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Feasibility study of Botswana coal liquefaction based on the experience of Northeast India


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Dr. Diganta Sarma, Managing Director, Independent Consultant (International Projects) Diligent Group African has presented at the Botswana Coal and Energy Conference. If you would like more …

Dr. Diganta Sarma, Managing Director, Independent Consultant (International Projects) Diligent Group African has presented at the Botswana Coal and Energy Conference. If you would like more information about the conference, please visit the website:

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  • 1. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COALLIQUEFACTION BASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OFNORTHEAST INDIADr Diganta SarmaIndependent Consultant(Afro-Asian Region)Mining-Geotechnical & InfrastructureDevelopment Consultantdr.d.sarma@gmail.comDr (Mrs.) Subrata Borgohain GogoiAssociate ProfessorDepartment of Petroleum Technology,Dibrugarh University, Assam, India,
  • 2. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COAL LIQUEFACTIONBASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF NORTHEAST INDIABotswana has no known petroleum reserve, importspetroleum products from South Africa. India hasinadequate petroleum reserve, imports mostly fromMiddle-EastBotswana spent $9.25 billion in the year 2011-12 (DEASource), an amount more than the countrys totalannual earnings from exports for the same period(CIA Source)In the year 2011-12 India imported crude oil of value$160 billion, an amount equivalent to more than halfof the countrys total annual earnings from exportsfor the same periodAnalysis of Botswanas demand on petroleumproducts indicates that there is exponential growth ofpetroleum consumption since 2012
  • 3. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COAL LIQUEFACTIONBASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF NORTHEAST INDIAReasons attributable to the exponential growth ofpetroleum consumption is due to the increase intransportation activities as well as increase in trafficcongestion.While former supports, the latter influencesnegatively onto the economic activities.Impact of congestion can be mitigated throughsustainable and energy-efficient-transportation-system - a model both Botswana and India need toconsider.In order to reduce import of petroleum crude andrefined fuels for India and Botswana respectively andthereby use such funds for other development works,the immense coal reserve has been identified as analternative resource for energy.
  • 4. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COAL LIQUEFACTIONBASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF NORTHEAST INDIAUse of Botswana Coal resource is presently focusedfor two purposes :- generation of electric power and- export of raw coalUnless there is an efficient and smart power-gird-system amongst SADC or regional member countries,Botswana to become a regional power hub may not bepossible in the near future as distribution loss will besignificant vitiating advantage of strategic location.Signature of power-distribution-treaty amongstmember countries need considerable regional-political-leadership and motivation, which may be apotential barrier similar to the interference ofZimbabwe for implementing the Kazungula corridor.
  • 5. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COAL LIQUEFACTIONBASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF NORTHEAST INDIAIn context to exporting raw-coal to the Western Worldincluding Europe through Walvis Bay corridor and toAsia (India and China) through Mozambique and/orSouth African corridors, there are a number of issuesneed to be considered for comprehensive feasibilitystudy .Mozambique and South Africa being coal producingnations, transportation of Botswana coal though thosecorridors needs careful and pragmatic evaluation incontext to the landed-cost per MT of Coal at therespective sea ports.On the other hand although apparently Namibiascoal expropriation and transportation cost is higherthan the landed cost of Botswanas coal at Walvis Bay,design and construction of an efficient railway systemmay be a serious challenge.
  • 6. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COAL LIQUEFACTIONBASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF NORTHEAST INDIABesides ensuring energy-efficient-railway system ingeneral, there are two specific techno-environmentalproblems in Walvis Bay rail corridor:- the challenge of designing a wildlife-friendly-systemfor a railway line that would pass across more than800 Km of Kalahari and Namib wildlife area- the impact of active desert on the railway
  • 7. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COAL LIQUEFACTIONBASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF NORTHEAST INDIAIn order to mitigate rail-animal conflict, consequence ofwhich may be severe, identification and construction ofsafe-passages of wildlife is an important requirementalthough such construction in plain terrain is very costly.
  • 8. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COAL LIQUEFACTIONBASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF NORTHEAST INDIAImpact of active-desert on railway track iscommon in Walvis Bay area as that hassome of the highest and active sand dunes.
  • 9. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COAL LIQUEFACTIONBASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OF NORTHEAST INDIAThe previous discussion indicates that there isconsiderable risk for the investment in bulk-transportation of coal unless an energy-efficient-transportation-system is found feasible.Such risk may not exist for local environmental-friendly-use of coal with an objective of exportingfinished product. Such products may be powergeneration and Coal TO Liquid (CTL) fuel.In this presentation an outline of feasibility ofBotswana coal liquefaction based on the experience ofNortheast India has been explored as Botswana hashuge reserve of coal.
