Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities (speaker notes)


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Doug Bell, Principal, from Multi-modal Transport Solutions has presented at the Victorian Transport Summit. If you would like more information about the conference, please visit the website:

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Multimodality - The importance of multi-modal transport in cities (speaker notes)

  1. 1. Multi-modal Transport Solutions Pty LtdTransport Planning ConsultantsABN 71 105 663 321Level 7423 Bourke StreetMelbourne 3000Victoria Australia[t]: +61(0)3 9008 7218[f]: +61(0)3 9602 5166[e]:[i]: PAGELast but not least.Thanks for sticking around for the afternoon session on public transportWhen I was asked to speak at this conference, the topic listed for me was“multimodality” and I had to confess it was a newish term for me.However, as Principal of a firm named “Multi-modal TransportSolutions”, it was beholden to me to respond positively, so we’ll startwith a definition.SCOPEOnce we get past the definition, I want to1. Definitions of “multimodality and “multimodal”2. Identify components of multimodal Network3. List some benefits of multimodal Travel4. Examine the extent of multimodal Travel in Melbourne5. Explore some examples of multimodal Travel in Melb6. Suggest strategies to improve multimodal travel7. Draw some conclusionsSo let’s start with a few definitions ….
  2. 2. Multi-modal Transport Solutions Pty Ltd1a DEFINING MULTIMODALITYMultimodality or multimodal travel is a very popular concept inMelbourne, gaining strength with(a) Success of a multimodal network/tickets in mid 1980’s(b) More recently we have the creation of “Public TransportVictoria – designed to be integrate the planning and operationsof the various modes – “to house them under one roof”.(c) If we wish to measure “multimodality”, we need to distinguishbetween People, Trips and Network.FOR EXAMPLE – NEXT SLIDE1b MULTIMODALITY - PEOPLEA survey of 600 people in Melbourne shows that (based on monthlyusage)• 62% of people use some form of public transport• 40% of these use 2 or 3 different public transport modes.1c MULTIMODALITY – TRIPS & NETWORKIf we count “trips per day” which is a more common definition thendefinition of multimodal Is “more than one mode for a particulartrip”, but even this definition can be confusing.Suppose you look at the blue circle (say trains). There are 4 trips shownwith 3 trips each using the green or orange or green and orange. So wecan conclude in this example that ¾ or 75% of trips are multimodal.If you look at the whole network you can count 4 of the 7 trips (57%)which can be described as multimodal.So the message is: “let’s not get too distracted by measurement” andexamine the components of a multimodal networkNote: In this presentation, I will use “multimodal” in favour of“multimodality”.
  3. 3. Multi-modal Transport Solutions Pty Ltd2a COMPONENTS OF MULTIMODAL NETWORKAs per slide, the network comprisesPublic Transport Modes (Trains, Trams & Buses ………….)Access & Egress Modes (Walk, cycle, car, taxi …………..)Ancilliary (Information, ticketing ……………………)In addition to the public transport infrastructure, we need to see theaccess as a very important element in facilitating multimodal travel.We also need to value other components such as information & ticketing.2b COMPONENTS OF MULTIMODAL NETWORKWalking Cycling Taxi PublicTransportBarriers Needs andpreferences varyconsiderablyAverage responsetime for variousconditions andlocations.Frequency (numberof transit vehicles perhour).Continuity ofpedestrian facilitiesPreference forseparated facilitiesNumber of taxis percapita.Service coverageWidth and trafficvolumes on roads tobe crossed,Roadway cyclingconditions, includingtraffic volumes andspeeds, lane widthsPrice for an averagetrip relative to users’income.Service reliability,average wait time,and comfort (e.g.,shelters at bus stops).Average crossingwaitQuality of bicycleparking and changingfacilitiesComfort, safety,reliability, andcourtesy of service.Personal securitywhile walking,waiting and riding ontransit.Pedestrian security,including risk of fallsand assaultsQuality of specialcycling facilities,including separatedpaths, bike lanesNumber of taxis ableto carry people withdisabilities (i.e.,wheelchair users).Comfort (e.g.,crowding andcleanliness ofshelters andvehicles).Pedestrians who aredisabled or withluggageAverage andcomparative trip timeand costs (relative tousers’ income).
