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David Richardson - University of Otago - Campus Watch - a most fortunate experiment - CASE STUDY: A most Fortunate Experiment: Changing student culture and attitudes (Behavior and Alcohol): Campus Watch instead of Security

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David Richardson delivered the presentation at the 2014 Campus & Student Security Conference. …

David Richardson delivered the presentation at the 2014 Campus & Student Security Conference.

The 2014 Campus & Student Security Conference emphasised the importance of engagement and communication by bringing together a broad range of stakeholders who actively exchanged ideas, initiatives and opinions around optimising student security.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://www.informa.com.au/campussecurityconference14

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  • 1. 6/23/2014 CREATING CULTURAL CHANGE-CAMPUS WATCH: A MOST FORTUNATE EXPERIMENT CHANGING STUDENT CULTURE AND ATTITUDES TO BEHAVIOR AND ALCOHOL David M Richardson Director Student Services, University of Otago, New Zealand. Oct. 1999 – June 2014.
  • 2. Page 1 of 23 Contents: CHANGING STUDENT CULTURE AND ATTITUDES TO BEHAVIOR AND ALCOHOL ........................0 Key Words...........................................................................................................................................2 Context & Qualification.......................................................................................................................2 Contextual History ..............................................................................................................................2 Success Creates its Own Set of Problems ...........................................................................................2 Societal Change...................................................................................................................................3 Mayor’s North Dunedin Working Party ..............................................................................................3 Compliance with Sale of Liquor Act in Dunedin..................................................................................4 Research..............................................................................................................................................5 Working Party on Student Behaviour in North Dunedin ....................................................................6 Working Party Membership and Report.............................................................................................6 Code of Conduct .................................................................................................................................7 The Birth of Campus Watch - Structural Change & Implementation .................................................7 Key Operational Elements of Campus Watch.....................................................................................8 Facilities...........................................................................................................................................9 Security ...........................................................................................................................................9 Operational Role of the Director of Student Services ......................................................................10 Monitoring and Evaluating the Success of Campus Watch ..............................................................10 Campus Watch comments in the Annual Student Opinion Survey ..............................................10 National Tertiary Health Surveys. .................................................................................................12 Campus Watch Reports from the Proctor’s Office. ......................................................................14 ......................................................................................................................................................18 ......................................................................................................................................................19 The Annual Reports from the Proctor’s Office provide a more overall picture of the trends and show the changes that have been achieved in recent years........................................................19 Conclusion.........................................................................................................................................21 Endnotes ...........................................................................................................................................22
  • 3. Page 2 of 23 Key Words Campus Watch CampusWatch instead of Security — Reducing Security and improving Student Safety — Changing the Culture of a Campus - Student Behaviour and Alcohol — Campus Watch and the innovative experiment at Otago University NZ that is working – Pastoral Care on legs. Context & Qualification This paper/presentation and the initiatives covered are not seen as a panacea for changing the culture in other tertiary student cultures, but are more of an example of how a home-grown solution to a unique campus environment has achieved success within that context. To outline how effective this initiative has been, the story of how the concept originated, evolved and became an operational entity, is what this paper records. Contextual History The University of Otago is NZ oldest University, founded in 1869. By the 1960’s there were around 3,000 students enrolled and this has grown to around 22,000 students today. Over the same period NZ’s population has grown to 4.5 million with Auckland, the largest city now containing around a quarter of the country’s population at 1.4 million. By contrast, the University of Otago is based at the southern end of NZ in the city of Dunedin, a city that was once NZ’s largest city but which over the last century has had very modest growth and is now NZ’s 5th ranked city with a population of 120,000.i The slow growth of the city is in marked contrast to that of the University - to the point where Dunedin is now a relatively small city with a comparatively large University: a University City (a small city with the University being the largest employer and source of economic activity) similar to Oxford and Cambridge. Otago is a member of the Matariki Networkii , a group of Universities that share this small city - significant University context, with attributes such as high academic research reputation and intensity, and significant campus-based student accommodation. Members of the network include Durham in the UK, Uppsala in Sweden, Tubingen in Germany, Queens in Canada, Dartmouth in the USA, and the University of Western Australia in Perth. In Otago’s case this means that the majority of its 4,000 1st year student intake is accommodated in residential colleges; structured to provide comprehensive wraparound pastoral, academic and social support. Success Creates its Own Set of Problems The above, along with the unique quality of the campus environment and lifestyle, in conjunction with the high academic reputation of the University, have seen Otago University become a very desirable place for young New Zealanders to receive their tertiary education, so much so that currently 83% of its students come from areas beyond Dunedin City.iii The nature of student accommodation at Otago is such that the majority of first year students reside in one of 15 Colleges of Residence, while most of the second year and older students go “flatting” (independent living with fellow students) in “flats” (houses that were former family homes) around the campus boundary. A car is unnecessary for a Dunedin-based Otago student as all parts of the campus and access to the city centre can be easily walked in about 15 minutes or less. There has been rapid growth in University enrolments since the 1960’s, with most students, other than first years in Residential Colleges, finding accommodation within 1-2 kilometres of the University in houses that were formerly family homes. While the land area involved in student accommodation has not increased significantly, the residential density in the campus area has. The area now has NZ’s highest concentration of 15 - 19 years olds and the 3rd highest concentration of 20 – 29 year olds by Electorate. iv
