Gary gibson, acarp roadway development improvement project
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Gary gibson, acarp roadway development improvement project Gary gibson, acarp roadway development improvement project Presentation Transcript

  • Improving Roadway Development – The Key to Profitable Longwall Mining
  • The mantra at most mines: ►It’s the longwall that makes the dollars and pays the bills …….. ►The longwall is the client and therefore determines what and how we develop and support gateroads So how do we improve longwall profitability? ►Allowing longwalls to produce to nameplate capacity unconstrained by longwall discontinuities ►Improving development performance and reducing overall development costs So how do we improve development performance? ►Firstly need to understand current performance levels and the improvement opportunities which abound My views and not necessarily those of ACARP and the Roadway Development Task Group The Key to Longwall Profitability
  • Roadway Development 2011/12 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Less than 5,000 5,000-10,000 10,001-15000 15,001-20,000 20,001-25,000 Greater than 25,000 Roadway Development (m) Australian Longwall Mines 2011-2012 420 km of development per annum across 30 longwall mines – mains, gateroads, install faces, etc On average, 13-14 km/annum roadway development per mine (range 4.5 – 32 km per annum) Gut feel estimate – annual spend on development $1.5B - $2B View slide
  • Roadway Development 2011/12 0 5 10 15 20 25 Annualised Development Rate Australian Longwall Mines 2011-2012 (m/CM/annum) Average 4,012 m/CM/annum  Best practice development rates of 10-11 km/CM/annum or 190-220 m/week/CM ► down from 14-15 km/annum/CM or +300 m/week/CM in 2006/07  Average development rates of 4,012 m/annum/CM equivalent to 80-90 m/week/CM  78% of mines employed 3 or more development units  35% of mines routinely utilised mining contractors in development View slide
  • Preliminary results suggest a softening of development performance at a number of mines ►cost reduction initiatives including reduced operating hours and a tightening of manning levels? ►more selective use of contractors? A few mines are continuing to champion improved development performance with enhanced technologies and practices ►Mandalong with their application of monorails and auto-cut system ►Ulan West with their development of people and process (and soon to be monorail and 4FCT) No self drilling roofbolts being installed in development despite proven 15% improvement in advance rates ►SD roofbolts and rib bolts being adopted in longwall face bolt ups while 2 mines are using SD rib bolts in development Roadway Development 2012/13
  • Industry-wide factors have impacted development rates in recent years Pursuit of metres at any cost and a rapid doubling of workforce levels ►a dilution of skills and experience - most new starters initially allocated to development ►training sector’s response both onerous and of limited operational benefit Lead time to develop supervisory skills and experience following earlier rationalisations Adoption of engineering and administrative controls in lieu of engineering-out hazards associated with bolting operations (ie; MDG35.1) – lack of suitable technologies Failure of new generation equipment to meet design specifications and claimed performance levels A broad and sustained focus on zero harm - people consumed in safety systems paperwork and failing to manage by walking around Factors Impacting Roadway Development
  • Mine level factors have also impacted development rates Increasing tendency to install long tendons as part of the primary support process - extended face advance cycles Sub-optimal manning of development crews – 3-4 man crews ►Inability to effectively operate multiple bolting rigs concurrently – extended bolting times ►Single shuttle car operation – extended wheeling times ►Extended panel advances and flits Slow and tenuous take-up of new technologies (eg: Sandvik’s auto-cut) Limited utilisation of on-board cycle time monitoring systems for process monitoring and improvement Failure to recognise and identify the nature and extent of real time operating delays – missed improvement opportunities Factors Impacting Roadway Development
  • Understanding Operating Time and Rate 3.2 8.2 31.3 48.5 75.9 Hours/Week Unscheduled Time External Idle time Total Maintenance time Operational Delays Operating Time Average Development Rate 164 m/week 2.2 MPOH Mine A 2.6 15.2 18.6 51.6 76.7 Hours/Week Unscheduled Time External Idle time Total Maintenance time Operational Delays Operating Time Mine B Average Development Rate 90 m/week 1.2 MPOH 84.2 4.4 17.2 28.9 29.7 Hours/Week Unscheduled Time External Idle time Total Maintenance time Operational Delays Operating Time Average Development Rate 60 m/week 2.2 MPOH Mine C 33.7 10.5 23.9 43.4 55.1 Hours/Week Unscheduled Time External Idle time Total Maintenance time Operational Delays Operating Time Group Overall Average Development Rate 95 m/week 1.7 MPOH
