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Dr. Coralie Graham, University of Southern Queensland - The Influence of Psychological Strengths on Health & Quality of Life in Older Australians

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Dr. Coralie Graham, Lecturer (Nursing), Department of …

Dr. Coralie Graham, Lecturer (Nursing), Department of
Nursing & Midwifery, University of Southern Queensland delivered the presentation at the Transition Care: Improving Outcomes for Older People Conference 2013.

The Transition Care: Improving Outcomes for Older People Conference explores a combination of residential and community transition care programs. It also features industry professionals' experiences in transitional aged care, including the challenges and successes of their work.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://www.communitycareconferences.com.au/transitioncareconference13

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  • 1. The Influence of Psychological Strengths on Health & Quality of Life in Older Australians Coralie Graham
  • 2. Background of Project  Ageing population  International & Australian research priorities At 30 June 2005 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2010
  • 3. Historical health research focus  Historically solution focused  Salutogenic approach - Antonovsky  Psychology – 3rd Wave – Humanitarian
  • 4. Aim of the study
  • 5. Phase 1  Qualitative study  10 semi – structured interviews  Transcripts  Thematic analysis  Quantitative study  620 participants by survey Phase 2 Overall Project Design
  • 6. Criteria for Participants  Over 65 years of age  Living in Australia  Receiving HACC services  Living in community or hostel type accommodation  Excluding – Dementia & high care
  • 7. Phase 1  Recruitment  Who were they?  What community assistance did they receive? Participants of this study
  • 8. Semi – Structured Interview What did I ask?  Physical and mental health  Quality of life  Personal Strengths  Community assistance – support services
  • 9. Interview…. on Health ” Feeling good. Lack of pain. They’re the main things… you lead a relatively happy life” “ to be able to function, to know what's going on in the world, to be interested in the world, to be able to do general everyday things really”
  • 10. Interview.. Quality of Life “you can’t have quality of life unless you have health really and that’s my definition of health and that’s very important in relation to your quality of life. What a life it must be to be an invalid all your life, that would be terrible ….”
  • 11. Phase 1 : Thematic Analysis  Health & quality of life  Positive Outlook  Resilience  Support services  Spirituality  Social Network  Giving back to the community
  • 12. Positive Outlook “I just feel that being negative … where does it get you? Being positive and trying to think – If you can’t do it one way, we’ll do it another way” “ some people when they find they have a serious illness, although not necessarily life threatening, just sort of turn up their toes and curl up and die and others take a different attitude”
  • 13. Resilience “ I’m very adaptable, that's another thing, I am. I can adapt myself to anything, any conditions” “I suppose that's a sort of inner strength. You think – well pick yourself up and get on with it.” “I’m just wondering how they did that ( fencing) with 2 hands. I only had one. A thought goes through your mind “God he must be awkward, two hands trying to do all that. I’ve always thought ahead trying to work out how to do something”
  • 14. Community Support “ There is an ingredient apart from the work that they do – I think we’d have a problem keeping up with it….I still think it's just not the person coming into the place… its sort of – I mean if a robot came in and did all this, you wouldn’t appreciate it nearly as much” “They’re always on the other end of the phone if you get down and you want some advice and you want something. The girls are always there…They help me immensely with the things they do here”
  • 15. Social Network “The friendships you make are the best things. They’re better than any medicine you can get” “ I get lonely after having a family around all my life… here I’ve got my court family and they’re all here for me…we don’t smother each other but we’re here”
  • 16. Spirituality “ I have a very deep faith , a very deep faith. If I didn’t have that faith I would have cracked up a long time ago” “ I’m a believer, but I don’t go to church….we used to. My beliefs have got stronger as I’ve got older. If you haven’t got faith you lose a lot, but you don’t have to go to church to have it”
  • 17. Giving Back to the Community “ I’ve been to lots of schools – Grade sevens usually and tell them about our history – not about the war” “ It makes me think of others and stop thinking about yourself .Get off your backside and stop thinking about yourself” “he loves fixing things. He loves doing little things to please people”
  • 18. Phase 2 Research focus  Demographic  Community Service  Subjective Health  Optimism  Resilience Mail-out Surveys  620 surveys  RSLCare & Spiritus
  • 19. Demographic information  Gender  Age group  Accommodation type/ Number of persons  Marital status  Area of residence  Volunteer work  Community services – type, satisfaction, charges, effect on health
  • 20. Subjective Health Measure Short Form 36 (Version 2) SF- 36 V2  Non-invasive measure  Australian version  2 main scales: Physical Component Score Mental Component Score  8 sub-scales: Physical health Vitality Role- Physical Role-Emotional Bodily pain Social functioning General health Mental health
  • 21. Positive Outlook / Optimism Measures  Explanatory Style –Older Adult’s Attributional Style Questionnaire  Dispositional Optimism – Life Orientation Test –(Revised)
  • 22. Resilience Measure What is resilience? Ability to thrive despite adversity Adaptability Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD- RISC)
  • 23. Phase 2 Results Demographic Information  Age : 65 – 85 years 68 % 85 years+ 32%  Living : 79% own home 21 % retirement unit  Marital : 41% married, 2 % single, 5 % divorced, 52 %widowed  Living arrangements: 54% lived alone, 46%with others  Living Area: 73 % city 21 % Inner regional 6% outer regional  31 % did volunteer work  Impact on Health: 95 % positive/ very positive 5 % negative
  • 24. 31 % Volunteer  Knitting  Office bearing positions / clerical  Church  Supporting unwell friends  repairs for friends  Charities – ticket sales  Donations  Pastoral care
  • 25. Comments regarding services  Same support staff each time  Longer support time  More frequent support  Better communication
  • 26. Phase 2 Regression Analysis  Predictor Variables: explain 9.5 % of variance in Physical Health Component scores . Explanatory style Negative events (5%) & Resilience (3%) Statistically significant  Predictor Variables explain 22% of variance in Mental Health Component scores . Dispositional Optimism(10%) & Resilience (3%) Statistically significant
  • 27. Where to from here?......  Publication  Post-doctoral research  Questions...
  • 28. References Connor, KM & Davidson, JRT 2003, 'Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)', Depression and Anxiety, vol. 18, pp. 76-82. Isaacowitz, D., M. (2005). Correlates of well-being in adulthood and old- age: A tale of two optimisms. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 224 - 244. Ranzijn, R. (2002). Towards a positive psychology of ageing: Potentials and barriers. Australian Psychologist, 37(2), 79 - 85. Scheier, MF & Carver, CS 1985, 'Optimism, coping and health: Assessment and implications of generalised outcome expectancies.' Health Psychology, vol. 4, pp. 219-47 Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5 -14. Seligman, M. E. P. (1991). Learned optimism. Sydney: Random House. Ware, John E. (2000) SF-36 Health Survey Update, Spine. 25(24):3130-3139.