Institute of
Railway Technology
Institute of Railway Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, A...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Outline
• Background:...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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In-train forces – why...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
Page 4
In-train forces – why...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
Page 5
In-train forces – why...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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What to do…
You can’t...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Standard rail vehicle...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Condition Monitoring
...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Continuous Monitoring...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Advantages
Advantage...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Example: In-train fo...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Example: Coupler sla...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Examples: Brake appl...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Dumper A Dumper BLoa...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Controlling In-Train...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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System changes
Field...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Modelling & Simulati...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Areas of Application...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Universal Mechanism ...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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In-Train Forces (Yar...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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UM Dumper Model Outl...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Dumper Model Animati...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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IRT – Computational ...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Summary
Instrumentat...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Summary
Other progra...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Modelling Capabiliti...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Advantages Over Othe...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Who is using Univers...
Institute of
Railway Technology
Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems
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Software Verificatio...
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Dr Amir Shamdani & Russell Bowey - Inst of Railway Technology Monash University - Effective management of in-train forces on heavy haul systems using instrumental wagons and modelling with universal mechanisms

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Dr Amir Shamdani & Russell Bowey delivered the presentation at the 2014 Heavy Haul Rail Conference.

The 2014 Heavy Haul Rail Conference had a focus on driving efficiency with smarter technology. Australasia’s only heavy haul rail event is the annual meeting place for professionals interested in the latest projects, technologies and innovation in this dynamic sector.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://bit.ly/hhroz14

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Dr Amir Shamdani & Russell Bowey - Inst of Railway Technology Monash University - Effective management of in-train forces on heavy haul systems using instrumental wagons and modelling with universal mechanisms

  1. 1. Institute of Railway Technology Institute of Railway Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering, Monash University, Australia PO Box 31, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia www.irt.monash.edu Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy- Haul Systems Using Instrumented Wagons and Modeling with Universal Mechanism August 28, 2014 Newcastle Russell Bowey, Amir Shamdani russell.bowey@monash.edu , amir.shamdani@monash.edu
  2. 2. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 2 Outline • Background: Why worry about in-train forces? • Field Monitoring: Instrumentation and automated data collection • Computer Modelling: Evaluating options • Concluding remarks
  3. 3. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 3 In-train forces – why worry? Heavy haul operators increase train length and axle loads in order to increase productivity. The downside is higher in-train forces.
  4. 4. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 4 In-train forces – why worry? Higher forces result in: • Broken components (couplers, knuckles …) Increased mainline delays Increased dumping delays • Reduced component life / increased maintenance cost • Increased derailment risk (particularly on empty trains)
  5. 5. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 5 In-train forces – why worry?
  6. 6. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 6 What to do… You can’t manage what you don’t measure!
  7. 7. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 7 Standard rail vehicles fitted permanently with logging units. Primary use is for track condition monitoring. Instrumented Wagons Battery housing Solar panels Main logging unit Transducers GPS and Telecommunications
  8. 8. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 8 Condition Monitoring Rail surface monitoring (wheel impacts) -20 -10 0 10 20 g -10 -5 0 5 10 mm 139380.0 139382.5 139385.0 139387.5 139390.0 139392.5 Time (Seconds) Track geometry monitoring (bounce and roll)
  9. 9. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 9 Continuous Monitoring IOC Data collection Automated Download Automated data processing • Automated email • Status Reports. • Severity 1 Reports • In-Train Event Reports • Human check Inspect, program & repair (Severity 1 = Immediate) • Daily/ Weekly status reports • Track segment reports • Trending analysis • Load spectrum data • Specific project requests
  10. 10. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 10 Advantages Advantages over traditional track geometry vehicles: • Doesn’t interfere with production • Same dynamic response as the fleet (same speed, axle load, suspension) • Cheaper to purchase and operate • More frequent coverage • Redundancy (multiple recording units) • Can easily record extra parameters:  Coupler force, brake pressures
  11. 11. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 11 Example: In-train force report Brake pipe pressure Coupler Force Speed Brake cylinder Pressure
  12. 12. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 12 Example: Coupler slack control Bunching the train prior to braking reduced the peak force from 180 tonnes to 80 tonnes
  13. 13. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 13 Examples: Brake application timing -2 -1 0 1 2 187 188 189 190 191 192 Force(MN) 250 450 650 BPP(kPa) 295 305 315 325 187 188 189 190 191 192 Elevation(m) Direction of TravelTrack Profile -2 -1 0 1 2 187 188 189 190 191 192 Force(MN) 250 450 650 BPP(kPa) Example 1: Mid-train Coupler Force due to Brake Example 2: Mid-train Coupler Force due to Brake Brake Pipe Pressure Coupler Force Track Location (km) Earlier brake application reduces the run-in (185t to 55t)
  14. 14. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 14 Dumper A Dumper BLoading Loaded travelEmpty travel Time (hr) Controlling In-Train Forces System review – where does the damage accumulate?