  • 4. Page 3 of 23 Societal Change The last 50 years have seen marked changes in society which have affected values, behaviour, and how people relate to each other. Many of these changes have been associated with the growth of greater individual choice, and the impact of technology; space, computers, the internet, birth control, and social media to name just a few. One such change that impacted on NZ society was the liberalisation of laws governing the sale and use of alcohol in 2000. The intention of the legislation at the time was to remove many of the former restrictions around the sale and use of alcohol: as a strategy in encouraging what was perceived as more civilised Western European attitudes to alcohol. The impact this has had on ensuing generations of teenagers, together with what we know from recent research about the effects on brain development of 18 to 24 year olds, have all aligned to what has become a perfect storm. Youth and young adults’ drinking patterns have taken on a new dimension, with binge drinking occurring with large numbers of teenagers in their early to mid-teens still at high school, with the objective often being just to get ‘wasted’. In New Zealand there has been considerable debate over the laws governing alcohol, with the University making a significant contribution to the debate through its research. The NZ Law Society with its then President, the Right Honourable Sir Geoffrey Palmer SC, undertook a review for Government with the findings published in its report, “Alcohol in Our Lives” v The University of Otago made a submission and met with Sir Geoffrey and the Parliamentary Select Committee which Government set up following its receipt of the report. Prior to the legislative changes affecting alcohol in the 1990’s , many students learnt about alcohol at University whereas now they arrive at University with well-established patterns of drinking; with women often now being more problematic then men as a result of their excessive consumption of new forms of alcohol targeted at women (alcopops) . The University of Otago, with its high concentration of 18 to 25 year olds, became as a serendipitous consequence of its unique setting, a living laboratory of these changes. The initial indicators were the increasing level of negative behavioural incidents being reported from the community at large and the media in particular. For the University it became a reputational risk, as large-scale, informal alcohol events initiated through social media rapidly grew, causing significant social and community disorder at times. The University’s response to these escalating events in North Dunedin was to increase its research activity around the problems, and implement a series of research-based based initiatives and innovations based on best practice. Mayor’s North Dunedin Working Party Such was the level of escalating, alcohol-fuelled, night-time behaviour incidents, that in 2002 the then Mayor of Dunedin, Sukhi Turner, convened a meeting of all key stake-holders in the North Dunedin area; this was a high level working party, initially tasked with addressing matters relating to rubbish and a new DCC (Dunedin City Council) recycling system. However, the focus of the Working Party during Peter Chin’s term as Mayor (2004 -2010) moved to the escalating issues of student alcohol-fuelled disorderly behaviour in the North Dunedin campus area. The the Working Party chaired by the Mayor, included the author representing the University. The Working Party met two to three times a year and, amongst other things, commissioned an Environmental Safety Audit of North Dunedin which identified many issues of concernvi . For both the University and the City, matters culminated following a weekend of alcohol-fuelled rioting as a result of the annual visit from the University of Canterbury Engineering students, for what had become the notorious “Undie 500’ event. In the years 2000 – 2009 the disorder from these events escalated. An extract from the local newspaper, the Otago Daily Times, gives a vivid account of how serious these events had become.vii
  • 5. Page 4 of 23 “The pleas of the police, Otago University and the city's mayor Peter Chin were ignored once again last night as a large mob, mainly made up of students, clashed with police for a second night in Dunedin's student area. A crowd about the same size as Friday night's 600-strong group gathered once again in Castle St last night, seemingly waiting for a reaction from police.  Undie 500 'has outlived welcome' At 12.30 am they got it when, after donning body armour, batons, helmets and shields, police charged them down Castle St to the Otago University campus in a display that was almost an exact replay of the night before. This is the third consecutive year the Undie 500 rally, involving a pub crawl from Christchurch to Dunedin, in cars worth under $500, has led to disorder. Until about 10.30 pm yesterday Castle St had been relatively quiet with a large police presence, both on foot and in patrol cars, keeping a lid on various parties in the area. Dozens of arrests for breaching the temporary liquor ban were made before police were diverted to crowd control about 11.30pm as large groups of people flowed in to Castle St. About 12.30 am, the crowd, which up until then had been dancing in the streets, started throwing bottles at officers attempting to disperse them. It was then that police deployed team policing units wearing body armour, helmets and shields. In reaction the crowd ran as one to where team policing units were putting their gear on and began throwing more bottles, chanting and challenging police. As they moved the crowd down Castle St, police cleared and entered several properties, meeting some resistance at times. Members of Otago University's Campus Watch team were stationed along the street during the evening to ensure no fires were set, and were largely successful. About 1.30 am police had moved the remaining crowd, about 200 people, on to Otago University campus. Once the armoured police had dispersed the crowd, Castle St was quiet again within minutes.” Compliance with Sale of Liquor Act in Dunedin. With the growing dominance of the ‘University Industry’ in the Dunedin economy during the 1980’s & 90’s (increasingly a University City), there was a widespread tolerance to the growth of student enrolments because of the direct benefit to the local economy, and to what locals called accompanying and increasing ‘hi jinx’ associated with students. The vast majority of Dunedin residents lived some distance away in remoter suburbs little affected by these ‘hi jinx’, other than
  • 6. Page 5 of 23 what they read in the newspaper. A special Town-Gown relationship has existed since the early days of the University, and has been strengthened by structured meetings at various levels between the Vice-Chancellor and Mayor, and with many levels of management below them. This growing relationship included greater tolerance towards matters to do with meeting student and University needs, and this included how the Sale of Liquor Act was managed in the Campus area. By 2000, there was generally a liberal laissez-faire attitude with regards to alcohol outlet licencing and to how strictly the Act was being enforced in the Dunedin campus area. The University’s view up to this period had been that what occurred in the student residential quarter on non-University land was not the University’s concern or responsibility. Meanwhile, a growing body of research on alcohol-related harm in the New Zealand in general and the tertiary environment including Dunedin in particular, accompanied by the escalating number of alcohol-fuelled incidents occurring in the student quarter, saw a dramatic change of approach by the University: using this research-based evidence it responded to address what had now become a reputational matter for the University itself. While much of this research is referenced at the end of this paper, it was research such as the “Alcohol Outlet Density and University Student Drinking: a National Study (2008)”viii which showed the impact of and the extent to which this higher concentration of alcohol outlets near Universities was having. The University started putting pressure on the local authority re the number of liquor outlets and the need to ‘notify’ all applications for new licences by would-be holders. At the same time it took a direct approach by tackling Licence holders known for making significant breaches of the Sale of Liquor Act. The University, through its Director of Student Services, filed notices of Objection in the Dunedin District Licencing Agency as follows:  January 2007 – The Gardens Tavern (a 1960’s built Tavern in the heart of the student residential district surrounded by student flats) re the extension of its hours to trade.ix  June 2008 -The