Eva Hussain -Polaron Language Services - Young Multicultural groups
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Eva Hussain -Polaron Language Services - Young Multicultural groups



Eva Hussain delivered the presentation at the 2014 Young People at Risk Forum. ...

Eva Hussain delivered the presentation at the 2014 Young People at Risk Forum.

The 2014 Young People at Risk Forum reviewed the challenges and solutions surrounding intervention programs around topics such as suicide prevention, substance abuse, mental health, education, employment and housing. Additionally, the forum focused on culturally competent care and care within Aboriginal communities.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://www.informa.com.au/yprisk14



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Eva Hussain -Polaron Language Services - Young Multicultural groups Presentation Transcript

  • 1. www.polaron.com.au Young Multicultural Groups Eva Hussain Polaron
  • 2. www.polaron.com.au
  • 3. www.polaron.com.au Eva Hussain 2 truths and 1 lie about me • I am Jewish • I converted to Islam in 1989 • I am a grandmother Which one is a lie?
  • 4. www.polaron.com.au Eva Hussain More about me • Born in Poland, left in 1985 • Came to Australia via France in 1986 • No English, no money, no idea • I was only 18
  • 5. www.polaron.com.au Eva Hussain So what happened? • Nurses strike 1986 • Jewish Welfare • Women’s refuges • First job • Back to school
  • 6. www.polaron.com.au Words matter • Multicultural? • CALD? • Ethnic? • Foreign? • Wog? • Diverse? • Different? • Greek-Australian • Australian-Greek? • Person?
  • 7. www.polaron.com.au What is CALD No consistent definition Groups and individuals who differ according to religion, race, language and ethnicity (exc. Anglo-Saxon, Anglo Celtic, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander background people) Key Indicators: Born in a non-English speaking country Speaks a language other than English at home Low proficiency in English Born in Australia with at least one parent who was born overseas in a non-English speaking country
  • 8. www.polaron.com.au Experiences of CALD communities CALD communities are diverse and services need to account for and respect the differences between communities and their needs. There is no “one size fits all” solution or approach. CALD communities are encouraged to be active partners, not passive service recipients. People from CALD communities may experience a range of barriers and difficulties in accessing services. Fear and distrust related to accessing programs may relate to issues of grief, trauma and loss associated with experiences in either Australia or their country of origin. Cultural and language barriers, fear of breaches of confidentiality and stigmatisation from within and outside their communities may also affect willingness and ability to access services.
  • 9. www.polaron.com.au 9 Experiences of CALD communities • Lack knowledge of their rights and responsibilities in Australia • Lack knowledge or are confused about the roles of different services • Prefer to use face-to-face services • May have difficulty communicating in English • May not be familiar with services available and therefore not access them • Be low in numbers but have very high support needs • Have evolving needs which may pose a challenge to service providers • Be more comfortable using informal support and information networks • Experience loss or lack of extended family and community supports
  • 10. www.polaron.com.au Statistics • 27% of our population born overseas (UK, NZ, China, Italy, India, Vietnam) • ~20% speak a LOTE at home • ~25% of suicides in Australia are of people born overseas • Since 1947, 750,000+ people came as refugees to Australia • ~13,770 visas under Humanitarian Program per year in 08/09/10/11/12 • 20,019 visas under Humanitarian Program in 2012/13 • Countries: Iraq, Afghanistan, Myanmar/Burma, Bhutan, Congo (DRC) Iran, Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia • 59% of new entrants were under 25 on arrival (2005-2010). • Refugees are more likely to experience mental health issues • Young refugees are 10 x more likely to become homeless
  • 11. www.polaron.com.au Statistics • 300+ languages are spoken in Australia, including approximately 45 Aboriginal languages (600 + at European settlement) • 100+ religions are practiced • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people make up 2.3% of the total population of Australia. • AUSLAN is the main language of 6,500 Australians
  • 12. www.polaron.com.au Fastest growing languages in Australia Punjabi Mandarin Arabic Hindi Vietnamese Tagalog Korean French Indonesian