  15. 15. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 15 Controlling In-Train Forces Total Coupler Damage due to Tensile Loads Mainline – Empty trip 8% Dumper B 41% Total Coupler Damage due to Compressive Loads Mainline – Loaded trip 64% Dumper B 16% System analysis – where does the damage accumulate? Mainline – Loaded trip 38% Dumper A 13% Mainline – Empty trip 4% Dumper A 16%
  16. 16. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 16 System changes Field testing is great for telling you what is happening now – but what about planning for future operational changes? • Extrapolation (ok, but limited) • Heuristics (fuzzy!) • Trial and error (safety and regulation) or computer modelling…
  17. 17. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 17 Modelling & Simulation $ Need Concept Shortens Schedules Improves Product & Process Development Saves Time $ Savings Design Modification Production & Deployment Prove system need: Use models to emulate operational situation Test concepts in the simulation using models Refine requirements Reduce program risks Smooth transition to operation
  18. 18. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 18 Areas of Application • Dumper throughput studies: – Optimization of production throughput versus wagon damage • Axle load evaluation • Train / rake length analysis • Component failure analysis: – Predicting fatigue damage of components – Life prediction • Derailment investigation: – Simulation of derailment processes (calculation of safety factors, lateral/vertical/in-train forces, frame forces) – Cause identification, risk mitigation
  19. 19. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 19 Universal Mechanism (UM) • UM is a multi-body simulation package with task-oriented modules specific to the simulation of railway vehicle dynamics. Modelling capabilities: – Interaction of longitudinal and lateral/vertical dynamics (wheel/rail interaction, speed response, axle load capacity, derailment investigation) – Component failure analysis (stress, strain, and fatigue) – Batch processing (calculating optimal values of system’s parameters) Train Model Three-Piece Bogie
  20. 20. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 20 In-Train Forces (Yard Operations) • The contribution of yard operation to total coupler damage is significant. • Several studies looked at dumper indexing influencing factors to improve indexing procedures and reduce coupler failures: – Speed profile – Drag braking effort – Rake length – Operational changes (slow dumping)
  21. 21. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 21 UM Dumper Model Outline • IRT has developed a dumper indexing model to complement instrumented wagon field recordings for dumper studies. • The model can be customised to specific operations and validated using IOC data. • Currently the tuneable inputs to the model are: – Train make-up (number of cars/locos, axle loads) – Indexing parameters  Acceleration/deceleration rate  plateau speed – Draft gear characteristics – 3 dimensional track geometry • UM co-simulation with Matlab / Simulink: – Simulink enables simulation of complex indexing arm control systems to be modelled.