Bowling Green (a long established pub in the heart of the University’s Health Science precinct, opposite two Colleges of Residence, and adjacent to the base hospital for the region) re the renewal of its Liquor Licence.x  October 2008 - The Captain Cook Tavern (probably the best known student pub in Dunedin some 30 meters from the Bowling Green pub mentioned above, and founded 30 years before the University moved to its current site in 1878) re the renewal of its Liquor Licence.xi The University was successful in each of these cases, and it is interesting to note that all 3 businesses seemed unable to operate commercially as when forced to comply with the requirements of the Act and the conditions imposed on them by the Court, all 3 ceased trading shortly afterwards. Research Research has been a prime element in initially identifying and quantifying the scale and nature of the problem, and in providing evidence of what strategies work. Since the early 2000’s, a series of local research initiatives have been undertaken (initially by Kypros Kypri and associates)xii . The initial research undertaken by Kyp, while undertaking his PhD at Otago University, was a study of student drinking in Colleges of Residence. Subsequent research activity built on these findings, including three national tertiary health studies undertaken in in 2007, 2009 and 2013, by the Injury Prevention Research Unit at Otago University. Other studies covered the density of alcohol outlets around campuses and the effectiveness of tools used in managing hazardous drinking. The nature of a number of these research studies, and what they were investigating, was such that the tertiary institutions or the Residential Colleges participated only on
  • 7. Page 6 of 23 the basis that their College or Tertiary Institution would not be specifically identified (reputational risks in a competitive environment), and have not been made public. Until around 2005, the University view was that what students did in their own time and own place was their business, and that it was only University business if transgressions occurred on University Property or at official University functions. This view came increasingly under pressure as alcohol- fuelled significant events, often described as riots in the media, gained local, national and, on 3 occasions, global attention. Following the appointment of a new Vice-Chancellor in 2004, the University decided it needed to take a lead in what was becoming a reputational issue for the University. The Vice Chancellor, Professor Sir David Skegg (2004 – 2011), set in motion a working party tasked with identifying if there was in fact a student behaviour problem and, if there was, who should respond to it and what should be done about it. The working party surveyed all staff, all students, all businesses and residents in the North Dunedin community, asking the same questions. The response that came back from all sectors was loud, clear and almost unanimous. Yes, there was a problem, and all sectors of the community thought the University had a responsibility to deal with the situation. Working Party on Student Behaviour in North Dunedin The Vice-Chancellor’s initial response to the survey was to establish a small, high-level Working Party on Student Behaviour, with membership confined to individuals at both the Governance and Senior Management levels, and including two students of the OUSA, both of whom were senior law students at the time. Working Party Membership and Reportxiii Associate Professor James Higham (Convenor) Department of Tourism Associate Professor Margaret Baird Department of Microbiology Miss Lorraine Isaacs Member of Council Mr Stuart McLauchlan Member of Council Mr David Richardson Director of Student Services Mr Simon Thompson Proctor Mr Steven Sutton President, OUSA Ms Renee Heal OUSA Executive and President the following year. In summary, the Working Party advised the Vice-Chancellor that:  The University should have a public voice on issues of relevance to student behaviour.  The University should develop, in collaboration with OUSA, a Code of Conduct to provide any who enrol with guidance on the standards of behaviour expected of all students.  The Code of Conduct should be incorporated into the University of Otago Discipline Regulations to allow the Proctor to act effectively against disruptive and anti-social behaviour that is not deemed sufficiently serious to warrant a Police response.  The University should support and adequately resource the Office of the Proctor to ensure the full and effective delivery of both preventative and responsive measures aimed at achieving a healthy and safe campus and wider North Dunedin environment.  The University should continue to work constructively with stakeholders through the North Dunedin Working Party and Tertiary Sector Planning Group. These measures (and others outlined in the report) stopped short of the University developing full disciplinary regulations. Rather, the recommended strategy was generally one of a collaborative community approach directed at changing the current culture of behaviour. The effectiveness of any University responses should be monitored. Concerns for student behaviour were sufficiently strong
  • 8. Page 7 of 23 that the University flagged that, if the current culture was not significantly changed, it would need to strengthen its disciplinary regulations to overcome this problem. Code of Conduct A working group subsequently developed a Code of Student Conduct xiv that:  Formalised the basic rules of conduct required of students  Identified the individuals and bodies that were to be authorised to exercise disciplinary authority.  Set out the powers of the Proctor and Provost. Enrolment for all students at Otago University is now conditional on each student agreeing and signing the agreement that they will abide by University Regulations, including the Student Code of Conduct and the disciplinary regulations that accompany them. http://www.otago.ac.nz/proctor/codeofconduct/ The Birth of Campus Watch - Structural Change & Implementation The Concept of Campus Watch as implemented at Otago was originally devised by David Richardson, the then Student Services Director, and a former Secondary School Principal, together with Simon Thompson, a former policeman and the then and current University Proctor. Both brought considerable experience from their professional pasts. An extensive global search of how other Universities and communities managed similar situations was undertaken by the Director of Student Services. A literature review at the same time identified the STAND (Strategy to Tackle all Night Disorder) project in Colchester as an initiative which might have relevance to the Dunedin situation of managing a night-time economy,xv as well as Cardiff University: the latter because of a previous visit by the Director of Student Services in 2000 when some parallels were observed. Their Proctor’s Office was run in conjunction with a then innovative marketing approach, where the University was emphasising its focus on student safety strategies that had been introduced. These strategies as implemented through their Proctor’s Office had a pastoral care focus. This service had an accompanying comprehensive CCTV system that the University had invested in, and was operated in conjunction with a CCTV system run by the Cardiff police in Central Cardiff. This was a peripheral observation in 2000 and not the focus of that visit. A fact finding site visit to Colchester & Cardiff was undertaken in 2005 as a precursor to developing a new strategy at Otago. Colchester, the night time socialising centre for students from nearby Essex University and a nearby UK Army base. A good summary of the Colchester environment has more recently been published xvi and is available on the web at http://www.colchester.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=7366&p=0 There are many parallels between Colchester and the experience at Otago. The Vice-Chancellor and University Council subsequently adopted all the recommendations, formalised the decision through policy and statute changes, and the Director of Student Services was tasked and funded to establish and set in operation Campus Watch. Thirty-seven new staff were recruited, including a Co-ordinator to make up 5 teams of 7; each team consisting of a Team Leader, a Control Room Operator and 5 Campus Watch Team members who walk the Campus 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and 365 days a year. Initially a temporary building was obtained before appropriate extensions and refitting of the Proctor’s Office were completed.
