0
A Case Study of Redeveloping the
Ecka Granules plant inTasmania
by
Jerry Locatelli
118th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Austral...
JERRY LOCATELLI
 Engineering Manager
 Involved in redevelopment and expansion theTasmanian plant since 1992
 Responsibl...
 Built in 1968 and progressively
redeveloped and expanded from
1991 to date
 Located in NorthernTasmania next
door to th...
4
 Molten metal supplied direct from
the adjacent aluminium smelter
 Atomisation using High
Pressure/Temp. compressed ai...
518th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
 Open powder transfers
 Dust traps...
 It was decided to Redevelop the plant to target the
emerging fine aluminium powder market
 Commission an External Safet...
 Sound design and engineering was recognised as
fundamental to the operation of a Safe Plant
 Understanding the Hazards ...
Dusty products require a multifaceted design approach
to facilitate good house-keeping to minimise the risk of
fugitive du...
9
DUST FREE DESIGN RULES
© Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
10
ELIMINATING DUST TRAPS & LEDGES
© Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
11
SERVICES RUN EXTERNALLY
© Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
12
INSIDE OUT BUILDING
© Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
13
ELIMINATING FLOOR OBSTRUCTIONS
© Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
14© Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
An example of a “de-cluttered” scree...
15© Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
Open powder transfers have became a ...
1610th June 2009 © Ecka Granules Australia Dust Explosions 2009
1. Measuring the properties ofAluminium Powder
2. Performi...
1718th June 2014
Explosibility of Common Dusts
Type of Dust
Ignition
Sensitivity
Explosion
Severity Explosibility Index
Du...
18th June 2014 18
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 50 100 150 200 250
MinimumExplosiveConcentration-MEC-g/m3
Average Particle Si...
Dust properties assumed to apply plant-wide
19
 Aluminium fines < 10 microns
 MIE ~10 milliJoules
 Kst ~ 800 bar.m/sec
...
20
Line of Tolerable Risk: 1 x Medical
Treatment
Injury (MTI)
1 x
Compensible
Injury (CI) or
10 x MTI's 10 x CI's
1 x
Perm...
10th June 2009 © Ecka Granules Australia Dust Explosions 2009 21
The Hazard & Operability Study (HAZOP) method is
consider...
2218th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
Powder Plant Safety Design Principl...
 HardWired trips on critical equipment
 Critical equipment monitoring
 Fail safe device handling
 Multiple Safety Laye...
24
DUCT CONVEYING EXPLOSIVE DUST
– EXAMPLE OF MULTIPLE SAFETY LAYERS
1. Dust
Concentration
50% of M.E.C.
2. Explosion
vent...
 Today, the plant at Bell Bay inTasmania sets the
standard for Safe Design and Operation within the
Global Ecka Granules ...
26
Thank You
18th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
We Researched the causes of serious dust explosions
occurring in our industry since the 1960s and this revealed
explosions...
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Jerry Locatelli - ECKA GRANULES AUSTRALIA - Case Study: Converting an old plant to a dust free facility

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Jerry Locatelli delivered the presentation at the 2014 Dust Explosions Conference.

The 2014 Dust Explosions Conference examined industrial hazards, the means to control or eliminate dust and analysed the latest technology to ensure the maximum protection and safety of organizations. The event also featured recent industrial case studies and new safety recommendations.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://www.informa.com.au/dust14

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Transcript of "Jerry Locatelli - ECKA GRANULES AUSTRALIA - Case Study: Converting an old plant to a dust free facility"

  1. 1. A Case Study of Redeveloping the Ecka Granules plant inTasmania by Jerry Locatelli 118th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  2. 2. JERRY LOCATELLI  Engineering Manager  Involved in redevelopment and expansion theTasmanian plant since 1992  Responsible for all engineering design and construction THE PLANT  Produces aluminium granules and aluminium powder products  Aluminium Granules are mostly sold locally  Aluminium Powder sales are mainly exported ECKA GRANULES  Largest producer of metal powders in the world  Other plants located in Europe, Middle East, China and USA 218th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  3. 3.  Built in 1968 and progressively redeveloped and expanded from 1991 to date  Located in NorthernTasmania next door to the PacificAluminium Smelter  Output has increased from 2,000 tpa in 1991 to about 18,000 tpa in 2014  Currently employs 43 people 318th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  4. 4. 4  Molten metal supplied direct from the adjacent aluminium smelter  Atomisation using High Pressure/Temp. compressed air from two atomising lines  Collection of powder in High EfficiencyCyclones  Screening and Packaging of powders from 4µ to 400µ in an inert atmosphere.  Shipping in FIBCs, Steel Drums and Paper Sacks 18th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014 COARSE POWDER MEDIUM POWDER ~SCREENING~ ~GRANULE CASTING~ SCREEN SUPER FINE GRANULES ~POWDER COLLECTION~ MOLTEN METAL ATOMISED POWDER SUPERFINE FINE POWDER FINE SCREENED SUPER FINE SECONDARY CYCLONESPRIMARY CYCLONES ~ATOMISING~ CLASSIFIER