  • 13. www.polaron.com.au Language spoken at home - capital cities Perth 2011 2006 Only English – 77.8% Only English – 80.4% Italian – 1.6% Italian – 2.0% Mandarin – 1.5% Mandarin – 1.1% Cantonese – 1.0% Cantonese – 1.0% Vietnamese – 0.9% Vietnamese – 0.8% Melbourne 2011 2006 Only English – 66.3% Only English – 68.5% Greek – 2.8% Italian – 3.3% Italian – 2.8% Greek – 3.1% Mandarin – 2.5% Vietnamese – 2.0% Vietnamese – 2.1% Cantonese – 1.8% Darwin 2011 2006 Only English – 72.7% Only English – 76.8% Greek – 2.3% Greek – 2.3% Tagalog – 1.2% Indonesian – 0.7% Mandarin – 0.9% Vietnamese – 0.6% Filipino – 0.8% Cantonese – 0.6% Hobart 2011 2006 Only English – 89.5% Only English – 89.9% Mandarin – 0.7% Greek – 0.5% Greek – 0.5% Italian – 0.4% German – 0.4% Mandarin – 0.4% Italian – 0.4% German – 0.4%
  • 14. www.polaron.com.au Language spoken at home - capital cities Sydney 2011 2006 Only English – 62.2% Only English – 64.0% Arabic – 4.1% Arabic – 3.9% Mandarin – 3.0% Cantonese – 3.0% Cantonese – 3.0% Mandarin – 2.3% Vietnamese – 1.9% Greek – 1.9% Brisbane 2011 2006 Only English – 82.1% Only English – 84.2% Mandarin – 1.5% Mandarin – 1.1% Vietnamese – 0.9% Vietnamese – 0.9% Cantonese – 0.9% Cantonese – 0.8% Samoan – 0.6% Italian – 0.6% Adelaide 2011 2006 Only English – 78.8% Only English – 81.0% Italian – 2.6% Italian – 2.9% Greek – 1.9% Greek – 2.1% Mandarin – 1.3% Vietnamese – 1.2% Vietnamese – 1.3% Mandarin – 0.7% Canberra 2011 2006 Only English – 77.8% Only English – 81.0% Mandarin – 1.9% Mandarin – 1.1% Vietnamese – 1.1% Italian – 1.1% Cantonese – 1.0% Vietnamese – 0.9% Italian – 0.9% Cantonese – 0.9%
  • 15. www.polaron.com.au Challenges • Identity • Disconnected, living “double lives” • Culture shock • Literacy and education • Racism and discrimination • Settlement tensions • Inter & cross cultural negotiations • Opposing directions • Different roles of family and community • System confusion • Intergenerational conflict
  • 16. www.polaron.com.au More challenges • Isolation • Homelessness • Substance abuse • Language barriers • Child interpreters and mediators • Globalised society with changing boundaries of culture and identity • Acculturation can create tension between young people and their families • Feelings of indebtedness to Australia and obligation to country of origin • Reported inability to openly express or practise own culture without facing hostility from some members of the Australian community
  • 17. www.polaron.com.au Still more challenges • Family issues such as parent-child conflict, or prolonged separation from family members • Low socioeconomic status • Unemployment, or lack of meaningful work • Difficulties at school • Possible trauma history • Difficulty establishing trust and friendships • May suffer from low self-esteem, anxiety, depression and survivor guilt • May fear authority figures, especially police and security officers
  • 18. www.polaron.com.au Challenges for service providers • CALD issues “not on the radar”, “not on the agenda” • Workers feel ill-equipped to work effectively with CALD groups • Lack of training • Need for increased funding and support • Need for better data collection • Need for community programs to be evaluated, results made available • Prevention in CALD communities should be a priority • Prevention work should harness existing community structures • Culture must be considered in policy, design and delivery of services
  • 19. www.polaron.com.au Challenges for service providers • Negative experiences or lack of culturally appropriate services may turn people away • Reluctance to use interpreters • Translations perceived as expensive and unnecessary • Information dissemination – innovative solutions • Social media • Acquisition of information from “back home”
  • 20. www.polaron.com.au Barriers to access • Low literacy levels and English proficiency • Lack of access to information • Lack of culturally responsive services to meet specific needs • Fear of breaches of confidentiality • Fear of stigmatisation from within and outside their communities • Lack of knowledge of their rights and responsibilities in Australia • Evolving needs which may pose a challenge to service providers • Different understanding of disability, illness, death and carer’s role
  • 21. www.polaron.com.au21 Barry Mohammed
  • 22. www.polaron.com.au Language Language is a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. The difference between a language and a dialect can be political rather than linguistic. For example, Croatian and Serbian are closely related dialects of the same language. However, they are written in different scripts and are spoken by people of different religions. A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family.
  • 23. www.polaron.com.au Language and language services: why use plain English? • Communicating in a way that is important to a person • It’s inclusive and breaks down communication barriers • Puts people in context of their family and communities • It engages people and leads to continual understanding, listening and learning and helps the person get what they want out of life • It shifts the power and authority barrier between client and worker by relating to the client as an equal partner • It shifts the power and authority barrier between client and worker by placing the worker in the role of partner or guide • Allows people to be active participants in the helping process.