  • 9. Page 8 of 23 The job descriptions for Campus Watch had a focus on the ability to work and engage positively with young people. Mature people of both genders with a diversity of life experience were sought, with remuneration set above the levels earned by security staff because of the skill and experience level sought. The Person Specification section of the Campus Watch job description identifies the qualities sought: xvii  An ability to relate to young people.  Excellent communication skills.  A high standard of common sense, patience and tact.  An ability to form effective working relationships with people of varying backgrounds.  A reasonable knowledge of relevant New Zealand law.  Be physically fit and healthy.  Have no criminal convictions and be willing to undergo a Police clearance check.  Possess a current Driver’s Licence.  Possess an up-to-date First Aid Certificate.  A well-developed sense of humour. For the Team Leaders, the additional requirements were:  Proven supervisory experience.  Tertiary qualification.  Proven ability to relate to young people.  Computer literate.  A good working knowledge of relevant New Zealand law.  Hold a current First Aid Certificate.  Hold, or be willing to obtain, a Firearms Licence (in order to manage a campus secure firearms lockup for students involved in hunting and fishing).” The first Campus Watch staff began their employment in January 2007, coinciding with the termination of a security contract with a local security firm. While there was widespread support for the University responding to the situation, there was also vociferous opposition from a minority who feared the introduction of a ‘police state’ into University life. Key Operational Elements of Campus Watch At the start of each shift, a briefing of incidents and follow-ups required from the previous shift occurs in the muster room. A shift report is prepared at the end of each shift ( 3 shift reports per day) containing a summary of incidents and observations, with incidents and log file attached and emailed to all members of the Proctor’s Office, including all Campus Watch members and the Director of Student Services. A close liaison is maintained with the Campus Cop and NZ police. Campus Watch staff are distinctively uniformed for all seasons, with additional high-visibility elements to ensure they are clearly visible. They are equipped with essential equipment for 24 hour a day work, including two-way radios linked to each other and the control room. The emphasis is on foot patrols and engagement with students. Campus Watch is supported by two vehicles, an all- purpose dedicated Campus Watch 4 door double cab Mitsubishi Trojan kitted out for emergency incident management responses, and a large Mazda saloon used for the Campus Safety Patrol.
  • 10. Page 9 of 23 The Safety Patrolxviii operates on the busy social nights of the week, staffed by a male and female member of the Campus Watch team. They are tasked with driving round the local parties and pubs looking for students who have become isolated from their friends or who look unsteady on their feet. Students in this condition are offered a lift home. If the student is moderately intoxicated, a friend or flat mate is found to accompany them and look after them. If it is a case of severe intoxication where the student’s life is at risk, they are either taken directly to the nearby hospital or an ambulance is called. In all such cases a follow-up pastoral visit is made the next day by a member of the next day shift: they also receive a personal summons to the Proctor for a focused conversation. In most of these cases the student is referred to the Health Educator in Student Health and is required to undertake an alcohol awareness programme.xix In repeat or serious cases, the student will receive a personal summons to visit the Vice Chancellor (A Psychologist) for a more in- depth discussion of their record and future. A 0800 phone number to the Campus Watch Control Room, with no cost to users and operating 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, is widely publicised, with all staff and students encouraged to have this number in their cell phones. A walk home service is offered to students and staff (walk to car for staff). Students now tend to ring Campus Watch rather than the police when incidents occur that affect their personal safety, and where an immediate response is required. While this is discouraged for serious threats, the message being Police first and Campus Watch second; students still tend to use Campus Watch as their first call for help as they perceive a generally faster response from people who they know and trust. As the role of Campus Watch is primarily pastoral, they have no special authority other than being able to require a student to show their student identity card on request. Campus Watch’s authority and influence come from their personality, maturity and experience with young people, and the high level communications systems in place. And now, after several years of operation, their reputation is such that they are held in high regard by most. The University backs them to the hilt, with expectations that they are treated with the same courtesy and respect as any other member of the University community. Alcohol fuelled events at night can sometimes test this and, when they do, the Vice Chancellor has, based on the particular evidence in each case, excluded students who have been abusive verbally or physically to Campus Watch staff. Facilities Campus Watch operates from a dedicated facility containing a muster room, control room, Coordinator’s Office and shared Team Leader’s space, for writing shift reports and accessing the iTrack data base on which all incidents are recorded. The Proctor, his Deputy and his Administrator share the same facility along with the Campus Copxx , a dedicated member of the NZ police force. Security Campus Watch acts as the eyes and ears of the Campus. Staff perform a nightly check of building security and the state of the campus. On a large campus there is rarely a night when some trade specialist is not called out to repair campus facilities or to temporarily secure facilities damaged as a result of weather or some other event. All hazards are noted both on the campus and out in the North Dunedin areas of the city, with the appropriate campus or local authority notified at the time via the control room. During the quieter times of the day shift they also perform a cash escort service between campus businesses and the bank. These activities are carried out according to standard security procedures with an appropriately equipped vehicle.