  5. 5. 518th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014  Open powder transfers  Dust traps in buildings  Drains blocked with powder  Electrical equipment was not all ignition proof  Mechanical equipment had unacceptable ignition risks
  6. 6.  It was decided to Redevelop the plant to target the emerging fine aluminium powder market  Commission an External Safety Audit by a recognised Safety Engineering group:  Improve housekeeping and address dust leakage  Implement urgent Safety Audit measures , such as upgrading equipment earthing and removal of some hazardous process equipment  Development of Engineering Process to be adopted for the Plant Redevelopment Plan 618th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  7. 7.  Sound design and engineering was recognised as fundamental to the operation of a Safe Plant  Understanding the Hazards and consistent, quantified Risk Assessment was also considered important  A set of Engineering Safety Principles was developed to address the particular issues relating to processing Aluminium Powder  Process control and Safety Systems 718th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  8. 8. Dusty products require a multifaceted design approach to facilitate good house-keeping to minimise the risk of fugitive dust causing secondary explosions, such as:  Dust free design (minimising dust traps)  Externally run services (cables and piping)  Inside-out buildings (with no internal framing)  Smooth floors with minimal obstructions  Total Product Containment to minimise fugitive dust 818th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  9. 9. 9 DUST FREE DESIGN RULES © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
  10. 10. 10 ELIMINATING DUST TRAPS & LEDGES © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
  11. 11. 11 SERVICES RUN EXTERNALLY © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
  12. 12. 12 INSIDE OUT BUILDING © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
  13. 13. 13 ELIMINATING FLOOR OBSTRUCTIONS © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
  14. 14. 14© Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014 An example of a “de-cluttered” screen setup installed in a building designed without dust collecting ledges
  15. 15. 15© Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014 Open powder transfers have became a thing of the past
  16. 16. 1610th June 2009 © Ecka Granules Australia Dust Explosions 2009 1. Measuring the properties ofAluminium Powder 2. Performing a Risk Analysis on each process utilising a FaultTree Analysis method to achieve a design Fatal Accident Rate (FAR) target of less than 2.0 for the entire plant 3. Perform a HAZOP analysis on each process
  17. 17. 1718th June 2014 Explosibility of Common Dusts Type of Dust Ignition Sensitivity Explosion Severity Explosibility Index Dust Explosion Class Aluminium superfines 7.3 >10.2 >70.0 St 3 Polyethylene 24 2.2 52.8 Sulfur 20.2 1.9 38.4 Magnesium 3.0 7.4 22.2 Polystyrene 6.0 2.0 12.0 Aluminium fines 1.4 >7.7 >10.0 Aspirin 2.4 >4.3 >10.0 Sugar 4.0 2.4 9.6 St 2 Grain dust 2.8 3.3 9.24 Rubber 4.6 1.6 7.36 Flour 2.1 1.8 3.78 Vitamin C 1.0 2.2 2.2 Milk, powdered 1.6 0.9 1.44 Coal (Pittsburgh) 1.0 1.0 1.0 Egg white <0.1 0.2 0.02 St 1Coffee bean 0.1 0.1 0.01 Cotton <0.1 <0.1 <0.01 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  18. 18. 18th June 2014 18 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 MinimumExplosiveConcentration-MEC-g/m3 Average Particle Size, microns Variation of Explosive Concentration with particle size - Aluminium Powder 0.0 0.2 2.0 20.0 10 100 Variation in Explosibility with Particle Size - Aluminium Powder Average Particle Size - Microns ExplosibilityIndex SUPERFINE FINE POWDER MEDIUM POWDER COARSE POWDER © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  19. 19. Dust properties assumed to apply plant-wide 19  Aluminium fines < 10 microns  MIE ~10 milliJoules  Kst ~ 800 bar.m/sec  Pmax ~ 13 bar  Minimum Explosive Concentration = 35 g/m3  Estimated explosive energy is approx. 3 xTNT 18th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  20. 20. 20 Line of Tolerable Risk: 1 x Medical Treatment Injury (MTI) 1 x Compensible Injury (CI) or 10 x MTI's 10 x CI's 1 x Permanent Disablement (PD) 1 x Fatality 10 x Fatalities Frequent: ≥1 per year Medium/Low (10) Medium (100) High (1,000) Very High (10,000) Severe (100,000) Very Severe (1,000,000) Possible: < 1 per year (but ≥ 0.1 per year) Low (1) Medium/Low (10) Medium (100) High (1,000) Very High (10,000) Severe (100,000) Unlikely: < 0.1 per year (but > 0.01 per year) Low (0.1) Low (1) Medium/Low (10) Medium (100) High (1,000) Very High (10,000) Very Unlikely: < 0.01 per year (but ≥ 0.001 per year) Low (0.01) Low (0.1) Low (1) Medium/Low (10) Medium (100) High (1,000) Barely Credible: < 0.001 per year (but ≥ 0.0001 per year) Low (0.01) Low (0.01) Low (0.1) Low (1) Medium/Low (10) Medium (100) Low (1) Medium/Low (10) Note: Risk Reduction Factors (RRF) shown in brackets Low (1) Target is to stay below the red line in the green box area © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 201418th June 2014