  4. 4. Multi-modal Transport Solutions Pty Ltd3a BENEFITS OF MULTIMODAL NETWORKNow let’s examine what benefits arise and conclude that:A system offering comprehensive multimodal travel provides multiplebenefits across a range of beneficiaries – summarised and illustrated inslide.Let’s examine each of these in more detail.3b BENEFITS OF MULTIMODAL NETWORKChoice: People who are unable to driveEfficiency: Reduce traffic congestion, facilitate costsavings, increase road safety, environmentalimprovementConsumer Benefits: Saves money, avoids stress, enjoysrecreation and exercise, and reduce chauffeuringEquity: Provides for people who are physically,economically or socially disadvantaged.Liveability: Allows for more community involvement andcan increase property values and commercial activity
  5. 5. Multi-modal Transport Solutions Pty Ltd4a EXTENT (sources of information)Again, I come back to understanding how much do we have on a dailybasis? We can gain a good estimate of the extent of multimodaltravel from a variety of data sources –––– as illustrated4b EXTENT (all purposes)VISTA (Victorian Integrated Survey of Travel & Activities) provides acomprehensive picture of daily travel in Melbourne76.8% use car solely;8.2% of all journeys trips are multimodal (including walking).Of the 8.2% using public transport, 84% use a single mode, 16%use two modes and 1% use three or more modes.Train Tram Bus %Other (walk) 203,200 166,600 171,900 59%Car 159,100 30,100 30,100 24%Train 69,600 66,300 15%Tram 20,200 2%Pub. Tpt. 362,300 266,300 288,500 100%Note: “other” = “walk’
  6. 6. Multi-modal Transport Solutions Pty Ltd4c ACCESS TO TRAINIt’s worth examining car access in more detail.A 2009 survey by Metlink (now PTV) provides details on access modesto train stations.Slide shows that:After walk, car is dominant access mode on all lines (except forcity loop)Bus is next most dominant mode4d CAR ACCESS TO TRAINSame survey shows the distance people travel to access their train station:No surprise that:Distance increases with distance from the CBDAbove the line –––– more people drive in some instances than youmight expect (e.g. East Malvern & Merinda Park)Provides some insight into where major car parking is fancied.Overall, Melbourne has around 50,000 car parks at rail stations and inexcess of 150,000 car access trips (ratio – 3:1)4e EXTENT - SUMMARYTrain travel grew by 94% in last years to 230 million trips;Tram travel grew by 52% in last 12 years to 183 million trips; andBus travel grew by 34% in last 5 years to 106 million trips.8.2% of all trips are public transport (in 2007)14.8% of work trips are public transport (2006).63% of train trips use ONLY walk access (i.e. 37% use additionalaccess/egress modes)
  7. 7. Multi-modal Transport Solutions Pty Ltd5a,b #1 Kooyong-South MelbourneThe attractiveness of multimodal travel is ultimately the result of the“physical” networks or infrastructure (and how they operate) and ourunderstanding of how it works. There is now a lot of easily accessibleinformation. I used PTV’s Journey Planner and Google. So I want totake you on a little journey ….#1 My perception of getting from a south east suburb (say Kooyong) toanywhere in South Melbourne (say South Melbourne Market) by publictransport is that it is hard work. Here’s what I found out.There were six good options4 used train and tram2 used train, tram and busAll included a walking componentTime ranged from 41 -48 minutes.5c #1 Kooyong-South MelbourneIn summaryKooyong to South Melbourne (distance = 11 km)Train &TramTrain &CycleCar : peak(with Toll)Car : peak(no Toll)CycleWalk 3 3Train 13 13Walk & Wait 6Tram 6Walk & Wait 3Tram 5Walk 5Cycle 7 43Car 20 34Park 5 5TOTAL 41 23 25 39 435d #1 Kooyong-South MelbournePTV’s Journey Planner confirms there several competitive routesthe car is 16 minutes faster than public transport but requires useof Citylink and a toll of $6.37.About the same without Citylink (just 2 minutes faster).Train & bike is a very good option …. For some