  • 11. Page 10 of 23 Operational Role of the Director of Student Services The Director receives an emailed copy of each shift report as they are filed at 7.00am, 5.00pm and between 12.00 & 3.00am (time dependant if an extra swing shift is operating on the traditional busy social nights). Using a smart phone with clip and paste, the Director identifies important elements in the report and decides if there is a need for others in the senior management team to be given an early ‘heads up’. The most frequent of these are to the Vice Chancellor, the Chief Operating Officer, and the Director of Accommodation, College Heads, the Director of Property Services, and always to the University Duty Media Liaison Manager. At other times it is to the Heads of business, service or academic units if there has been an incident that is likely to affect their work that day, such as damage to their work facility. The Director meets with the Proctor twice weekly, before and after weekends, usually to discuss upcoming events or to follow up on incidents and individuals involved. Monitoring and Evaluating the Success of Campus Watch Before Campus Watch was launched, the Director of Student Services in discussion with Dr Kypros Kypri (University of Otago & University of Newcastle), identified a suitable student, Kim Cousins from the University of Otago’s Department of Preventative & Social Medicine; her made her an ideal PhD candidate to study the impact of Campus Watch on the campus culture. Kim Cousins began her PhD work at the time Campus Watch was launched in 2007, with the PhD being confirmed in 2013xxi . The Results and Conclusion from this PHD confirmed the success of this initiative. “Results: The process evaluation showed that the broad objectives of the programme allowed it to be responsive to the needs of the North Dunedin community. Campus Watch staff were highly visible in the area and were well received, with high levels of satisfaction among students and other residents. The impact and outcome evaluations showed significant decreases in student alcohol consumption, some types of alcohol-related harms, nuisance fires, and other forms of social disorder in the wider university area. Crime rates decreased in the Campus Watch area after 18 months of the programme’s introduction and continued to decrease to the end of 2010. There were no significant changes in North Dunedin residents’ perceptions of their neighbourhood or its problems between 2008 and 2009. Conclusions: Campus Watch had a positive impact on students and the North Dunedin community, by reducing hazardous drinking, some alcohol-related harms, crime rates, and nuisance fires. The programme’s flexibility and its balance between enforcement and pastoral care were important to the programme’s success. A clarification of its role within the university and the wider community and the development of effective indicators to measure further changes will help the programme adapt in light of imminent legislative changes surrounding the sale and supply of alcohol.” Campus Watch has also been monitored by two other specific external ongoing research projects, along with regular monthly and annual reports from the Proctor’s Office. Campus Watch comments in the Annual Student Opinion Survey The annual Student Opinion surveyxxii , run by the University Quality Advancement Office, provides useful insight into how Campus Watch has been perceived, while the Tertiary National Health Surveys provide detailed comparative and trend analysis. The Quality Advancement Office at the University of Otago conducted an analysis in 2013 of the free text comments in the Survey across
  • 12. Page 11 of 23 and including the period prior to implementation, and in the first few years after the implementation of Campus Watch.xxiii Fig. 1 & 2 from this report and the report’s conclusion below summarise how quickly students affirmed the role of Campus Watch. “Conclusion Results from this analysis support the positive assessment of the Campus Watch initiative reported in the Review of the Proctor's Office (University of Otago 2010) and adds a new dimension to this 'success story' by demonstrating a clear improvement in students' perception of Campus Watch over time. The results highlight some interesting distinctions between gender and ethnicity, which may have implications for the implementation of similar schemes, or warrant reflection in the context of marketing strategies. The study also suggests that despite the student disquiet and negative
  • 13. Page 12 of 23 reactions highlighted in media reports there was considerable support for the new initiative amongst the student body and that, over time, this support has solidified.” National Tertiary Health Surveys. The second piece of significant research was a series of National Tertiary Surveys undertaken by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago.xxiv This series of Tertiary Student Health Surveys aimed to contribute to the understanding of the prevalence and causes of student health risk behaviours and related outcomes, with a primary focus on alcohol consumption and its consequences. Students were surveyed in 2005, 2007, 2009, and most recently in 2013. All of the surveys have used the same sampling and recruitment procedures to permit comparisons over time. In 2005, 3,300 students from five New Zealand universities (six campuses) (response 63%) and six polytechnic institutions (response 24%) were surveyed. Measures included alcohol use, diet, physical activity, smoking, and symptoms of depressed mood. The 2007 survey had 3,667 students from six universities (eight campuses) (response 65%) surveyed. Because of the poor response rate from polytechnics in 2005, those institutions were not re- surveyed. The 2007 survey included questions about alcohol use, its consequences, the environments in which alcohol was purchased and consumed, subjective effects of alcohol, student participation in the community, and use of herbal highs (party pills) with alcohol. A further two years later in 2009, 5,770 students (response 51%) were surveyed from the same six universities (eight campuses) that participated in 2007. The focus of the 2009 survey was similar to the 2007 survey, and asked questions about alcohol use and its consequences, purchase and consumption environments, subjective effects of alcohol, herbal highs (party pills), sexual health, and mental health and wellbeing. The most recent Tertiary Student Health Survey 2013xxv surveyed students from five universities (five campuses). As previously, the focus was alcohol consumption and consequences, with students also asked questions about recreational drug use, general health (smoking, diet, physical activity, screen time), sexual health and attraction, mental health, and problematic relationships with food. For the Otago University component of the survey, an additional section about Campus Watch was added to the questionnaire for the surveys post 2007 and 2013. Three Tables extracted from the report to Otago University follow as they provide an excellent summary of:  Students’ experience and perception of Campus Watch (table 9).  Perceived effectiveness of Campus Watch (table 10).  Overall perception of Campus Watch (table 10)
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  • 15. Page 14 of 23 While there are some interesting but not surprising differences in how male and female students have responded in some situations, there is an overwhelming general support and appreciation for the nature and manner in which Campus Watch both operate and undertake their responsibilities. Campus Watch Reports from the Proctor’s Office. As mentioned earlier, each Campus Watch shift provides a detailed report on their shift which enables the Proctor and Director to provide quick responses at all levels to situations as they arise.
