Peak 3 – Using Ultrasonic technology to remove dust and diesel particulates


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Colin Chandler, Chief Executive Officer, from Peak 3 delivered this presentation at 2012 Longwall conference in the Hunter Valley Australia. Building on eleven years of excellence it’s rare that such a large gathering of underground coal operators come together under the one roof, providing a great opportunity to catch up with friends, industry leaders, former colleagues and longwall mining specialists.
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Peak 3 – Using Ultrasonic technology to remove dust and diesel particulates

  1. 1. Technical Fly Throughs Innovations in Diesel Emissions Treatment and Monitoring Technologies Colin Chandler CEO – Peak 3 Pty Ltd - Australia
  2. 2. Peak3 • Peak3 specializes in diesel emissions monitoring and management technologies and services for the mining sector. • The company undertakes R and D programs in this area with Australian and international research groups. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 2
  3. 3. Services • Diesel Emissions Management Programs • Fine particle management • Diesel Emissions Risk Analysis. • Monitoring Strategies. • Emissions data management. • Guidance re treatment and monitoring. systems, monitoring automation. • Assistance with vehicle design/procurement. • R and D. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 3
  4. 4. Products Developed • Particulate management platform • Remote Engine Monitoring • Dry Dust/DPM Scrubber • Integrated-automated remote emissions monitoring • Low cost networked dust monitoring system confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 4
  5. 5. Research partners/collaborators confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 5
  6. 6. Current Research and Development Project Title Project Sponsors Research and Commercial Partners Status Optimising Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines ( inc remote and automated monitoring) Australian Research Council Peak3 QUT ILAQH James Cook Uni of Applied Sciences North Western Switzerland Commencing July 2012 Automated and Integrated Emissions Monitoring Peak3 Neusoft QUT Commenced June 2012 Particulate Management Platform inc monitoring ACARP /Peak3 CSIRO Phase 1 completed Jan2012 Phase 2 commencing Aug 2012 Dry Dust and DPM Reduction System Peak3 QUT Commenced 2011 Integrated Dust/ Gas/ DPM monitor Peak3 QUT Pending Low Cost/Low Size personal monitor Peak3 Matter Aerosol Pending Crank Angle Sensor Project Peak3, Neusoft CIEAM Underway 2011 Wet Scrubber Steam Reduction Peak3 James Cook/QUT Commenced Gas to DPM correlations Peak3/ RIB QUT Commenced 6 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  7. 7. Innovation-why do it? • It only makes sense if it has benefit. • It can only have benefit if it is an improvement on the way its done today. • It needs to solve a problem. • That problem needs to have a value or cost. • What is the problem that needs to be solved in the area of diesel emissions management in mining? confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 7
  8. 8. The problems. • Regulations are getting tougher as more becomes known. (IARC/NIOSH et al) • Now a legal requirement to manage. • Despite promises there has not been a single “silver bullet” solution. • Diesels are efficient and mobile and are not easily replaced. • A complex issue that is hard to measure. = Risk and Cost. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 8
  9. 9. The realities • Many mines are spending too much $$ and getting limited results. • Diesel Emissions are one of the best “condition indicators” • No one is required to get rid of Diesel Emissions – just achieve ALARA/ALARP within guidelines. • Most of the solution involves common sense, good process, clear maintenance principles and an understanding of the problem. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 9
  10. 10. So why try to develop a technical solution? • To try and make treatment easier and more practical. This meant developing a system that: 1. Monitored the vehicle in near real time to look at its “emissions” performance. 2. Managed post engine treatment systems in High Transient and High Idle States. 3. Provided information about what was happening re the vehicle and the treatment. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 10
  11. 11. Findings from doing a lot of Diesel Emissions management programs • Limited use of integrated tag board/dispatch. • kW-emissions data from OEM’s often at variance to vehicle- Signatures wrong • kW loading requirements not managed well • Maintenance a significant contributor – Average non compliance with Emissions Effective maintenance averages 30%. • Limited training or information around Diesel Emissions. • Diesel Emissions Planning was often out of date and not frequently used. • Excessive reliance on treatment post engine alone. • Lack of process management re whole of mine solution management. • Little understanding of legal or corporate risks. • Undying belief in “magic” solutions prevails. • High Transient issues impacting treatment solutions. • High Idle times impacting treatment solutions. • Wet Scrubber outputs impacting treatment solutions. • High Dust load impacting treatment solutions. • Lack of data/ information. • Contractor management – when cheapest is NOT best! Pre qualified contractors should win. • Poor supply chain management. • OEM Fear confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 11
