Dr Anjum Naweed, CQUniversity

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Dr Anjum Naweed, CQUniversity

  1. 1. 31/03/14   1   railcrc.net.au   Innova/on  in  Research  on  SPADs   Dr  Anjum  Naweed   Senior  Research  Fellow,  CQUniversity  Australia   •  Research  Project   •  Methodology   •  Findings   -­‐  Phase  I   -­‐  Phase  II   •  Discussion   •  Where  to  from  here?   Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs     Overview  
  2. 2. 31/03/14   2   For you to: •  Improve your understanding of SPADs •  Appreciate the train driver’s perspective •  Learn new ways of collecting information •  Consider how you can adopt project outcomes into your SPAD management programs My aims Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs     TracNon     Weight     Speed     Gradients     Curvature   Visibility     Railhead   condiNon     Adhesion     Temperature     ‘Open’   system   FaNgue     ShiW  work     Sustained   aYenNon     Vigilance     ReacNon   Nme   Signals     Crossings     Point   switching     Traffic  flow     Movement   authority   Schedule     Time  keeping     Train  control     Service   delivery     Fuel   consumpNon   The  rail  system:  A  HF  perspecNve   Train  driving  is  complex,  dynamic,  and  opaque  
  3. 3. 31/03/14   3   Direction of travel Clear Caution STOP ‘Danger Signal’ Train  drivers  spend  a  great  deal  of  Nme  predicNng  future  states   Rail signals The  rail  system:  A  HF  perspecNve   •  Signal  Passed  at  Danger   The “SPAD” The  rail  system:  A  HF  perspecNve  
  4. 4. 31/03/14   4   The  rail  system:  A  HF  perspecNve   The technical “SPAD” What  is  a  “SPAD”?  
  5. 5. 31/03/14   5   What  is  a  “SPAD”?   What  is  a  “SPAD”?   Talk to your manager if you haven’t had a presentation about maintaining your FOCUS when driving FOCUS top tips • Scan the track • Talk aloud to yourself • Use all your senses • • • CHICKEN CURRY FOR DINNER? How do you stay in focus? Tip of the Month
  6. 6. 31/03/14   6   CRC SPADs Project •  Increase  in  demand  for  service  delivery   •  Increase  in  SPAD  numbers   •  IdenNfy  Key  risk  factors   •  Improve  understanding  of  SPAD  causaNon   –  How  are  train  movements  and  SPAD-­‐risk  managed  from  the  perspecNve   of  the  train  driver?     –  What  are  the  implicaNons  of  this  perspecNve  and  resulNng  behaviour  on   the  rail  organisaNon?     –  How  can  organisaNons  improve  their  understanding  of  SPADs?   Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs     Cab rides Focus groups SPAD scenarios PHASE  I  PHASE  II   Methodology Future Inquiry Workshops Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs    
  7. 7. 31/03/14   7   28   Age  =    24  to  58   Average        =    45   Gender   M        =    26   F            =    2   Train  drivers     Principal  drivers   Route  tutors     Driver  trainers   Phase  I:  Drivers   Findings 1)  The  driver-­‐signal  relaNonship     2)  Devaluing  the  meaning  of  signals   3)  “Are  you  fit  to  conNnue…”   4)  Task-­‐related  distracNon:  key  risk  factors   Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs    
  8. 8. 31/03/14   8   1) Driver-signal relationship “Describe  your  relaNonship  with  the   signal…”   Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs     respect   total     respect   The     Rule   absolute  discipline   my  top  priority   absolute   the  ulNmate  collision     avoidance  system   “  The  signal  is…   ”   1) Driver-signal relationship Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs    
  9. 9. 31/03/14   9   God   my  lifeline   my  bread  n’  bu,er   my  religion   my  livelihood  my  safety   my  passengers’  safety   “  The  signal  is…   ”   1) Driver-signal relationship Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs     the  most  respected  thing  out  there   my  best  friend   my  colleague     my  Master   my  friend  and  my  enemy   “  The  signal  is…   ”   1) Driver-signal relationship Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs    
  10. 10. 31/03/14   10   SPAD  =    Acute  stress  response   –  EmoNonal  irregularity   •  Disbelief,  fear,  panic  anxiety   –  Psychological   •  CogniNve  impairment   •  DisorientaNon,  parNal  amnesia   •  Impaired  judgment   •  Confusion,  daze   –  Physiological   •  Release  of  noradrenaline     •  Increased  heart  rate   •  Constricted  blood  vessels   1) Driver-signal relationship Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs     Direction of travel CautionCaution Caution 2) Devaluing signal meaning Yellow is the new green Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs    
