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Unlocking the Southern African coal potential: Opportunities for economic developments and exports


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Johan Swart, Lead Consulting Geologist: Coal, from Golder Associates Africa (Pty) Ltd has presented at the Botswana Coal and Energy Conference. If you would like more information about the conference, …

Johan Swart, Lead Consulting Geologist: Coal, from Golder Associates Africa (Pty) Ltd has presented at the Botswana Coal and Energy Conference. If you would like more information about the conference, please visit the website:

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  • 1. Opportunities for economic developments and exportsUnlocking the Southern Africancoal potential
  • 2. Contents•Coal deposits & Resources• Global perspective•Africa in relation to the world•Export potential
  • 3. Coal Deposits in AfricaSource: USGS
  • 4. Karoo Basins South of the EquatorCatuneanu et al: Karoo Basins of South and Central Africa: JAES 2005
  • 5. Coal Occurrences South of the EquatorAn overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of southern Africa: B Cairncross JAES 2001
  • 6. Coal deposits of BotswanaTotal resource estimate = 212 billion tonnes• Morupule & Moijabana: faults &dolerite dykes, Morupule – best qualities• Mamabula: Moderate to good mediumash coal, faulting• Letlhakeng: Medium ash, faulting• Dutlwe: low grade high ash, 7 seams• Serule: High ash, medium vols,faulting, rapid facies changes• Foley/Dukwe: Variable quality, someshallow coal.• Pandamatenga: Very deep coal• Bobonong: Poor quality, thin seams• Ncojane: Low quality, high ash, low CV
  • 7. Coal deposits of the DemocraticRepublic of CongoResources = unknown• Very little information available
  • 8. Coal deposits of KenyaResources = 400 million tonnes• Mui basin: Reports on discovery of minable coal (270 MT) subbituminous to biuminous.• Seams: 1-6, thicknesses <1 to 13 m; CV 18MJ/kg
  • 9. Coal deposits of MadagascarResources = 200 million tonnes• Big potential, mined in thepast.• Good quality export thermalcoal reported.
  • 10. Coal deposits of MalawiResources = 800 million tonnes• Sumbu: Highly variable inthickness, continuity and quality.• Chiromo: Deep, very thin.• Ngana: Thin coal seams, low tointermediate quality, some verygood quality coal• Livingstonia: Seams highlyvariable, some good quality coal.
  • 11. Coal deposits of MozambiqueResource = 6.7 billion tonnes• Tete Province: Interlayeredcoal & mudstone, hugeresources, faulting, doleriteintrusions and someopencastable coal. Coking &steam coal• Metangula graben:Interlayered coal & mudstone,smaller resource than Tete,faulting, dolerite intrusions,opencastable coal?
  • 12. Coal deposits of NamibiaResource = unknown• Aranos: Deep coal,relatively thin seams, lowquality with some potential ifwashed, ±350 million tonnes• Waterberg: Varying depth,some potential in north,generally low quality.• Ovambo: Thin seams, lowquality.• Western Damaraland: Verythin seams, low quality.
  • 13. Coal deposits of South AfricaResources = 34 billion tonnes• Witbank, Ermelo & Highveld:Good quality, export coal• Natal (Klip River, Utrecht,Vryheid, Nongoma, Somkele)Anthracite• Eastern Cape (Molteno-Indwe):Low quality• Free State: Relative high ash,low vitrinite• Springbok Flats: Uranium• Waterberg: SSCC, opencastable and deep coal• Vereeniging-Sasolburg: steamcoal• Tuli, Mopanie, Tshipise: somecoke
  • 14. Coal deposits of SwazilandResources = unknown• Small deposits, some good coal, some anthracite.
  • 15. Coal deposits of TanzaniaResource = 1.5 billion tonnes• Ruhuhu : Interbedded coal, 250million tonnes• Mhukuru: Interbedded coal, slightlydipping, high ash, 8 million tonnesresource.• Songwe-Kiwira: Interbedded coal,dipping, 20 million tonnes resource• Galula: Interbedded coal
  • 16. Coal deposits of ZambiaResources = unknown• Zambezi Valley: Low qualitycoal• Gwembe-Kandabwe:Interbedded coal, thicksuccessions• Luano Valley: Complexstructure, high ash content• Luangwa: Coal very thin andhigh ash content• Barotse: Uneven coaldevelopment with variable coalquality.
  • 17. Coal deposits of ZimbabweResource = 10 billion tonnes• Hwange: Very goodcoal, coking properties• Lubimbi: Low grade,good in parts• Other Zambezi basins:Some good, non cokingcoal• Save-Limpopo:Interlayered, low grade,some good areas• Tuli: Interlayered, lowgrade, some coking• Sengwa: No swell, highash
  • 18. Global perspective
  • 19. World Coal DepositsSource: Maps of the World
  • 20. World Fossil Fuel Reserves
  • 21. Coal UsesSource:
  • 22. World ConsumptionSource: BP 2012 Energy Outlook
  • 23. Population Growth
  • 24. Prediction of Coal Production
  • 25. World Energy Sources
  • 26. Global Coal Production (2010)
  • 27. World Coal Consumption (1990 - 2030)
  • 28. Summary• Huge coal resources world wide• Coal will remain an important source of energy• Relatively cheap source of energy and readily available• China: big producer and consumer• Lack of infrastructure a hindrance• Negative sentiment towards coal growing• Clean coal technologies a big plus• Global warming
  • 29. The Southern African potential
  • 30. Earth LightsSource: NASA
  • 31. Electricity consumption per countrySource: CIA World Factbook
  • 32. Coal production and consumption byregionSource: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012
  • 33. Summary• About 6 % of world coal resources (information dated)• Relatively big exporter of coal• Small producer of coal• Small consumer of coal• Small consumer of electricity
  • 34. Unlocking the potential
  • 35. Positives• With beneficiation some export coal available• Africas geographical position• In world terms a small player, won’t have major impact on markets• Will benefit development of some countries
  • 36. Negatives• Infrastructure• Location of deposits• Permian coal quality• Mineable reserves• Political stability• Taxation/Nationalization/Strategic resource
  • 37. Thank You