  • The big learnings from analysis of 3 years of roadway development performance Operating Delays are almost twice Total Maintenance time - 1.8:1 (range 1.3 – 2.8:1) Operating delays to Operating time is 0.8:1 (range 0.6 – 1.1:1) Half Operating time is lost in unreported operating delays - Unreported operating delays/Actual operating hours 1:1 Metres per Actual Operating hour (2.4 – 4.8 MPOH) are double that reported (1.2 – 2.4 MPOH) The Big Learnings Increase Operating time &/or Increase Operating rate = Improved m/week
  • Other thoughts on roadway development The process is not under (statistical) control Question whether management has (operational) control over the process Question whether 40 years on, the industry fully understands the nature of the inherent constraints in the process – investing in the wrong solutions Factors Impacting Roadway Development
  • A Process Under Control? Number of Canopy Sets 19 Total Pump Time 8:38:22 Number of Cutting Cycles 19 Total Cutting Time 0:32:53 Average Cycle Time 0:28:36 Total Bolting Time 3:27:04 Average SC Delay 0:05:53 Bolt While Cut Ratio 33% Number of Canopy Sets 16 Total Pump Time 6:30:44 Number of Cutting Cycles 15 Total Cutting Time 0:28:32 Average Cycle Time 0:29:55 Total Bolting Time 2:17:20 Average SC Delay 0:10:49 Bolt While Cut Ratio 28%
  • A Process Under Control? Number of Canopy Sets 19 Total Pump Time 6:37:38 Number of Cutting Cycles 19 Total Cutting Time 0:36:53 Average Cycle Time 0:25:28 Total Bolting Time 2:18:03 Average SC Delay 0:04:36 Bolt While Cut Ratio 34% Number of Canopy Sets 23 Total Pump Time 7:01:52 Number of Cutting Cycles 20 Total Cutting Time 0:34:14 Average Cycle Time 0:17:20 Total Bolting Time 2:28:52 Average SC Delay 0:01:40 Bolt While Cut Ratio 39%
  • Use of process cycle logs provide an opportunity to review performance of individual crews Systems available today typically fail to provide real time feedback to operators, the people who can effect real time improvement A Process Under Control?
  • A Process Under Control? Cut first part of cycle/first SC Shuttle car travel to boot and return Cut second part of cycle/second SC Shuttle car travel to boot and return Roofbolter #1 Roofbolter #2 Roofbolter #3 Roofbolter #4 Ribbolter #1 Ribbolter #2 Position CM Roof mesh into place Set stabiliser Position drill rig Locate and position drill steel Drill first pass Retract drill steel and rack Locate and position bolt dolly Locate and position bolt washer Locate and insert roof bolt into drill mast Locate and insert chemical anchor Move bolt into position, advance and rotate bolt Wait for resin to harden Retract drill head Remove bolt dolly and rack Reposition drill rig Locate and position rib mesh Locate and position drill steel Drill first pass Retract drill steel and rack Locate and position bolt dolly Locate and position bolt washer Locate and insert bolt into drill mast Locate and insert chemical anchor Move bolt into position, advance and rotate bolt Wait for resin to harden Retract drill head Remove bolt dolly and rack Reposition drill rig Locate and position drill steel Drill first pass Retract drill steel and rack Locate and position bolt dolly Locate and position bolt washer Locate and insert bolt into drill mast Locate and insert chemical anchor Move bolt into position, advance and rotate bolt Wait for resin to harden Retract drill head Remove bolt dolly and rack Reposition drill rig Position CM One metre face advance cycle – 6 roof bolts and 4 rib bolts Bolter-Miner
  • A Process Under Control? Cut first part of cycle/first SC Shuttle car travel to boot and return Cut second part of cycle/second SC Shuttle car travel to boot and return Roofbolter #1 Roofbolter #2 Roofbolter #3 Roofbolter #4 Ribbolter #1 Ribbolter #2 Position CM Roof mesh into place Set stabiliser Position drill rig Locate and position drill steel Drill first pass Retract drill steel and rack Locate and position bolt dolly Locate and position bolt washer Locate and insert roof bolt into drill mast Locate and insert chemical anchor Move bolt into position, advance and rotate bolt Wait for resin to harden Retract drill head Remove bolt dolly and rack Reposition drill rig Locate and position rib mesh Locate and position drill steel Drill first pass Retract drill steel and rack Locate and position bolt dolly Locate and position bolt washer Locate and insert roof bolt into drill mast Locate and insert chemical anchor Move bolt into position, advance and rotate bolt Wait for resin to harden Retract drill head Remove bolt dolly and rack Reposition drill rig Locate and position drill steel Drill first pass Retract drill steel and rack Locate and position bolt dolly Locate and position bolt washer Locate and insert bolt into drill mast Locate and insert chemical anchor Move bolt into position, advance and rotate bolt Wait for resin to harden Retract drill head Remove bolt dolly and rack Reposition drill rig Position CM One metre face advance cycle – 6 roof bolts and 4 rib bolts Bolter-Miner Material being handled Implement being handled Control being handled