  • 10. Today’s demand for the Conventional liquid-fuels from crude oilcan be substituted by the alternative liquid-fuels from coalLiquefaction of coal can be achieve through the Coal-To-Liquid(CTL) technologyThere are two types of CTL technologies:- Direct Coal to Liquid (DCL)- Indirect Coal to Liquid (ICL)FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COALLIQUEFACTION BASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OFNORTHEAST INDIA
  • 11. CTL has its roots in Germany. DCL was developedby Fredrich Bergius in 1917. Bergius was awardedNobel Prize in 1931 for his work on CTLSubsequently CTL–ICL was developed by FranzFischer and Hans Tropsch (FT Process) in 1923There are considerable developments since 1923and currently many countries are undertakingfurther development on CTL technologies.FEASIBILITY STUDY OF BOTSWANA COALLIQUEFACTION BASED ON THE EXPERIENCE OFNORTHEAST INDIA
  • 12. The biggest CTL–ICL (FT) onthe low cost coal is bySouth Africa Synthetic its Sasol Plant withproduction capacity ofabout 160,000 b/d.
  • 13. CTL World wide
  • 14. Resources Reserves ProductionIndiaCoal 55.6 Bt 588.5 MtCrude oil 775 Mt 45 MtBotswanaReserves ProductionCoal 7.1 Bt 3 MtCrude oil 0 0
  • 15. Map of NE India coal field (Study Area)
  • 16. Map of Botswana showingthe producing coal field
  • 18. Coal in BotswanaBotswana has extensive, large unexploitedcoal resources (212 Bt of which 7.1 Bt aremeasured reserves)Morupule Colliery Ltd is Botswana’s onlyoperating coal mine, since 1973, producesabout 3.0 Mt per annumThe Morupule contains coal of medium tolow grade sub-bituminous type suitable forCTL technology
  • 19. Deposit Company TotalTonnesMeasured(Mt)Indicated(Mt)Inferred(Mt)1 Dukwe Dukwe Asanjo 922 - 508 4142 Foley Sese African Energy 2,800 500 2,200 1093 Foley Sese NW Daheng 850 - 850 -4 Serule Sechaba Shumba 968 - - 9685 Serule Lechana Asenjo 830 - 103 7276 Serule Tshimoyapula Asenjo 1,174 - - 1,1747 Morupule Morupule Debswana 2,900 425 - 2,4838 Morupule Morupule South Hodges 2,330 - - 4149 Moiyabana Moiyabana Hodges 15,000 - - 15,00010 Mmamabula Mmamabula CIC Energy 2,346 2,313 2 3111 Mmamabula Mmamabula West Asenjo 5,364 - 573 4,79112 Mmamabula Mmamabula South Under tender 617 553 57 713 Mmamabula Mmamabula Central Under tender 408 - - 40814 Letlhakane Mmamantswe Aviva Corp 1,300 895 405 -15 Dutlwe Takatokwane Nimrodel 4,230 - - 4,230TOTAL 28,539 4,6862012 Total Tonnes (IN-SITU) after Geological Losses, Top 200 to 300m
  • 20. AreaDep.(m)Measured(Mt)Ind.(Mt)Inf.(Mt)Total(Mt)Assam 0-600 314.59 26.83 34.01 375.43Arunachal(Namchik) 0-300 31.23 40.11 18.89 90.23Meghalaya 0-300 117.83 40.89 300.71 459.43Nagaland 0-300 3.43 1.35 5.22 10.00Total 0-600 467.08 109.18 358.83 935.09CoCoalReservealCCcReservesof N467 Mt NE coal has the capacity of generating200 Mt of liquid fuelNE COAL RESERVES
  • 21. Comparison between BituminousCoal, NE Coal & Botswana coal010203040501 2 3Std. Bituminous coalfor DCLNE coalBotswana coalAsh % VM % S % others %Bituminous coal 10 42.5 0.5 47NE coal 10.26 43.32 3.48 42.94Botswana Coal 23.74 22.55 22.5 31.21
  • 22. CTL PROCESS: TECHNOLOGY OPTIONSDirectLiquefaction(DCL)IndirectLiquefaction(ICL)
  • 23. NE coal samples were obtained from Tirap Open Cast projectfrom Makum Coalfield (27°15′–27°25′N; 95°40′–95°55′E) arealies along the outermost wing of the Patkoi range in Tinsukiadistrict of Assam located at 10–15°N palaeolatitudeThe samples wereCollected from 18.29m(60ft) seam whichhave thickness of 16mDCL Technology of NE CoalMATERIALS
  • 24. Components Amount (wt %)Ash 5-10Volatile Matter (VM) 40-45Moisture 2-3Total Sulphur 1.5-6Fixed Carbon (FC) 47 (approx.)Coal Feed Analysis for DCL
  • 25. 25CTL Program Milestones of Oil India Limited1998to2002ResultsActivityTechnologyPhase IcompletedPilot Plant Run &Feasibility StudyHTI’s Direct Coalliquefaction (DCL) - Coal-only process-- do --Test Runs & FeasibilityPerformedAxens NA’s Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) -Coal-only processGoodConversion,PremiumProductPilot PlantCommissionedTest Runs &Feasibility PerformedAxens NA’s Coal-oilCo-processing -Coal + VTB (Vacuum TowerBottom)2002to20042004to2006