  8. 8. Multi-modal Transport Solutions Pty Ltd5e #2 Latrobe-South Melbourne (OFF PEAK)Mode Train & Tram Car Train & CycleWalk/wait 17 5Train 26 26Tram 24Car 44Bicycle 40TOTAL 67 49 66Source: Metlink Journey Planner & Google MapsJourney length is 18 kmCar is 18 minutes faster than public transport.Use of bicycle for access and egress to thetrain makes it as fast as the train/tramcombination.The myki cost is $5.54 (zone 1+2).5f POTENTIAL UPLIFTMetropolitan travel models use measures of generalisedcost to predict mode choice (between say private andpublic transport).The generalised cost for public transport trips generallyincludes a “transfer penalty” to reflect the dis-benefit ofneeding to change modes (or indeed vehicles).An estimate of the potential to increase public transportusage (by provide seamless interchange facilities) can beobtained by reducing the size of the “penalty” and byapplying elasticities to estimate revised public transportusage.Elimination of interchange penalty suggests that publictransport could increase from around 8% to 11% if theinterchange penalty was removed. This would translate toan additional 300,000 public transport trips.
  9. 9. Multi-modal Transport Solutions Pty Ltd6a STRATEGIESA range of strategies can be deployed, that either improve theattractiveness of multimodal travel# Theme Examples1 AccessPark’n’ride at Doncaster, East Malvern car park); bicycle storage2 InterchangesTram superstops, Domain Interchange3 Synchronised ServicesSynchronised Timetables, Smartbus4 TicketingMultimodal Ticketing (Metcard/myki)5 InformationTrip Planner6 Land UseHousing mix, sub-division layout, road connections etc.7 New ModesCycles, ferries, jitneysAnd for a few examples of what I’m thinking of:#1 Access – Improved bike parking “Parkiteer Bike Cage” (Melbourne)#2 Interchanges: Ease of Transfers - Station Transfers (Santiago)#3 Synchronised Services: Minimizing waiting times for transfersbetween trips can improve customer satisfaction, which in turn leads toincreases in ridership and revenues#4 Ticketing: – Need for a ticketing system that works for everyone#5 Information: – Optimise use of information sources. Good examplesinclude Journey Planner, real time timetables “My Trams”#6 Land Use: – Need to consider housing mix, sub-division layout, roadconnections etc.#7 Other modes: (Bikes on buses -Michigan) &Ferries & jitneysReminded by a friend in Sydney who me a typical response“the answer is tram now what was the question?”
  10. 10. Multi-modal Transport Solutions Pty Ltd7 CONCLUSIONS1. Dominance of car-based travel needs to beaddressed.2. Need a community with a diverse, multimodaltransport system, which provides good qualitywalking, cycling, public transit, car, taxi networks.3. Non-motorized transport (walking, cycling,scooters etc.) plays an important and unique rolein an efficient transport system.4. Multimodal travel can offer choice, efficiency,consumer benefits, equity and liveability.5. Seamless transfers between modes6. Current Estimates:• Around 8% for all trips (20% using more than 1 mode)• Around 15% for trips to work (33% using > 1 mode)• Travel by train involves 37% using more than 1 mode7. Station access now presents itself as one of thegreat frontiers of mass transit research, design,planning, and infrastructure development.8. Attention should focus on: access, interchanges,services, ticketing, Information, and new modesand land use factors9. Seamless public transport has potential toincrease public transport from 8% to 11%.