Dr. John Tunna - Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) - A USA Perspective
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Dr. John Tunna - Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) - A USA Perspective

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Dr John Tunna, Director Research & Development, Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) USA delivered this presentation at the Rail Safety Conference 2014. Rail Safety 2014 brought together the key ...

Dr John Tunna, Director Research & Development, Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) USA delivered this presentation at the Rail Safety Conference 2014. Rail Safety 2014 brought together the key national decision-makers to deliver new ideas and develop innovative ways to leverage technology for safer outcomes.

For more information, please visit http://www.railsafetyconference.com.au/rs14

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Dr. John Tunna - Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) - A USA Perspective  Dr. John Tunna - Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) - A USA Perspective Presentation Transcript

  • Rail  Safety,  Rulemaking  and   Enforcement   JOHN  TUNNA   Director   Office  of  Research  and  Development   Office  of  Railroad  Policy  and  Development    
  • Content   •  Who  is  the  Federal  Railroad  Administra;on?   •  How  the  FRA  captures  na;onal  rail  safety  data   and  uses  it  to  improve  safety   •  FRA’s  approach  to  managing  risk  in  the  U.S.   railroad  industry   •  FRA’s  approach  to  applying  science  and   engineering  to  improve  safety   2  
  •     Who We Are The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) enables the safe, reliable, and efficient movement of people and goods for a strong America, now and in the future. •  Safety is our number one priority •  We are laying a foundation for higher performing rail •  Promulgating and enforcing rail safety regulations •  Investing in America’s Rail corridors •  Facilitating and conducting research and technology development RAIL– Moving America Forward
  • U.S.  Railroad  Accident  History   •  Con;nuous  safety  improvement  during  a  period  of   growth  in  freight  and  passenger  traffic   4  
  • Railroad  Accident  Incident  ReporDng  System   (RAIRS)   •  Railroad  opera;onal  data     –  Total  train  miles,  passenger  miles,     employee  hours     •  Railroad  casualty  database     –  Fatali;es,  injuries,  occupa;onal  illnesses   –  Employees,  contractors,  passengers,  trespassers,  non-­‐trespassers   •  Reportable  railroad  accidents   –  Derailments,  collisions,  etc.   –  Threshold:    $9,900  in  property  damage  (2013)   •  Highway-­‐rail  grade  crossing  accidents  -­‐  ALL   5  
  • Grade  Crossing  Inventory  System  (GCIS)   •  Inventory  of  the  Na;on’s  highway-­‐rail  grade     crossings   –  Crossing  characteris;cs   –  Historical  informa;on   –  Accident  history   –  Railroad  and  State  repor;ng   –  GX32:  free  so[ware  for  railroad  and     State  use   –  Risk  formulas   –  Historically  voluntary  repor;ng   –  Rule  to  require  updates  every  3  years   6  
  • Railroad  InspecDon  ReporDng  System   (RIRS)   •  Railroad  Inspec;on  System  for  the  Personal   Computer  (RISPC)   –  Secure  site   –  Inspec;on  reports   –  Viola;on  reports     (railroad  defects  and  viola;ons)   •  Serves  as  FRA’s  compliance   monitor  for  the  industry   •  Informs  the  Na;onal  Inspec;on  Plan   7  
  • §  20156.  Railroad  safety  risk  reducDon  program   (1)  PROGRAM  REQUIREMENT.—  ...  the  Secretary  of   Transporta;on  .  .  .  shall  require  each  railroad  carrier  ...   ‘‘(A)  to  develop  a  railroad  safety  risk  reduc;on  program   under  subsec;on  (d)  that  systemaDcally  evaluates   railroad  safety  risks  on  its  system  and  manages  those   risks  .  .  .     (2)  RELIANCE  ON  PILOT  PROGRAM.—The  Secretary  may   conduct  behavior-­‐based  safety  and  other  research,   including  pilot  programs,  before  promulga;ng   regula;ons  under  this  subsec;on  and  therea[er.   Risk  ReducDon   110TH  CONGRESS  of  the  United  States  of  America   H.R.  2095  -­‐  Rail  Safety  Improvement  Act  of  2008  