  • 26. H:C ratio in coal : 0.3 - 0.8H:C ratio in Oil : 1.6 to 2.0H2 + O H2OH2 +S H2 S1.5H2 + N NH3Mechanism of DCLBreak down oflarge coal smaller moleculesAddition of H2Removal of O2 , S & N2 impurities
  • 27. CTL PROCESSes
  • 28. DCL ICLAdvant-ages A conceptually simple process Produces high octane gasoline Is more energy efficient than ICL Products have higher energy densitythan those from ICL Ultra-clean products Well suited for CO2 capture Well suited for electric powercoproduction May have longer operatingexpenses than DCLDisad-vantages The product can have high aromaticcontent The diesel produced has low cetanenumber The process may have higheroperating cost than ICL Conceptually more complex thanDCL Less efficient fuel production thanDCL Produces low octane gasoline Petrol products have lower energydensity than those from DCLDCL and ICL
  • 29. DCL ICL Spec/TypicalDieselConventionalDieselSpecific gravity 0.865 0.780 0.82-0.85Cetane 42-47 70-75 >40Sulfur (ppm) <5 <1 <15Aromatics (%) 4.8 <4 <35Higher heating value (Btu/gal) 138, 100 129, 800 138, 700NaphthaConventionalGasolineSpecific gravity 0.764 0.673 0.72-0.78Octane (RON) >100 45-75 85-95Sulfur (ppm) <0.5 Nil <30Aromatics (%) 5 2 <27Higher heating value (Btu/gal) 133, 000 116, 690 124, 800Comparison of CTL end product characteristics
  • 30. PROSPECTS OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF THE PROJECT IN ASSAM• Efforts made by Ministry ofCoal/Coal India Limited (CIL)• Performance and Cost• Potentials and Barriers
  • 31. Efforts made by Ministry of Coal/CIL• A global tender was floated in 2001 by Central Mine Planning &Design Institute (CMPDI) of Govt. of India for setting up a CTLplant in India based on high ash Indian coals (>10.26 wt%) for anominal capacity of 1 Mt of liquid and gaseous products / year• On the request of OIL a study was taken up by CIL for assessingthe availability of NE coal to meet the likely requirement of coalfor commercial DCL to be set up by OIL• CIL assessed coal availability of 3.50 Mt against OILsrequirement of 4 to 5 Mt
  • 32. CTL meeting the EnvironmentalChallenges• A major concern of CTL plants is their emissions of CO2• If coal liquefaction was done without employingeither Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologiesor biomass blending, this resulted in lifecycle GHGfootprints• For future CTL projects, CO2 sequestration is proposedto avoid releasing CO2 into the atmosphere
  • 33. ConclusionThe benefits ofCTL can berealised incountries thatrely heavily onoil imports &have largedomesticreserves ofcoalBotswana willneed toconsider thesignificantvolumes ofwater requiredfor a CTL plantBotswana haveto deal withtechno-economic andenvironmentalissuesassociated withCTLBotswana haveto developnecessaryinfrastructure
  • 34. In view of risingcrude oil prices,CTL plants willremain a viableproposition & willalso go a longway for supplyingalternate fuelsourceHowever,governmentpolicies must bemore cognizant ofthe broader andlonger termimpacts of CTL oncounty’s energysecurityTheoverwhelmingresponse receivedfrom Industriesfor setting up CTLprojectsparticularly inIndia is trulyencouragingCTL technologycan bring cleanertransport fuel,reduce GHGthrough CCS andEOR andcontribute greatlyto the energybasket of ourcountry.
  • 35. Courage to Explore, Knowledge to Exceed, Technology to Excel
  • 36. Courage to Explore, Knowledge to Exceed, Technology to ExcelQuestions related to petroleum technology shall be addressed toDr (Mrs.) Subrata Borgohain Gogoi, Associate Professor,Department of Petroleum Technology, Dibrugarh University,Assam, India, Email : related to geotechnical and transportation engineeringshall be addressed to Dr D. Sarma, Cell: +267-71483232,