  • Face Advance Cycle Each metre advance cycle is repeated 250 times or more each pillar ►as opposed to 30-40 pillar cycles per gateroad ►(or 450 times or more each pillar when each shuttle car load or half-metre advance represents a new cycle with miner-bolters) 33 individual support materials (eg; bolts, washers, resins, mesh) and 40 implements (eg; drill steels, dollies) are handled and manipulated each metre advance, with over 50 control operations also being initiated With current levels of mechanisation/automation, the number of operators utilised has a significant impact on cycle times Each individual action subject to variation due to human, equipment and environmental factors Controllable??? A Process Under Control?
  • Everyone knows but do we understand? Batch haulage systems are a major determinant in development of high capacity (+20 tpm) continuous miners – cut and load it fast to minimise cycle times With batch haulage, gateroad development typically becomes haulage constrained 60-70 m from boot-end ►pillar development cycle haulage constrained for >80% of the pillar cycle Size and configuration of current continuous miners limit the number, placement, and ability to concurrently operate roof and rib bolters Also limits the capacity for on-board storage of support materials, and the ability to retrofit automated materials handling systems Batch haulage systems typically utilise 70% of roadway thereby limiting access to and resupply of face Application of continuous haulage systems will result in the pillar development cycle being support constrained 100% of the time Understanding the Inherent Constraints
  • Understanding the Inherent Constraints?
  • Based on the premise that the rate of goal achievement is limited by at least one constraining process Only by increasing the rate of flow through the constraint can overall throughput be increased Five focussing steps utilised to Identify, Exploit, Subordinate and Elevate the constraint, and to overcome Inertia From a development perspective essential to understand whether the process is wheeling constrained or support constrained ►If wheeling constrained introducing measures to improve support performance will achieve nothing, and vv – SDB? ►Many mines have bought new equipment only to find there was another constraint that limited performance WE Deming Your system is perfectly designed to get the results that you get Processes Improvement - Theory of Constraints
  • Improving Roadway Development Performance urr    -   -  –          -   —      -     
  • Requires a focus on 4 key elements – people, process, equipment, and the environment (or organisation) Improving Roadway Development Performance
  • Providing the organisational leadership, support and resources to achieve and sustain improvement Engaging and involving personnel in continuous improvement coupled with developing the necessary skills and competencies Establishing, implementing, sustaining and improving safe and efficient roadway development processes and work methods Improving the fitness for purpose and effectiveness of current development equipment ►will ultimately require development of an engineered, integrated, new generation gateroad development system ►hazards engineered-out and improved availability, reliability and performance engineered-in Improving Roadway Development Performance
  • Established in 2005 to identify, foster, and support R&D aimed at improving roadway development – ultimate objective to improve longwall sustainability CM2010 Roadway Development R&D Strategy developed in 2007 to provide framework and direction for research Roadway Development Task Group
  • CM2010 Roadway Development R&D Vision An integrated, remotely supervised high capacity roadway development mining system capable of sustaining a 15 Mtpa longwall mine with a single (gateroad) mining unit System will also enable mining to be safely undertaken under adverse or extreme mining conditions, thereby opening up access to reserves previously considered un-mineable Measures Sustained performance rate of 10 MPOH for 20 hours per day, based on installing primary support of 6 roof and 2 rib bolts per metre advance including roof and rib confinement (mesh) Improved health and safety through reduced exposure to hazards in the immediate face area
  • CM2010 Focus – Enabling Technologies Remotely Supervised Continuous Miner Automated Installation of Roof and Rib Support Continuous and/or Automated Haulage Integrated Panel Services Improved Engineering Availability Planning, Organisation and Process Control People Behaviours and Skills Project Management of R&D Projects High Capacity Roadway Development System Engagement of Corporate Sector, OEMs, and Mines Key enabling technologies – ACARP’s primary focus Organisational capabilities and competencies – responsibility of mines Project implementation and management - ACARP’s secondary role
