domains,  work  together  to  bring  some  young  people   with  complex  needs  into  contact  with  the  CJS.   •  Many  risk  factors  are  known  and  idenJfiable  from  a  young  age     •  Pathways  into  the  CJS  for  these  young  people  with  complex  needs  are   mulJ-­‐factorial  and  mulJ-­‐stage  (Baldry  2013).   •  Difficult  for  currently  disconnected  service  systems  to  idenJfy  and   address.       •  Failure  to  address  contributory  condiJons  oten  precipitate  further   involvement  in  the  criminal  jusJce  system     •  Poor  coordinaJon  across  areas  of  criminal  jusJce,  welfare  and  human   services  and  educaJon,  appears  to  result  in  responsibility  for   management  oten  falling  to  the  criminal  jusJce  system  (Baldry  &   Dowse,  2013).   5th Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit, Rydges Melbourne, 25-26 March 2014
  32. 32. Addressing  complex  needs  for  young  people  in   contact  with  the  CJS   •  Comprehensive  response  means  addressing  models  and  pracJces  in   individual  and  family  support,  service  system  cohesion,  and  overarching   policy  direcJon.   •  Premised  on  support  not  criminalisaJon.     •  Responses  specifically  recognise  and  address  complex  needs  as  pervasive   and  interlocking  rather  than  simply  co-­‐occurring,  and  therefore  cannot  to   be  addressed  in  isolaJon  from  each  other.     •  Service  providers  face  a  challenge  in  recognising  the  presence  of  complex   needs  in  their  young  clients  and  ensuring  assessment  and  early   intervenJon.   •  Policy  makers  to  enact  strategies  that  enable  shared  recogniJon  and   understanding  of  the  nature  of  complex  needs  in  young  people,  including   common  criteria  and  language.     •  Specific  cross-­‐porvolio  integraJon  promoJng  collaboraJve  and   coordinated  service  response  across  educaJon,  child  protecJon,  disability   and  criminal  jusJce  system  agencies.
  33. 33. References Archer,  W.  D.  (2009).  IntroducJon:  Challenging  the  school  to  prison  pipeline.  New  York  Law   School  Law  Review,  54,  875-­‐908.   Australian  InsJtute  of  Health  and  Welfare  (AIHW).  (2012).  Children  and  young  people  at  risk   of  social  exclusion:  Links  between  homelessness,  child  protec4on  and  juvenile  jus4ce.   Data  linkage  series  no.  13.  Cat.  no.  CSI  13.  Canberra:  AIHW   Baldry,  E.  (2013)  Pathways  from  school  to  prison:  Intellectual  disability,  mental  health    and   school  educaJon.  Paper  presented  to  Forum  on  intellectual  disability,  mental  health  and   school  educa4on.    UNSW  May  31.   Baldry,  E.  &  Dowse,  L.  (2012)  Pathways  into  and  avenues  out  of  criminal  jus4ce  for  young   people  with  cogni4ve  and  mental  disabili4es.  UNSW,  Public  Lecture.  December  6th.   Baldry,  E.  &  Dowse,  L.  (2013)  Compounding  mental  and  cogniJve  disability  and   disadvantage:  police  as  care  managers  in  Duncan  Chappell  (ed)  Policing  and  the   Mentally  Ill:  Interna4onal  Perspec4ves.  Boca  Raton:  CRC  Press,  Taylor  and  Francis  Group.     Baldry,  E.,  Dowse,  L.,  &  Clarence,  M.  (2012).  People  with  intellectual  and  other  cogniJve   disability  in  the  criminal  jusJce  system:  Report  for  NSW  Family  and  Community  Services   Ageing,  Disability  and  Home  Carehrp://www.adhc.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/file/ 0003/264054/Intellectual_and_cogniJve_disability_in_criminal_jusJce_system.pdf  
  34. 34. References Carney,  T.  (2006)  Complex  Needs  at  the  Boundaries  of  Mental  Health,  JusJce  and   Welfare:  Gatekeeping  Issues  in  Managing  Chronic  Alcoholism  Treatment?   Current  Issues  in  Criminal  Jus4ce  17(3):  347-­‐361.   Draine,  J.,  Salzer,  M.  S.,  Culhane,  D.P.,  and  Hadley,  T.R.  (2002)  Role  of  social   disadvantage  in  crime,  joblessness,  and  homelessness  among  persons  with   serious  mental  illness.  Psychiatric  Services  53(5):  565-­‐573   Hamilton,  M.  (2010)  People  with  Complex  Needs  and  the  Criminal  JusJce  System   Current  Issues  in  Criminal  Jus4ce  22(2):  307-­‐324   Indig,  D.,  Vecchiato,  C.,  Haysom,  L.,  Beilby,  R.,  Carter,  J.,  Champion,  U.,  Gaskin,  C.,   Heller,  E.,  Kumar,  S.,  Mamone,  N.,  Muir,  P.,  Van  Den  Dolder,  P.  &  Whiron,  G.   (2009)  NSW  Young  People  in  Custody  Health  Survey:  Full  Report.  JusJce  Health.   Keene,  J.  (2001)  Clients  with  Complex  Needs:  Interprofessional  Prac4ce.  Oxford:   Blackwell   MacDonald,  (2012).  Macdonald,  S.  J.  (2012).  "Journey's  end":  StaJsJcal  pathways   into  offending  for  adults  with  specific  learning  difficulJes.  Journal  of  Learning   Disabili4es  and  Offending  Behaviour,  3,  85-­‐97.   Rankin,  J  &  Regan,  S  (2004),  Mee4ng  Complex  Needs:  The  Future  of  Social  Care,   The  InsJtute  for  Public  Policy  Research    
  35. 35. Relevant  forthcoming  publica6ons  and  contacts   Dowse,  L.,  Cumming,  T.  M.,    Strnadová,  I.,  Lee,  J-­‐S.,  and  Trofimovs,  J.  (forthcoming   2014)    Young  People  with  Complex  Needs  in  the  Criminal  JusJce  System.  Research   and  Prac4ce  in  Intellectual  and  Developmental  Disabili4es.     Lee,  J-­‐S.,  Dowse,  L,  and  Trofimovs,  J.  (under  review)  Understanding  the    Early   Experiences  of  People  with  Complex  Needs  in  the  Criminal  JusJce  System.   Cumming,  T.  M.,  Strnadová,  I.,  and  Dowse,  L.  (under  review)    At-­‐risk  youth  in  Australian   schools  and  promising  models  of  intervenJon.     Contact:   Associate  Professor  Leanne  Dowse   Chair  in  Intellectual  Disability  and  Behaviour  Support   School  of  Social  Sciences   UNSW  Australia   L.Dowse@unsw.edu.au   MHDCD  Project  website  UNSW:  hrp://www.mhdcd.unsw.edu.au/  
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