  12. 12. PARTICLES – THE BAD KIDS IN THE FAMILY A quick run through confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 12
  13. 13. It is more than DPM • Gas • Heat • Noise • DPM • Vibration But they are related! confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 13
  14. 14. DPM and Dust DPM • 70nm normal size distribution • Created via combination of un- combusted fuel, metallic ash, gas, and lubricants. • Commence nucleation at 10nm up where VOC’s / PAH’s commence adsorption process on carbon core. • Size is the health issue, Mass is a safety issue. • 90% of mass made up by 10% of number • Limitations on DPF and DOCs BUT they are good systems • Scrubbers can impact filters and DOC’s • Tier 4 alone not the answer. • Dust has an impact on DPM • Blasting created DPM DUST • Many similarities – both agglomerate • Can act as a carrier for DPM • Distinguish major fugitive dust management ( macro) from concentration location based (point) • Apart from safety and health impacts, also impact air cleaners and creation of DPM. • Traditional Treatments not always effective due to caking, roll back, pneumatics. • Water treatment is appropriate in some locations but much depends on water quality, nozzle size, traffic, air flow • Maintenance costs are often ignored. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 14
  15. 15. DPM Chemical composition – Dr Zoran Ristovski It is an extremely complex mixture of various chemicals: Soot – black carbon Metallic Ash (i.e ZnO from lube oil) Soluble (volatile) organic fraction condensed on the soot. Soluble organic fraction + sulfates in ultra fine particles. SolidLiquid 15 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  16. 16. 16 The DPM family wall chart! confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  17. 17. DPM Particle Size Distribution Mainly liquid droplets made of organic materials Soot (black carbon) coated with organics 17 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  18. 18. The problems defined – safety vs. health • DPM mass is not the problem. It was simply the metric. – The DPM problem can be broken down as follows • Above 200nm - Safety problem- allergic and respiratory reactions, mucosa reaction. • Above 200nm - Environmental (black carbon impact) • Above 200nm - Opacity • Under 200nm – Health – Carcinogenic • The health risk is predominantly nano and ultrafine particulates coated in Volatile Organic Compounds including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons produced as a by product of diesel combustion. • The safety risk and the environmental risk is larger DPM • Measuring particulates accurately, and consistently at an affordable price in mining is challenging. An industry only just getting used to measuring DPM mass is now being asked to measure DPM number/size. • Managing both mass and number is achievable. • The final measure will be LDSA – This will determine DOSE not just exposure! confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 18
  19. 19. Conclusions – Dr Zoran Ristovski International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health • Underground mines present a specific challenge in reducing the toxic effects of DPM due to the decreased dilution of the diesel exhaust. – small dilution larger organic fraction (OC) – larger organic fraction larger oxidative capacity of particles – larger oxidative capacity – particles more toxic • Not only that the exposure to DPM is high but the underground DPM are more toxic as they have had longer to “form” 19 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  20. 20. 20 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  21. 21. They are different! Each vehicle works differently, emits differently, has a different duty cycle , different location, and different exposure profile. However the treatments were often assumed to be the same. Regulators are starting to realise that a good “Whole of Mine” Diesel Emissions Management Program is MUCH more effective than mandating on vehicle treatments, new vehicles requirements etc. 21 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  22. 22. Maintenance Findings – (Easy Wins). Simple things make a big difference: • Air filters. • Injectors. • Crank case ventilation. • Fuel. • Lubricants. • Tyres. • Hydraulics. • Poor scrubber maintenance. 22 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  23. 23. Maintenance Issues • Poor understanding of correlations between emissions and engine efficiency. • Poor understanding of immediate cost savings available in condition based maintenance based on emissions data. • Tick and flick culture due to human resource challenges. (Wise old heads) confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 23
  24. 24. Treatment Issues - No easy answers • Bio Fuels, Catalytic additives, Oxidization Catalysts, Regenerative Filtration and new engines don’t solve the problem on their own. – Bio Fuels and New Engines create more nano particulates. – Oxidisation Catalysts and Filters have effective operating parameters that can limit end to end performance. – Catalytic additives reduce particle mass but may increase particle toxicity. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 24
  25. 25. Monitoring time line and correlations confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 25
  26. 26. Drive Quick Survey 2627 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - Identification of the locations and activities that increase DPM production. Time honoured assumptions aren't always correct.