  • 24. www.polaron.com.au 24 Plain English Care coordination is an activity carried out by identified agency staff. It is an activity directly attributable to individual clients and is unlikely to be provided to every client on every occasion of service. Client care coordination service activity does not include administrative work,personnel management or attendance at staff meetings or training programs. Case management on the other hand comprises active assistance received by a client from a formally identified agency worker (case manager or care coordinator) who coordinates the planning and delivery of a suite of services to the individual client. Case management is generally targeted to clients with complex needs. Client care coordination and case management are distinct activities on the same continuum of service delivery.
  • 25. www.polaron.com.au Interpreters and translators • When critical information about the client’s circumstances need to be communicated • When the client is required to make significant, informed decisions • Initial intake/contact when collecting client information and assessing need • When undertaking assessments • When client consent is required • For client and carer feedback • When determining appropriate referral
  • 26. www.polaron.com.au Interpreters • An interpreter is a professionally qualified person who takes information from an oral or sign language and converts it accurately and objectively into another oral language to allow communication between two parties who use different languages. • Interpreter's role is to ensure communication between parties is as clear as possible and misunderstandings are minimised. • Having an interpreter allows you to express yourself in your native language. • An interpreter can assist you in understanding cultural differences. • Interpreting industry in Australia
  • 27. www.polaron.com.au Working with an interpreter • Where possible, work with NAATI accredited interpreters • Where possible, ensure continuity • Do not use children, relatives and unqualified bi-lingual staff • Brief the interpreter before the session • Stress confidentiality • Use plain English, avoid jargon • Know how to distinguish good practice vs poor practice • Develop a professional partnership with the interpreter • Provide feedback to the interpreter after the session
  • 28. www.polaron.com.au Role of the interpreter Your interpreter: • Listens to you speak in English • Understands what you say • Stores the information within their memory • Finds the corresponding language in correct context • Verbalises that language to the client • THEN THE PROCESS IS REPEATED OVER AN OVER. TRY IT SOMETIME!
  • 29. www.polaron.com.au Role of the interpreter • Should interpret everything that is being said (making participants linguistically present) • Aims to facilitate communication so that you are communicating effectively with your client • Should take notes • Work with you and your client • Interpreters are not cultural brokers or advocates • Interpreters follow the AUSIT Code of Ethics: accuracy, confidentiality, impartiality are paramount • Exchanges are confidential.
  • 30. www.polaron.com.au Role of the interviewer • Prepare prior to the interview with a list of structured questions • Allow more time than usual • Brief the interpreter prior to the meeting • Address the client directly in the first person during the interview • Explain purpose of the interview and the role of the interpreter • If resistance encountered, communicate the obligation to ensure effective communication through the use of an interpreter • Maintain control of interview • Manage challenging aspects and dynamics of the interview • Stop the interview if it isn’t working • Manage feedback and complaint handling.
  • 31. www.polaron.com.au Role of the client • Can request or refuse an interpreter • If preferred, can speak English even if interpreter is present • Can ask questions and seek clarification • Can chose the gender and ethnic background of the interpreter (?) • Should be encouraged to become an active partner rather than a passive service recipient • May prefer to use telephone interpreting services • Has the right to provide feedback and lodge complaints
  • 32. www.polaron.com.au 32 Impact of cultural diversity on practice How can we respond to these issues • Resources and time • Training • Working with interpreters to facilitate communication • Translating of information • Innovative and flexible practices • Partnerships with community brokers • Understanding the impact of immigration • Accepting to work with different family structures