  • 16. Page 15 of 23 The following is a typical example of a Campus Watch Shift Report which shows both the structure and content of a report. This report was filed after a typical Saturday night just before the Early Shift began at 7.00 am on the Sunday morning. To each report is attached a copy of the Incidents File recorded in the iTrack data base along with the log file of all activities recorded in the database from the control room. Personal and confidential information has been removed. Shift: 10.05 Night Charlie Team deployed to the southern streets at the commencement of our shift and, as you would expect, we found that the foot traffic was very heavy. Starters Bar was packed but the crowd was well supervised, well behaved, and we were caused no issues. There were a few parties around the area and in particular xx Hyde Street and xx Clyde Street had sizeable numbers in attendance. xx Hyde street made the most mess and an early morning door knock would be appreciated so that they can clean their mess up. xx Clyde Street decided to set fire to a couch and, for their efforts, the entire flat has been directed to the Proctor. Incident is recorded below. The safety car found themselves in the thick of it on a couple of occasions and were on hand when a former student appeared to be suffering from the effects of some sort of drug. Transported to Hospital she was seen by casualty staff and EPS before been admitted. Later in the evening, the safety car was also in the right place at the right time when a group of males started fighting outside George Street Normal School. The Police weren’t too far behind and, after a bit of an area search, two of the main offenders were arrested. Both incidents are below. There was also a fire discovered at the rear of xxx Castle Street. A couch, general rubbish and a car tyre had been soaked in some sort of accelerant in a communal yard area at the rear of the flat and the offenders made good their escape before the attendance of CW. The safety car transported 21 passengers. Deployment: North Bxxxxxxx South Cxxxxxx/Sxxxxxx Central Control Kxxxxx T/L Dxxxx Safety Patrol: Cxxxx/Sxxxx Security Team: N/A Staff Absent/Reason: Axxx :Annual Leave Txxxx: ADO Names of Students Reporting to Proctor: In relation to incident 0491
  • 17. Page 16 of 23 ExxxBxxxxx SID:XXXXXXXX Tel:027xxxxxxxx ; Axxxx Lxxxxx SID:yyyyyyyy Tel:027zzzzzzzzzz; Nxxxx Lxxxx SID:xxxxxxx Tel:027vvvvvvvvvvvvvv; Kzzzzz Izzzz SID:zzzzzzz Tel:021zzzzzzz Excessively / Dangerously Intoxicated: N/A Notable Incidents: Incident 489 : Couch, general rubbish and a car tyre burning in a communal area at the rear of 627 Castle Street. At about 2:45am on Sunday 11th May 2014, Dxxxx and Byyyy were walking north on Leith Street when they saw smoke rising from a yard somewhere between Leith and Castle Street. CW made their way through the rear gardens of the properties until they discovered the blaze at the rear of xxx Castle Street. The fire had been set in a communal yard area and consisted of a couch, general rubbish and a car tyre. CW had discovered these items prior to them being ignited a short time earlier. DL 7444 refers. Due to the size and location of the blaze, the Fire Service was requested and attended a short time later. The Police were also in attendance but at this time, and although they spoke to a group of four males outside 617 Castle Street, the offenders could not be identified. All useful enquiries were completed at the time of attendance. Incident 490: Non student at risk. At approximately 0107hrs MxxxBxxxx was placed into the Safety Car with an unknown male at corner of Brooke Street and Castle Street. When Mxxx was asked where she lived she could not answer, the male with her said nothing. Mxxx was asked if she was a University student to which she stated she was but, when asked to present ID, she could not find her wallet. The Safety Car located CW Sxxx and asked that he make a check of eVision in hopes of locating Mxxxx. The unknown male was removed from the car and no record of current University status could be found for Mxxx. Mxxx was asked several times to provide an address, to which she would state, " It's ok" or "I'm good", and showed signs of being intoxicated by a substance other than alcohol. Mxxx was presented at Police Central where again she would not answer questioning. She was referred to A&E and seen by E.P.S. Both agreed that given her statements and being at risk she was best to stay in hospital. Incident 491 : Couch burning outside XX Clyde Street. At about 1:30am on Sunday 11th May 2014, Bxxx and Exxx were made aware via Police comms that there was a fire in the southern sector. CW walked along Albany Street checking all the side streets and came across the Police and Fire Service outside xx Clyde Street where they had just extinguished a burning couch.
