Dr Elizabeth Grant, University of Adelaide - Designing for thermal comfort in prisons: Playing Russian Roulette with prison design

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Dr Elizabeth Grant, Senior Lecturer: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education: Wilto Yerlo, University of Adelaide delivered this presentation at the 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance conference. This conference follows the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia.

For more information, go to http://www.informa.com.au/prisonplanning2013

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Dr Elizabeth Grant, University of Adelaide - Designing for thermal comfort in prisons: Playing Russian Roulette with prison design

  1. 1. Designing for Thermal Comfort in Prisons Dr. Elizabeth Grant The University of Adelaide 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  2. 2. Co-Researchers Professor Terence Williamson The University of Adelaide Dr Alana Hansen The University of Adelaide Assoc Prof. Mary Myla Andamon RMIT Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  3. 3. Impacts of Excessive Heat or Cold in Prison Environments • Violent behaviour is more prevalent in facilities that are poorly ventilated or are either very hot or cold. • Group collective resistance behaviours increase when the prison environment is too hot or cold “Nothing changes in the prison it is either too hot or cold” • Higher numbers of ‘natural’ and ‘unnatural ‘ deaths in custody Prisoner, Mobilong Prison Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  4. 4. Impacts of Excessive Heat or Cold in Prison Environments “Having a heater or cooler is important but you have to be able to turn it on and off. It must be accessible. I don’t want the screws controlling the heat. He is cold sitting on his butt in his office and I’m cooking in my cell” Prisoner, Yatala Labour Prison Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons Inability to regulate heating and cooling produces greater adverse individual emotional and behavioural responses. (Wener and Olsen 1978; 1980; Goodstein and Wright 1989; Wright and Goodstein 1989). 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  5. 5. Deaths in Custody UNITED STATES Texas • 13 prisoners have died of heat stroke since 2007 Michigan 2002 • Prisoner with schizophrenia administered medication  Held in observation room  Died from dehydration 2006  Mentally ill prisoner held in restraints during heatwave  Died from dehydration and hyperthermia Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  6. 6. Deaths in Custody UNITED STATES Alabama 2007 • Prisoner with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics • Confined to cell in dangerously hot conditions • Died due to complications of bronchopneumonia and hyperthermia AUSTRALIA Western Australia 2008 • Mr Ward - Prison Transport Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  7. 7. Chronic Illness Highest Risk Certain Medications/ Substance Disuse Capacity OR Ability for Adaptiveness Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  8. 8. Thermoregulation The Regulation of Body Temperature PHYSIOLOGICAL Thermoreceptors  brain  increased blood flow to skin  heat loss  Radiation, conduction, convection  Evaporation of sweat Behavioural  Moving to a cool environment • Air conditioning • Ventilation  Showers  Light clothing  Adequate hydration Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  9. 9. Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  10. 10. Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  11. 11. Overview • Introduction • etc • etc Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  12. 12. Effects of Cold on Health Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons  Blood pressure increase  Cardiovascular disease • Myocardial infarction • Cardiac arrest • Ischaemic heart disease  Thrombosis • Coronary • Cerebral  Respiratory disease  Hypothermia 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  13. 13. Effects of Heat on Health Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons Heat exposure can :  Exacerbate underlying chronic conditions  Cause heat-related illnesses • Heat stress • Dehydration • Hyperthermia • Heat exhaustion • Heat stroke Exertional Classic • High mortality rate 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  14. 14. Why are prisoners vulnerable to heat stress? Limited opportunities for behavioural thermoregulation in the heat  In confined area  Outdoor work details outside  Unable to modify environment Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  15. 15. Why are prisoners vulnerable to heat stress? • Evidence has shown that vulnerable populations to heat include those who have underlying illnesses or are ageing. • High population of prisoners suffer from chronic health conditions Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  16. 16. Why are prisoners vulnerable to heat stress? Chronic conditions that can increase susceptibility to heat illnesses:      Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons Heart disease Respiratory disease Renal disease Diabetes Mental disorders 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  17. 17. Mental Health in Prisons 2012 National Prisoner Health Data Collection  54% of females, 41% males had received treatment or assessment for mental health issue Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  18. 18. Mental Health in Prisons International Review of prison surveys shows prisoners compared to general population  2-4 fold more likely to have psychotic illness and depression  10 times more likely to have antipsychotic personality disorder Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  19. 