  22. 22. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 22 Dumper Model Animation Velocity (m/s) vs. time (sec)Coupler Forces (N) vs. time (sec) Car5: green Car40: pink Car75: blue Car120: red
  23. 23. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 23 IRT – Computational Mechanics Ltd Partnership • Partnership with Computational Mechanics Ltd • IRT has been given: – Exclusive rights to sell and provide technical support for Universal Mechanism (UM) Software to the railway industry in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Hong Kong & Singapore – Rights to sell and provide technical support for the worldwide railway industry
  24. 24. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 24 Summary Instrumentation • Monitor mainline and dumper forces • Provide training and feedback to drivers • Develop optimal driving strategies • Identify areas of operation where damage accumulates • Tune computer models Computer modelling • Evaluate operational options • Driver training
  25. 25. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 25 Summary Other program areas • Improved maintenance inspections (NDT) (to remove damaged components before failure) • Improved record keeping of incidents • Metallurgical studies to evaluate components • Component modifications
  26. 26. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 26
  27. 27. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 27 Modelling Capabilities • Model generation: – Locomotive driving inputs – Unrestricted length of train – Batch processing capability – External inputs (e.g. positioner/indexer arm mechanical and control system) • Simulation: – Track profile definition (curve/tangent, gradient, switch section, superelevation, gauge widening) – Train resistance (aerodynamic drag, Rolling, curving, grade) – Locomotive characteristics (tractive effort, dynamic braking) – Wagon connection models (autocouplers, drawbars) – Draft gear characteristics (coupler slack, spring characteristics, stick-slip friction by a wedge system) – Braking (Pneumatic, ECP) – Distributed power – Interaction of longitudinal and lateral/vertical dynamics • Outputs: – Export all results into spreadsheet/text format (in time and space domain) – Variables: In-train force, creepage, displacement, velocity, acceleration, brake pipe/cylinder pressure, fatigue and damage (stress/strain life data), energy usage – Visualization (animation, graphical)
  28. 28. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 28 Advantages Over Other Modelling Software • Effectiveness of numerical simulation (UIM simulation speed is up to 10 times faster than other simulation packages) • Effective and reliable model analysis is enabled by full parameterization of the model • Animation of motion during the numerical simulation (very convenient during testing and checkout phases of modelling) • Task-oriented modules for the railway industry (longitudinal train dynamics in 1D and 3D) • Direct interface with most popular CAD programs • Direct interface with Matlab/Simulink • Service of distributed calculations for parallel simulation experiments • Direct interface with ANSYS and MSC NASTRAN to perform fatigue damage calculation of mechanical parts • Inclusion of deformable/flexible bodies in the model (e.g. vibration analysis of car body and bogie frame with the presence of irregularities, vehicle-bridge interaction) • The scanning, optimization, and approximation tool allows calculating optimal parameters of the system
  29. 29. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 29 Who is using Universal Mechanism? • More than 10 design and manufacturing organizations within the Russian railway industry • Australia: IRT, WorleyParsons • USA: Amsted Rail • Spain: Vossloh Espana • China: Chinese Academy of Railway Sciences, Qingdao Sifang Rolling Stock Research Institute • Turkey: State Railways of the Turkish Republic, TUBITAK Marmara Research Centre • Indonesia: Indonesian Railway Industry, The national Transportation Safety Committee • Slovakia: ASTRA Rail • Ukraine: State Research and Design Centre of Railway Transport • Many universities in Russia, USA, China, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, South Korea, Lithuania • More than 10 postdoctoral and doctoral research projects • More than 50 publications
  30. 30. Institute of Railway Technology Effective Management of In-train Forces on Heavy-Haul Systems Page 30 Software Verification Note: AS7509.2 does not specify any regulations nor does it specify any suitable simulation software for the purpose of modelling of longitudinal train dynamics. • A number of field and test bench experiments were performed to validate simulation results of Universal mechanism by some independent bodies. • The description of Universal Mechanism models as well as the results of simulation of test cars from the Manchester Benchmarks are available for Universal Mechanism Software. Simulation results and their comparison with other simulation packages can be found here: http://www.universalmechanism.com/download/70/eng/10_um_loco_manchester_benchm arks.pdf • An example of comparison of results is shown in the next slide.
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