  • 18. Page 17 of 23 CW spoke to the Police about the incident and were told that the couch had come from xx Clyde Street as drag marks were evident on the road. At this time there was a party taking place at number xx. The Police were happy to leave the matter with CW and one of the house occupants was identified as; Exxx Bxxxx SID:XXXXXX Tel:027YYYYY Exxx stated that it was her birthday, she was very co-operative and upset that her couch got burnt. Exxx was informed that she, along with the other occupants of the address, must attend and formally speak with the Proctor at 08:30 on 12.05.14. Incident 492 : Safety Car reports a fight outside George Street Normal School. At approximately 0305hrs, the Safety Car reported a fight taking place outside George Street Normal School. Several individuals were seen to be fighting. As CW approached the group, they stopped fighting and took to opposite sides of the street. One group that appeared to be the aggressors went into the school grounds. All in this group were underage. Several abused CW as they were followed into the school. Police had been notified and they joined CW in searching the school grounds. Several were able to escape to Duke Street and were chased by the Police, but two others were located in the school grounds with one found hiding on a school building roof. The three University students that were assaulted stated that, "they were talking all kinds of mess back from the Rob Roy Dairy but we didn't care until one in the group tossed a bottle at us from across the street and almost hit the girl in our group. Then they came up to us and started fighting with us". Offenders arrested by Police. Follow -ups: In relation to incident 0488 : Can early shift please visit AxxxDXXX at zz Crown Street to check on her welfare and offer advice if appropriate. xx Hyde Street : Can a visit be made to this address as they will need to clear up last night’s mess. Ixxx Dxxx Charlie Team Campus Watch University Of Otago Monthly Reports from the Proctor’s Office, including from Campus Watch, provide an important analysis of current trends and key indicators. Some extracts from the May 2014 Report follow.
  • 19. Page 18 of 23
  • 20. Page 19 of 23 PROCTOR’S OFFICE QUARTERLY RECORDING: Jan-Apr 2013 Jan-Apr 2014 Breach of University Alcohol Regulations 5 1 Breach of University Regulations 9 18 Suspicious Person 111 46 Disorderly Behaviour 91 79 Possession/Supply Drugs 1 3 Fires 85 50 Glass 35 39 Medical/Psychiatric Assistance 53 60 Noise Control 31 50 Offensive Behaviour 10 8 Theft 43 18 Violence 12 15 Wilful Damage 39 24 Change % Change Total 472 411 61 12.92% The Annual Reports from the Proctor’s Officexxvi provide a more overall picture of the trends and show the changes that have been achieved in recent years.
  • 21. Page 20 of 23 Comment: The Proctor noted that most of the increase in disorderly behaviour in 2013 related to one very large flat complex where there were 16 instances of disorderly behaviour.
  • 22. Page 21 of 23 Conclusion The focus of this paper has been on the Campus Watch initiative itself and, after 7 years of operation, the research and evaluation accompanying this initiative to date confirms that this initiative has been a significant success. It needs to be acknowledged that the level of success could never have been achieved were it not for the leadership from the top, in the form of two successive Vice-Chancellors and the Senior Management Team who committed to the concept and who have given it their full backing. This, plus an effective network of student support service providers in the wider Student Services and Accommodation Divisions together with the OUSA (Otago University Students Association), has meant that all those with a significant interface with students are effectively networked, with a common focus on Student welfare where students are recognised as individuals by staff who care about their individual welfare. The structures and networks set up assist them to confidently take or make referrals of individual cases; a Student Health Service providing quality primary health care, in conjunction with a Health Educator, Counselling and Psychiatric Service where relationships of trust and confidence with other key members of the student support network (such as Residential College Heads, Campus Watch and the Proctor, Disabilities Support, Maori & Pacific support) are seen as fundamental. Ensuring that these key people all know each other well, to the level that they are confident in knowing where assistance can be assured, has been critical. Throughout, the Director Student Services has seen his role as keeping a more distant oversight, ensuring that the appropriate people are talking to each other to
  • 23. Page 22 of 23 avoid individual students falling through the cracks. Through the efforts of a connected network this initiative has indeed been a success. Kia Kaha. Endnotes i Statistics NZ 2013 Census ii http://www.matarikinetwork.com/ iii University of Otago Annual Report 2013 iv http://www.parliament.nz/enz/mpp/electorates/data/DBHOH_Lib_EP_Dunedin%20North_Data_4/dunedin- north-people#_10 v Alcohol in our lives: an issues paper on the reform of New Zealand’s liquor laws. (Issues paper ; 15) ISBN 978- 1-877316-72-2 (pbk.)— ISBN 978-1-877316-73-9 (online) vi The Safety Assessment for Dunedin North Dunedin City Council, Dunedin Police, Otago University, Otago Polytechnic, Dunedin College of Education and Public Health South September 2005. A report prepared by: Bell Planning Associates 1025 Greenhill Road, Summertown SA 5141 Australia vii Otago Daily Times – Debbie Porteous on Sun, 13 Sep 2009 viii Kypros Kypri1,2, Melanie L. Bell3, Geoff C. Hay2 & Joanne Baxter4 School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Australia,1 Injury Prevention Research Unit, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, New Zealand,2 Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, New Zealand3 and NgaiTahu Maori Health Research Centre, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, New Zealand. ix Submission in January 2007 by David M Richardson Director Student Services at the University of Otago Re Resource Consent Application No: RMA2006-1081 : Peter Harmer Innes-Jones Location of Site: 697 Castle Street, Dunedin, being that land legally described as Lot 1 Deposited Plan 324509 (Certificate of Title 98927) This submission from the University of Otago opposed any extension to the hours of operation of the Gardens Tavern. x Objection by the University of Otago Re: Application by Rosehill Properties Ltd for Renewal of