Unlocking the Southern African coal potential: Opportunities for economic developments and exports


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Johan Swart, Lead Consulting Geologist: Coal, from Golder Associates Africa (Pty) Ltd has presented at the Botswana Coal and Energy Conference. If you would like more information about the conference, please visit the website: http://bit.ly/13MkVsy

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Unlocking the Southern African coal potential: Opportunities for economic developments and exports

  1. 1. Opportunities for economic developments and exportsUnlocking the Southern Africancoal potential
  2. 2. Contents•Coal deposits & Resources• Global perspective•Africa in relation to the world•Export potential
  3. 3. Coal Deposits in AfricaSource: USGS
  4. 4. Karoo Basins South of the EquatorCatuneanu et al: Karoo Basins of South and Central Africa: JAES 2005
  5. 5. Coal Occurrences South of the EquatorAn overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of southern Africa: B Cairncross JAES 2001
  6. 6. Coal deposits of BotswanaTotal resource estimate = 212 billion tonnes• Morupule & Moijabana: faults &dolerite dykes, Morupule – best qualities• Mamabula: Moderate to good mediumash coal, faulting• Letlhakeng: Medium ash, faulting• Dutlwe: low grade high ash, 7 seams• Serule: High ash, medium vols,faulting, rapid facies changes• Foley/Dukwe: Variable quality, someshallow coal.• Pandamatenga: Very deep coal• Bobonong: Poor quality, thin seams• Ncojane: Low quality, high ash, low CV
  7. 7. Coal deposits of the DemocraticRepublic of CongoResources = unknown• Very little information available
  8. 8. Coal deposits of KenyaResources = 400 million tonnes• Mui basin: Reports on discovery of minable coal (270 MT) subbituminous to biuminous.• Seams: 1-6, thicknesses <1 to 13 m; CV 18MJ/kg
  9. 9. Coal deposits of MadagascarResources = 200 million tonnes• Big potential, mined in thepast.• Good quality export thermalcoal reported.
  10. 10. Coal deposits of MalawiResources = 800 million tonnes• Sumbu: Highly variable inthickness, continuity and quality.• Chiromo: Deep, very thin.• Ngana: Thin coal seams, low tointermediate quality, some verygood quality coal• Livingstonia: Seams highlyvariable, some good quality coal.
  11. 11. Coal deposits of MozambiqueResource = 6.7 billion tonnes• Tete Province: Interlayeredcoal & mudstone, hugeresources, faulting, doleriteintrusions and someopencastable coal. Coking &steam coal• Metangula graben:Interlayered coal & mudstone,smaller resource than Tete,faulting, dolerite intrusions,opencastable coal?
  12. 12. Coal deposits of NamibiaResource = unknown• Aranos: Deep coal,relatively thin seams, lowquality with some potential ifwashed, ±350 million tonnes• Waterberg: Varying depth,some potential in north,generally low quality.• Ovambo: Thin seams, lowquality.• Western Damaraland: Verythin seams, low quality.
  13. 13. Coal deposits of South AfricaResources = 34 billion tonnes• Witbank, Ermelo & Highveld:Good quality, export coal• Natal (Klip River, Utrecht,Vryheid, Nongoma, Somkele)Anthracite• Eastern Cape (Molteno-Indwe):Low quality• Free State: Relative high ash,low vitrinite• Springbok Flats: Uranium• Waterberg: SSCC, opencastable and deep coal• Vereeniging-Sasolburg: steamcoal• Tuli, Mopanie, Tshipise: somecoke
  14. 14. Coal deposits of SwazilandResources = unknown• Small deposits, some good coal, some anthracite.
  15. 15. Coal deposits of TanzaniaResource = 1.5 billion tonnes• Ruhuhu : Interbedded coal, 250million tonnes• Mhukuru: Interbedded coal, slightlydipping, high ash, 8 million tonnesresource.• Songwe-Kiwira: Interbedded coal,dipping, 20 million tonnes resource• Galula: Interbedded coal
  16. 16. Coal deposits of ZambiaResources = unknown• Zambezi Valley: Low qualitycoal• Gwembe-Kandabwe:Interbedded coal, thicksuccessions• Luano Valley: Complexstructure, high ash content• Luangwa: Coal very thin andhigh ash content• Barotse: Uneven coaldevelopment with variable coalquality.
  17. 17. Coal deposits of ZimbabweResource = 10 billion tonnes• Hwange: Very goodcoal, coking properties• Lubimbi: Low grade,good in parts• Other Zambezi basins:Some good, non cokingcoal• Save-Limpopo:Interlayered, low grade,some good areas• Tuli: Interlayered, lowgrade, some coking• Sengwa: No swell, highash
  18. 18. Global perspective
  19. 19. World Coal DepositsSource: Maps of the World
  20. 20. World Fossil Fuel Reserves
  21. 21. Coal UsesSource: Visual.ly
  22. 22. World ConsumptionSource: BP 2012 Energy Outlook
  23. 23. Population Growth
  24. 24. Prediction of Coal Production
  25. 25. World Energy Sources
  26. 26. Global Coal Production (2010)
  27. 27. World Coal Consumption (1990 - 2030)
  28. 28. Summary• Huge coal resources world wide• Coal will remain an important source of energy• Relatively cheap source of energy and readily available• China: big producer and consumer• Lack of infrastructure a hindrance• Negative sentiment towards coal growing• Clean coal technologies a big plus• Global warming
  29. 29. The Southern African potential
  30. 30. Earth LightsSource: NASA
  31. 31. Electricity consumption per countrySource: CIA World Factbook
  32. 32. Coal production and consumption byregionSource: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012
  33. 33. Summary• About 6 % of world coal resources (information dated)• Relatively big exporter of coal• Small producer of coal• Small consumer of coal• Small consumer of electricity
  34. 34. Unlocking the potential
  35. 35. Positives• With beneficiation some export coal available• Africas geographical position• In world terms a small player, won’t have major impact on markets• Will benefit development of some countries
  36. 36. Negatives• Infrastructure• Location of deposits• Permian coal quality• Mineable reserves• Political stability• Taxation/Nationalization/Strategic resource
  37. 37. Thank You