19. Medications contributing to the risk of Heat Illness Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons Used in the treatment of mental disorders: • Antipsychotics • Anticholinergics • Some antidepressants • Lithium • Anti-anxiety medications • Lithium • Barbituates Others: • Beta blockers • Diuretics 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  20. 20. Drugs contributing to the risk of Heat Illness Cocaine Heroin Ephedrine Ethanol Amphetamines Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  21. 21. Current Guidelines for Prisons Thermal Environments Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF PRISONERS Correctional services in Australia seek to improve and maintain safety of and confidence in the correctional system by managing prisoners consistently and with reference to the guiding principles that prisoners are: 1. Managed and contained in a safe, secure, humane manner. 2. Managed equitably, with recognition of their diverse needs. 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  22. 22. Current Guidelines for Prisons Thermal Environments Safe Environments and the Effective Management of Risk 1.25 Prisons should identify, minimise and manage risk. 1.27 Prison should provide for the personal safety of staff, visitors, and prisoners by ensuring a prison environment that protects the physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of individuals. Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  23. 23. Current Guidelines for Prisons Thermal Environments United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (1977) Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 10. All accommodation provided for the use of prisoners and in particular all sleeping accommodation shall meet all requirements of health, due regard being paid to climatic conditions and particularly to cubic content of air, minimum floor space, lighting, heating and ventilation. 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  24. 24. Current Guidelines for Prisons – Air-conditioning International technical society organized to advance the arts and sciences of heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons ASHRAE state: Comfort depends on behavioural actions that are initiated unconsciously or by the conscious mind and guided by thermal and moisture sensations to reduce discomfort. Some possible behavioural actions to reduce discomfort are altering clothing, altering activity, changing posture or location, changing the thermostat setting, opening a window or leaving the space. Unlikely that prisoners would be able to undertake these behaviours. 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  25. 25. Current Guidelines for Prisons Air-conditioning International technical society organized to advance the arts and sciences of heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons No specific standards developed for custodial settings Other issue is that air-conditioning temperature standards are set using experiments using 18 – 25 year old HEALTHY men. Air-conditioning standards are USUALLY NOT APPROPRIATE for other users. 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  26. 26. South Australia Banksia Unit • Introduction • etc • etc Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  27. 27. South Australia Yatala Labour Prison I go straight to bed when I get locked up. It is too bloody cold to do otherwise. 16 hours in bed a day. Prisoner. Yatala Labour Prison Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  28. 28. Northern Territory Alice Springs Correctional Centre Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  29. 29. Northern Territory Darwin Correctional Centre Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  30. 30. Victoria Corella Place Ararat Prison Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  31. 31. West Australia West Kimberley Regional Prison Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  32. 32. What is to be learnt Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons Heat can be a silent killer. In non temperature controlled environments, prisoners may be at risk because of: • Poor health • Lack of adaptive capacity • High proportion of mental disorders • Medications that interfere with thermoregulation No current thermal standards for correctional environments 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  33. 33. What is to Needed Standards required for • Air-conditioning • Natural ventilation • Heating • Ability to adapt These need to take into account • Cultural background • Health status • Possible ‘heat sensitivity’ • Prison provided bedding and clothes Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  34. 34. What do we need? Further understandings of numbers of prisoners on psychotropic medications or with other risk factors Heat Policies for ‘heat sensitive’ prisoners. A commitment from Government to provide safe environments for prisoners Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  35. 35. Resources and Outputs Grant, E, A, Hansen and T. Williamson (2012) ‘Design issues for prisoner health: Thermal conditions in Australian custodial environments’ World Health Design 5 (3) pp. 80 – 85. Grant, E. (2013) "Pack em, rack em and stack em": The appropriateness of the use and reuse of Shipping Containers for Prison Accommodation' Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, 13 (2) pp. 35 – 44. Container Thermal Standards Thermal Preference – Aboriginal People in Western Desert Designing for thermal comfort in Prisons 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia
  36. 36. Thank you Dr Elizabeth Grant The University of Adelaide Email: elizabeth.grant@adelaide.edu.au 5th Prison Planning, Design, Construction and Maintenance Conference: Following the production of existing, developing and future correctional facilities across Australia

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