it’s On and Off Licence at the Bowling Green Hotel, 71 Frederick Street, Dunedin. David M Richardson Director Student Services June 2008 xi Objection by University of Otago with the Dunedin District Licensing Authority re an application by STAB IN THE DARK LIMITED pursuant to s.18 of the Act for renewal of an on-licence in respect of premises situated at 354 Great King Street, Dunedin, known as “Captain Cook Tavern. This case was heard before Judge Unwin in the Liquor Licensing Court late in 2009 with the David M Richardson Director Student Services representing the University of Otago. xii Kypri, K., Bell, M. L., Hay, G. C., & Baxter, J. (2008a). Alcohol outlet density and university student drinking: a national study. Addiction, 103(7), 1131-1138. doi: 10.1111/j.1360- 0443.2008.02239.x Kypri, K., Cronin, M., & Wright, C. S. (2005a). Do university students drink more hazardously than their non-student peers? Addiction, 100(5), 713-714. Kypri, K., Hallett, J., Howat, P., McManus, A., Maycock, B., Bowe, S., & Horton, N. (2009a). Randomized controlled trial of proactive web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention for university students. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(16), 1508-1514. Kypri, K., Langley, J., & Stephenson, S. (2005b). Episode-centred analysis of drinking to intoxication in university students. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 40(5), 447- 452. Kypri, K., Langley, J. D., McGee, R., Saunders, J. B., & Williams, S. (2002). High prevalence, persistent hazardous drinking among New Zealand tertiary students. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 37(5), 457-464. Kypri, K., Langley, J. D., Saunders, J. B., Cashell-Smith, M. L., & Herbison, P. (2008b). Randomized controlled trial of Web- based alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(5), 530-536. Kypri, K., Maclennan, B., Langley, J., & Connor, J. (2011a). The Alcohol Reform Bill: More tinkering than reform in response to the New Zealand public's demand for better liquor laws. Drug and Alcohol Review, 30(4), 428- 433. Kypri, K., Paschall, M. J., Langley, J., Baxter, J., Cashell-Smith, M., & Bourdeau, B. (2009b). Drinking and alcohol-related harm among New Zealand university students: findings from a national Web-based survey. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 33(2), 307-314. Kypri, K., Samaranayaka, A., Connor, J., Langley, J. D., & Maclennan, B. (2011b). Non- response bias in a web-based health behaviour survey of New Zealand tertiary students. Prev Med, 53(4-5), 274-277. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.07.017 Kypri, K., Stephenson, S., & Langley, J. (2004). Assessment of non-response error in an Internet survey of alcohol use. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(4), 630-634. Langley, J., Kypri, K., Cryer, C., & Davie, G. (2008). Assessing the validity of potential alcohol-related non-fatal injury indicators. Addiction, 103(3), 397-404. Langley, J. D., Kypri,
  • 24. Page 23 of 23 K., & Stephenson, S. C. (2003). Secondhand effects of alcohol use among university students: computerised survey. British Medical Journal, 327(7422), 1023-1024. xiii Report submitted to the Vice-Chancellor, University of Otago15 February 2006 xiv http://www.otago.ac.nz/proctor/codeofconduct/ xv Managing the Evening Economy in Colchester - Strategy to Tackle All Night Time Disorder - Colchester Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership Colchester Town Partnership. Final report Prepared by Urban Cultures Ltd December 2003 xvi The Night-Time Economy: The Production, Consumption and Control of nightlife in Colchester By Angela Jenner 0941018 Criminology with Social Psychology April 2012 Dr. J. Turton/Prof. R. Hobbs http://www.colchester.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=7366&p=0 xvii University of Otago Job Description, Proctors Office, Student Services Division. xviii University of Otago Proctors Office web site http://www.otago.ac.nz/proctor/campuswatch/otago025144.html xix University of Otago Student Health web site http://www.otago.ac.nz/studenthealth/healthtips/otago020546.html xx University of Otago Proctor’s web site http://www.otago.ac.nz/proctor/campuscop/ xxi Cousins, K. (2013). Evaluation of Campus Watch: a community-based initiative to reduce alcohol-related harm and social disorder in a university setting (Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy). xxii http://www.otago.ac.nz/quality/surveys/studentopinionsurvey.html xxiii University of Otago Quality Advancement Office “FEELING SAFE AT OUR PLACE” An analysis of Campus Watch related open-ended comments made by respondents to the University of Otago Student Opinion Surveys 2006- 2011 xxiv Publications arising from the Tertiary Study Health Survey series (hard copies or PDFs are available on request): Connor J, Gray A, Kypri K. Drinking history, current drinking and problematic sexual experiences among university students. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 2010;34(5):487-94. Connor J, Psutka R, Cousins K, Gray A, Kypri K. Risky drinking, risky sex: a national study of New Zealand university students. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2013 doi: 10.1111/acer.12175 Kypri K, Bell ML, Hay GC, Baxter J. Alcohol outlet density and university student drinking: a national study. Addiction. 2008;103(7):1131-8. Kypri K, Paschall MJ, Langley J, Baxter J, Cashell-Smith ML, Bourdeau B. Drinking and alcohol-related harm among New Zealand university students: findings from a national Web- based survey. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2009;33(2):307-14. Kypri K, Paschall MJ, Langley JD, Baxter J, Bourdeau B. The role of drinking locations in university student drinking: findings from a national web-based survey. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2010;111(1-2):38-43. Kypri K, Samaranayaka A, Connor J, Langley JD, Maclennan B. Non-response bias in a web-based health behaviour survey of New Zealand tertiary students. Preventive Medicine. 2011;53(4-5):274-7. Psutka R, Connor J, Cousins K, Kypri K. Sexual health, risks, and experiences of New Zealand university students: findings from a national cross-sectional study. New Zealand Medical Journal. 2012;125(1361):62-73 xxv Tertiary Student Health Survey 2013 - Confidential Report of Preliminary Findings to Participating Institutions - University of Otago - September 2013 - Department of Preventive and Social Medicine University of Otago. xxvi University of Otago Proctors Office Annual Report - Student Services Divisional Office 2013