  • Key learnings from CM2010 include: The limitations of batch haulage systems and the constraints they impose on gateroad development process ►a pillar development cycle which is haulage constrained for >80% of the cycle ►large and ungainly continuous miners which limit ●the number, placement, and ability to concurrently operate roof and rib bolters ●the capacity for any substantive on-board storage of support materials ●the ability to retrofit automated materials handling systems ►utilise 70% of roadway and limit access to and resupply of face Continuous haulage systems will result in the pillar cycle being support constrained 100% of the time CM2010 Learnings
  • Key learnings from CM2010 include: Application of administrative and engineering controls are a poor substitute for designing hazards out of system ►MDG35.1 reportedly impacted development performance (30%) ►Proximity detection and collision avoidance systems could potentially further impact performance Resupply of strata support materials becomes a major logistics issue as development rates improve ►number and nature of materials being handled ►need to maintain continuity of supply, and ►operation of the coal haulage system within the same roadway Existing roadway development process is mismatched and poorly integrated ►limits overall system utilisation to <30% ►a highly integrated, engineered solution is required CM2010 Learnings (cont)
  • The RDTG’s vision is to ensure a sustainable Australian underground coal mining industry: Remove exposure of persons to hazards associated with the roadway development process Optimize development system efficiency and productivity Supports overall mine productivity 2020 Roadway Development Vision
  • The solution is an integrated development process that: Mines, loads and transports product Supports roof and ribs Delivers and handles strata support and other consumables Advances face services Supports efficient (safe and ergonomic) human interaction with system Provides an information system that allows effective management of the process Facilitates effective maintenance Minimises the total cost of development Meets Australian mining requirements Roadway Development 2020 Specifications
  • An Integrated Development Process Stakeholder Engagement Enabling Technologies and Systems Key Process Elements Improved Engineering Availability People Behaviour and Skills Planning, Organisation and Process Control Project Management of R&D Projects Organisational Competencies Implementation Strategies Strata Support Materials Handling Self Steered Continuous Miner Automated Strata Support Continuous Haulage Face Services High Capacity Roadway Development System
  • Enabling Technologies and Systems Enabling Technologies and Systems integrating the five key process elements: Seam, strata and structure sensing systems Navigation and seam following capabilities and systems Programmable cutting and loading including product flow and sizing control  Automated drilling and bolting systems and associated handling and positioning systems Automated drilling and bolting systems and associated handling and positioning systems Automated long tendon drilling, handling, positioning and installation systems Self-advancing and/or integrated services handling systems Integrated, continuous haulage system
  • Enabling Technologies and Systems Enabling Technologies and Systems integrating the five key process elements: Strata support materials handling and logistics systems Navigation and/or remote steering and control systems for ancillary equipment Proximity detection and collision avoidance systems Environmental monitoring systems Machine control interfaces and protocols High speed, multi channel communications systems and protocols On-board data processing systems
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D ACARP has invested $14M since 2005 in pursuit of improved roadway development performance: Self Steered Continuous Miner (C18023 and C22015) Seam Following Technologies (C22014) Automated Bolt and Mesh Handling System C17018 Polymeric Skin Confinement System - ToughSkin (C20041) Rapid Advance Conveyor (C20034) Self Advancing Monorail (C20035) Continuous Haulage Systems (C21025, C22005, C22009, C22011 and C22018)
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D Self Steered Continuous Miner (C18023/C22015) – CSIRO Mining Technology Objective is to develop self-steering technologies which enable remote operation of CM and remove personnel from immediate face area LASC Inertial Navigation System (INS) has been further developed and refined, with ‘’motion detect’’ signal being utilised rather than full velocity sensing ology is being simplified to r 20 cm maximum cross track (ie; off roadway centre line) error after 2.7 km, 2.5hour “two heading” roadway pattern above ground trails (as per video) System currently in process of being fitted to a MB650 and 12CM30 for underground trials early 2014
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D Results from testing of the Phoenix mounted CM navigation system navigating through a two entry gateroad layout at the Ebenezer Mine test site 20 cm cross track – matches and betters most deputies and CM drivers!