  11. 11. 31/03/14   11   •  Drivers  answer  in  the  affirmaNve  even  if  contrary  to   what  seems  intuiNvely  right  or  correct   •  Scare/fear  factor   •  ExpectaNon  to  conNnue  aWer  technical  SPADs   •  Weak  procedural  control   3) “Are you fit to continue…(?)” “yes…” Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs    
  12. 12. 31/03/14   12   Driver  disengaged  –  task  disrupted   Controller  interacNon  -­‐  Time  pressure/  task   distorted   SighNng  restricNon  /  task  disconnected   StaNon  dwell  /  task  dislocated   Novel     event   Sigh/ng   Restric/on   Time   Pressure   Controller   Interac/on   Sta/on     dwell   Time   pressure   Controller   interac/on   Sta/on   dwells   Sigh/ng   restric/on   disconnec1on   disloca1on  disrup1on   distor1on   SPAD risk Signal dynamic Service delivery Novel   event   Novel   event   Novel   event   Novel   event   4) Key risk factors
  13. 13. 31/03/14   13   •  Train  driver-­‐signal  relaNonship  highly  personal   •  SPADs  =  acute  stress  response   •  Single  factor  (judgmental)  explanaNons  for  SPAD   •  Fear  factor/taboo   •  Fit  to  conNnue  post-­‐SPAD  check  is  counterintuiNve   •  Yellow  is  the  new  green   •  Key  risks  are  seen  as  organisaNonal  norms   Summary   NormalisaNon  of  deviancy   Phase  II:  System   1   2   3   4   5   >300  Par/cipants    
  14. 14. 31/03/14   14   >300   Train  drivers   Signalers   Controllers   Signal   engineers   Track  workers   HR  managers   Driver   trainers   SPAD  invesNgators   Human   factors  people    Timetable   designers   Risk  managers   Safety  mangers   Regulators   Union  officials   Driver  reps   Freight   Passenger   Par/cipants     Future  inquiry  workshop   ScienNfically  defensible  ‘think-­‐tank’   Par/cipants     Par/cipants     Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs     (BleweY  &  Shaw,  2008)  
  15. 15. 31/03/14   15   Future  inquiry  workshop(s)   What  was  not  being  done  (in  Oct  last  year)   •  Managing  Nmetable  vs.  defensive  driving   •  Reviewing/tesNng  Nmetabling   •  Training  in  the  right  areas   •  Retraining  aWer  incidents   •  TargeNng  recruitment  appropriately   •  No  common  definiNons  for  SPADs  data   •  Inconsistencies  in  SPAD  invesNgaNons   •  BeYer  look  at  human  factors  issues/awareness   Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs     Future  inquiry  workshop(s)   First  acNon  steps:   1)  Recruitment  &  training    -­‐  NaNonal  training  package/standard   2)  Data  &  informaNon            -­‐  Capture  meaning  data/standardisaNon   3)  Cross  industry  collaboraNon            -­‐  ClassificaNon/engagement  with  CEOs   4)  New  technology            -­‐  Signal  visibility  –  LEDs;  HF  in  design;  interoperability   5)      Further  SPADs  research   Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs    
  16. 16. 31/03/14   16   Where  do  we  go  from  here?   Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs     Where  do  we  go  from  here?   Risk factors Potential strategies? Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs    
  17. 17. 31/03/14   17   Where  do  we  go  from  here?   Reports Journal articles Rail  Safety  Conference  2014  |  Sydney,  Australia  |  26th  March  2014  |  A  Naweed  |  InnovaNon  in  Research  on  SPADs     Where  do  we  go  from  here?   1)  RISSB  SPAD  Management  Guideline     2)  ARA  SPAD  ClassificaNons  Group   3)  Local  level  support/guidance  in  SPAD   program  and  training  design   4)  QuanNficaNon  of  risk  model  –  event   recorder  data,  ATP  data  
  18. 18. 31/03/14   18   railcrc.net.au   Thank  You   Anjum  Naweed   Appleton  InsNtute,  CQUniversity  Australia,  44  Greenhill  Road,  Wayville,  SA  5034     08  8378  4520,  anjum.naweed@cqu.edu.au     Some  Acknowledgements   Sophia  Rainbird,  Verna  BleweY,  Lily  Hirsch,  Jesse  Baker,  Andy  May,  Steve  Pelham,   Stan  Sexton,  Brent  GilleY,  Ian  CoYon,  Eric  Holliday,  Gareth  Williams,  Bruce  Hamlet,   Russ  Evans,  Ryan  Mort,  April  McCulloch,  Max  Atkinson,  Michael  Ruddock,  Kirsty   Bow,  Robert  Stopp,  Craig  Dance,  Ron  DeviY,  Perry  Ramsey,  Kuljit  Singh,  Paul  Crisp,   Todd  Bentley,  Emma  Green,  Petra  Eibl,  and  Kym  Gellard.      

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