  27. 27. Monitoring findings • Time weighted averages don’t give enough information. • Monitors rarely calibrated correctly. • Monitors rarely used for intended purpose. • Frequently outside operating parameters. • Lack of automation. • Incorrect monitoring leading to “over or under” reaction. • Poor understanding of vehicle monitoring. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 27
  28. 28. ULTRASONIC AGGLOMERATION Project 1 – Particulate Management Platform confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 28
  29. 29. Ultrasonic/acoustic filtration project • undertaken with CSIRO and ACARP commencing 2009. • Objective was to find a way to enable effective management of lower sized (nano) particulates – high transient/high idle state vehicles. • Project centred on use of sound energy to cause accelerated particle agglomeration. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 29
  30. 30. The problem – Existing treatments i.e. DPF, Scrubbers, DOC’s were not treating the true DPM production “Range” of newer diesels. (70nm) – Some existing treatments were creating back pressure and cost related issues. – Costs of existing filtration change outs –high. – Some existing treatments are sporadic due to temp, duty cycle – But they are at their limits! A new solution was needed- The rather lateral answer was to make the particles bigger! confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 30
  31. 31. Three dimensional modelling of particle agglomeration – Papadopoulis et al
  32. 32. Particulate Management Platform • 82%+ reduction of DPM to low nano meter range (sub 50nm) in trials. • Major challenges: – Temperature – work in 600C. – Vibration. – Size constraints. – Integrate to remote monitoring. – Always on. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 33
  33. 33. Trial LHD confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 35
  34. 34. Final Live Trial Test and Monitoring Layout
  35. 35. Effective combined treatment of both mass and number 37 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  36. 36. AREA BASED DPM AND DUST TREATMENT – SOURCE VS. DESTINATION Innovation 2 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 38
  37. 37. The challenge • Not all treatment for DPM can be at the source of the emissions. • Sometimes high concentrations of kW in use is required. • The location of the source is often different to the DPM destination. • DPM don’t behave like gases. Eddy points, recirculation cells, roll backs. • Treatment should be source AND area based. • But must have low maintenance and preferably not use water. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 39
  38. 38. Dust and Diesel Dry Scrubber • Developed to treat area based air quality in working headings etc where high kW status is required or recirculation cells exist. • Treats both dust and dpm. • Uses Dust to Capture DPM. • Uses ultrasonics and multi stage filtration and inertial flow separation. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 40
  39. 39. Integrated particle cluster post treatment (P3 Pty Ltd) Not for publication – This is the confidential property of Peak3 Pty ltd 41 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  40. 40. es Dust particle before/after treatment
  41. 41. Ventilation Design and Area based treatment Issues – Recirculation Cells 43 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 380% exceedance
  42. 42. MONITORING AND DATA MANAGEMENT Innovation 3 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 44
  43. 43. The challenge • To get near real time data from a vehicle about its emissions status anywhere, anytime. • To do it without using emissions monitors. • Ensuring it is robust and lower cost than traditional monitoring. • Must work on a “blended fleet” • Can’t impact Warranty • Easy to understand and alerts provided when needed! confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 45
  44. 44. The solution • Remote engine monitoring • Uses existing OBD+ to determine emissions efficiency in near real time. • Some intelligence in controller, the rest in an external algorithm • Compares to best practice and regs. • Allows for engine degradation cycles. • Integrates with ambient and personal monitoring data! (whole of mine) confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 46
  45. 45. The model confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 47
  46. 46. Data management • Break the problem down into manageable data packets. • Resolve individual concentration zones at source and location (P and D points) • Use the data to develop an integrated management plan and the tools to achieve it. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 48
  47. 47. The Beijing example. 49 confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd -
  48. 48. The summary • Despite all the research, the best solution of all to Diesel Emissions Management is to have a good Diesel Emissions Management Program. • This includes a strong focus on good maintenance practices, good training and sticking with process and plan! • Work with your contractors and visiting vehicles or it wont work! • Consistent monitoring is a must. confidential property of Peak3 Pty Ltd - 50