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D Seam Following Technologies (C22014) - CSIRO Mining Technology We have developed ways to accurately locate and steer mining machinery We lack ways to measure the location of the coal resource during mining extraction The next major advance in automation will be based on geological resource sensing
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D Seam Following Technologies (C22014) - CSIRO Mining Technology Explores radar-based coal seam thickness measurement technology to deliver a quantitative and enhanced sensor performanceTargetsan essential technology component needed to achieve automated mining horizon control capabilityImpacts throughenhanced productivity and safety for CM and LW operations through the provision of new in-situ seam information
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D Automated Bolt and Mesh Handling System C17018 - UOW Objective - develop technologies to integrate and automate 9 discrete manual functions using up to 8 different strata support consumables through 15 parallel handling processes : ►Roof bolts and washers (4 bolting rigs) ►Rib Bolts and washers (2 bolting rigs) - including provision for steel and/or “plastic” bolts and washers ►Roof mesh (steel) ►Rib meshing (steel) Automated strata support is fundamental to full automation of the roadway development process and reducing exposure to hazards at the immediate face
  • UOW Automated Bolting and Meshing
  • UOW Automated Bolting and Meshing
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D
  • Roadway Development R&D Polymeric Skin Confinement System – ToughSkin (C20041) - UOW Objective is to develop a spray applied polymeric skin confinement system as an alternative to steel mesh –with automation of bolting will enable personnel to be removed from immediate face area Prototype FRAS rated polymer formulation has been developed with superior skin confinement capabilities Focus shifting to development of application system BASF recently commenced due diligence with a view to partnering with UOW for product optimisation, regulatory testing and approval, and commercialisation
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D Self Advancing Monorail (C20035) - UOW Objective - to develop a system which would allow monorails to be extended behind the CM without manual intervention Key challenge identified was manipulating and installing chain hung fittings off roof bolts Project completed recently with demonstration at Macquarie Manufacturing Technology could be readily adapted to advancing longwall services monorail
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D 10 MPOH Continuous Haulage Systems (C21025/C22018)  C21025 identified 5 conveying technologies with potential for incorporation into a 10 MPOH gateroad development CHS  Gateroad development CHS ► Low, continuous capacity 10 MPOH – 300-500 tph ► Utilised in gateroad panel configuration with long pillars (+100 m) ► Small profile to facilitate strata support materials resupply Scott Technology’s Enclosed Belt System (Innovative Conveying System)
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D 10 MPOH Continuous Haulage Systems (C21025/C22018)  3 technologies progressed to final submission phase for 2014 funding - based on developing a 60 m long industry scale prototype system for extensive trialling in an above ground 120 m long, simulated gateroad panel ► Sandvik’s CH500 ► Premron’s Enclosed Belt System ► Scott Technology’s Enclosed Belt System (Innovative Conveying System) Sandvik CH500 Schematic of 60 m Trial
  • ACARP Roadway Development R&D
  • Continuous Haulage Systems ►complete Stage 2 R&D - developing a 60 m long industry scale prototype system for trialling in an above ground 120 m long, simulated gateroad panel ►underground trials of a compliant prototype system Strata Support Handling and Installation Systems ►adaption of automated bolt and mesh handling system for conventional resin anchored bolts and resin cartridges ►integrate automated bolt and handling systems with automated bolting technologies ►mechanise handling and installation of long tendons, including integration with automated bolt handling and installation systems ►develop technologies and systems to integrate coal haulage and strata support materials handling systems R&D Priorities 2014 and Beyond
  • Continuous Miner Automation ►underground trials of CSIRO’s CM navigation system, including mine- to-plan capability ►development of seam following technologies together with underground trials of these technologies ►incorporate auto-cut technologies to achieve full remote operating capability Other Enabling Technologies ►seam, strata and structure sensing system to enable ground conditions to be established in advance of the mining face ►rapid deploying conveyor systems to reduce the duration of panel advances while eliminating/minimising manual handling of components Develop an EMESRT style industry standard for an engineered, integrated new generation roadway development system R&D Priorities 2014 and Beyond
  • The Vision – An Integrated System
  • Acknowledgements Special acknowledgement and thanks to the key researchers and their teams involved with ACARP’s Roadway Development Improvement research projects Acknowledgement also to the various OEMs who have contributed illustrations including; Scott Technology, Sandvik, Premron E-BS, Herrenknecht Acknowledgement also to the ACARP’s Roadway Development Task Group – it has been an interesting journey