  • Regulatory  and  Non-­‐regulatory   Approaches  
  • RegulaDons   •  Available  at  www.ecfr.gov  Title  49  Transporta;on   •  Include  civil  penal;es  for  viola;ons   10  
  • NaDonal  InspecDon  Plan   •  Based  on  an  analysis  of  safety  risk  in  each  region   11  
  • Research  Program  Areas   12  
  • Tank  Car  Releases  
  • Hazmat  Tank  Car  Head  Shield   Research   •  Reducing  the  loss  of  hazardous  material  a[er   accidents  involved  designing  and  tes;ng  head   shields   Early testing Head shield
  • From  Research  to  Rulemaking   15   •  Ac;vity  between  1970  and  1981   •  FRA’s  R&D  agenda  evolved  to  match  FRA  rulemaking  priori;es   •  Connec&on:       •  All  relevant  research  reports  were  referenced  in  FRA  rule  making  documents   All  FRA  rule  making  documents  referred  to  relevant  research  reports  
  • 0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   1965   1970   1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005   Number  of  Accidents   DOT-­‐105,  112  and  114  Cars  with  Head  Damage  in  Accidents  and     Losing  Lading  through  Heads   Lading  Losses   Number  of  Reports   1970:  1  1976:  2   1971:  5  1977:  0   1972:  1  1978:  2   1973:  4  1979:  0   1974:  3  1980:  2                    1975:  16                                   Rulemaking   1974  Final  Rule   HM-­‐109   1977  Final  Rule   HM-­‐144   1981  Final  Rule   HM-­‐174  
  • January  14,  2008  –  Lawrence,  IL   Post-­‐accident  InspecDon   17   79” high by 48” wide dent 10-11” average depth No Release of Hazardous Materials – Ethylene Oxide (PIH)
  • Improving  Safety  Culture  
  • Non-­‐regulatory  Approaches  
  • What  is  C3RS?   •  A  close  call  is  “an  opportunity  to   improve  safety  prac;ces  in  a   situa;on  or  incident  that  has  a   poten;al  for  more  serious   consequences.”     •  Railroad  workers  observe   individual  events  and  submit  a   confiden;al  report   •  Peer  Review  Teams  (PRT)   consis;ng  of  labor,   management,  and  FRA  analyze   the  groups  of  events,  to  iden;fy   safety  hazards  and  develop   solu;ons  to  these  threats.     •  The  pilot  is  a  small-­‐scale  test  of  a   close  call  repor;ng  system  for   the  railroad  industry   20  
  • Example  of  Improvements   Safety  Culture     •  Improvements  in  Safety   Culture  have  been  seen   •  Based  on  interviews  and  the   Railroad  Safety  Culture   Survey   –  Compared  at  start  of  C3RS   and  midterm   Midterm  Survey  Results   21   Significant   Improvement   Managers Labor Labor-Management Relations ü ü Organizational Fairness During Change ü Supervisor Fairness ü ü Supervisor-Employee Relationship ü Management Safety ü ü Raising Concerns with Supervisors ü Work Safety Priorities ü Helping Behavior ü Coworker Safety ü
  • Example  of  Railroad  Impact   22   -­‐100%   -­‐90%   -­‐80%   -­‐70%   -­‐60%   -­‐50%   -­‐40%   -­‐30%   -­‐20%   -­‐10%   0%   Human  Factor  Derailments   Excess  Speed  Reports   Disciplinary  Cases   31%  ReducDon   48%  ReducDon   90%  ReducDon  
  • Joint  Bar  InspecDon  System  
  • Derailment  at  Eunice,  LA  in  May  2000   §  33  freight  cars  derailed;  15  contained  hazardous  materials  resul;ng  in  explosions  and  a  fire   §  ~3,500  people  were  evacuated  from  the  area   §  Total  damages  exceeded  $35  million   §  NTSB  concluded  that  the  cause  of  the  accident  was  the  failure  of  a  set  of  rail  joint  bars  that   had  remained  in  service  with  undetected  and  uncorrected  defects   24  