  21. 21. 10th June 2009 © Ecka Granules Australia Dust Explosions 2009 21 The Hazard & Operability Study (HAZOP) method is considered an essential tool to:  Validate the safe design of each process  Ensure the process can be operated and maintained safely and efficiently  Examine the effects of process deviations and failures  Involve Operators, Maintainers & technicians in the design process
  22. 22. 2218th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014 Powder Plant Safety Design Principles The following is a list of ten major safety design principles employed by Ecka Granules Australia to minimise the risk of personnel injury due to a powder explosion or fire. 1. Separation of personnel from non-inert processes. One of the mosteffective means of avoiding personnel injury in hazardous plants is the use of separation. Personnel located over 15 m from an aluminium powder explosion will be unlikely to sustain serious injuries. 2. Explosion venting of non-inert processes is used to reduce the peak pressure generated in vessels and ducts resulting from an explosion to a level which minimises the risk of injury to personnel. Explosion venting at ECKA GRANULES Is designed to comply with the NFPA 68 standard. (NFPA= National Fire Prevention Association, USA). 3. Operation of non inert processes safely below the MEC(Minimum Explosive Concentration) Powder concentration In conveying ductwork and fan is maintained below 50 % of the MEC to ensure that there is insufficient concentration of powder for an explosion to take place, however operation below the MEC cannot be achieved in the cyclones where a regionIn the explosive range is unavoidable. 4. Inert gas blanketing of all processes where practical. The use of nitrogen with 3% oxygen eliminates the risk of explosion by the exclusion of sufficient oxygen for ignition, whilst ensuring some oxygen is present to oxidise any newly created surfaces. This is effectively used in the screening and powder handling areas. 5. Use of non-sparking conductive materials, earth bonding and Intrinsically Safe or DIP(Dust-excluding Ignition Proof) electrical systems. This eliminates the major sources of ignition resulting from electrical and electrostatic discharge and sparking due to impact. 6. Avoid use of mechanical moving parts where possible. This reduces the likelihood of ignition caused by friction, heat or sparks resulting from mechanical equipment failure. Where high energy mechanical devices cannot be isolated from explosive or flammable materials, personnel are excluded from the danger zone by fencing. 7. Fail safe, independent, instrumented automated shutdown systems . The use of automated systems to shutdown the plant in the event of malfunction ensures a fast unambiguous response in time to avoid potentially hazardous incidents. 8. Fully sealed transfer systemsto ensure total containment of powder and the minimisation of fugitive emissions. 9. Elimination of dust accumulation by dust free designof equipment and structures. By designing equipment and structures to minimise the accumulation of dust, areas can be easily kept clean and a potential safety hazard thus minimised. 10.Minimisation of process inventory. The minimisation of powder inventory in process ensures that the least amount of fuel is available in the event of a fire or explosion.
  23. 23.  HardWired trips on critical equipment  Critical equipment monitoring  Fail safe device handling  Multiple Safety Layers 2318th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  24. 24. 24 DUCT CONVEYING EXPLOSIVE DUST – EXAMPLE OF MULTIPLE SAFETY LAYERS 1. Dust Concentration 50% of M.E.C. 2. Explosion venting in duct 3. 15 m exclusion zone around duct 18th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  25. 25.  Today, the plant at Bell Bay inTasmania sets the standard for Safe Design and Operation within the Global Ecka Granules Group  This has been achieved through  Sound Design  Engineered Risk Control  Safe Design Principles  Fail Safe Control and Protective Systems  And through the dedication and professionalism of our Production and Maintenance teams 2518th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  26. 26. 26 Thank You 18th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
  27. 27. We Researched the causes of serious dust explosions occurring in our industry since the 1960s and this revealed explosions were associated with the following equipment:  Bag houses  Vacuum cleaners  Star feeders  Screw conveyors  Bucket elevators So we decided not to use them at the Bell Bay plant. 2718th June 2014 © Ecka Granules Australia 5th Informa Dust Explosions Conference 2014
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