  • Joint  Bar  InspecDon  System   ImplementaDon   25   •  Three  Class  1  railroads  own  joint  bar  inspec;on   systems   •  two  are  deployed  on  full-­‐size  rail  inspec;on   vehicles   •  one  is  installed  on  a  hi-­‐rail   •  Maximum  survey  speed  currently  is  65  mph   •  The  system  provides  a  joint  bar  inventory,   measures  rail  gaps  and  detects  cracks   CP-­‐TEC63   Inspec&on  Services    Rail  Gap  Measurement/Excep&on  Detec&on  
  • $250K   Joint  Bar  related  accidents  per  year   Timeline   Joint  Bar  InspecDon  System  EvaluaDon   26    Source:  FRA  Office  of  Safety    *Par&al  data  available  only     2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011   $75K   $71K   $193K   $358K   $348K   $425K   $2K   2001     Discussion   about  this   task  started   2004     Amtrak    &  UP   Derailment     3rd  Field  Test   2005     Field  Test  at  UP  and   CP  Data  CollecDon     and  System  Dev   2006     Demo   RSAC  Final  Rule   Published     2000     UP    RR   Derailment  in   Eunice,  LA   2007     Commercial   Vehicle  1   2008   Commercial   Vehicle  2  &3   2011   Commercial   Vehicle  4   2003   1st  and  2nd   field  test     FRA  $   Commercial  $   ?  ?   ?   ?   Actual  applica;on   of  the  technology   in  its  final  form   and  under   opera;onal   condi;ons,  such   as  those   encountered  in   opera;onal  test   and  evalua;on.  In   almost  all  cases,   this  is  the  end  of   the  last  “bug   fixing”  aspects  of   true  system   development.     Technology   readiness  level   FRA  Total   Funding:   $1.3  M  
  • Engineer-­‐in-­‐Charge   Portable  Remote  Terminal  
  • PosiDve  Train  Control  Background   The  Rail  Safety  Improvement  Act  of   2008  requires  certain  freight  and   passenger  railroads,  by  2015,  to   deploy  PTC.  PTC  must:     •  Prevent  train  to  train       collisions   •  Prevent  over  speed   derailments   •  Prevent  incursions  into   established  work  zones   •  Prevent  movement  of  a  train   through  a  switch  le[  in  the   wrong  posi;on     28   Router Dispatch   System PTC-­‐Equipped   Locomo;ve   Train  Control  System   Office  Equipment Office  Segment EIC-­‐PRT Cellular Radio   Internet WWAN   Base  Sta;on VPN
  • SBD   Work  Limits   Enters  instrucDons   Reads  instrucDons  to  train  crew   Approves  instrucDons   Train  moves  out  of  Work  Limits   TMC  sends  train   out  of  work  limits   Back  Office   Archives  request  and   instrucDons   TMC  displays  locaDon  of  Work  Limits  ~3  miles  out   Crew  acknowledges  intenDon  to  enter  Work  Limits   TMC  enforces  stop  at  Work  Limits  unDl  EIC  permission  is  received   TMC  Sends  request   for  EIC  instrucDons   EIC-­‐approved   instrucDons   Back  Office   Voice  CommunicaDon  :   Engineer  requests  entry  and   EIC  gives  instrucDons     TMC  displays  and     enforces  instrucDons   Track     Bulle;n    NoDfies  EIC  of    pending  request   Back  Office   Train  Approaches  Work  Limits   Sends  to  PRT  that   has  control   Train  transiDons  Work  Limits   TMC  enforces  EIC  instrucDons   Portable  Remote  Terminal  OperaDon   TMC:  Train  Management  Computer     SBD:  Safe  Braking  Distance  
  • Example:  Proceed  with  Speed  RestricDon   and  Stop   15.0   20.0   16.0   17.2  
  • Timeline   Engineer-­‐in-­‐Charge  Portable  Remote  Terminal   Development   31   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   $350K   $350K   $350K   $350K   $350K   $350K   $750K   2005     Concept  of   Op  &  Sys   Design   started   2007     2nd  sys  demo   2008     Field  Test  at   TTCI  Office   Server  &  Loco   Simulator   2009     Sys  IntegraDon   into  BNSF   ETMS  Sys   2004     Discussion   about  this   task  started   2010     Build  1   FuncDonality   Development   2011     Build  2     Concept   Document   Review   2006   1st    sys  demo     FRA  $   FRA  Total   Funding:   $3.8  M   $100K   $500K   Technology   readiness  level   $500K   2012     Build  2   tesDng  &   evaluaDon   2013     Build  3     Concept   Document   Review   2014   $500K   LocomoDve   Engineer   Request     EIC   instruc;ons   EIC   Read     instruc;ons   to  crew  
  •       RAIL– Moving America Forward     Visit us at: www.fra.dot.gov