Making Audit “ordinary” 
And achieving extraordinary results!
Clinical Audit 
“Clinical auditis a process that has been defined as "a quality improvement process that seeks to improve ...
Audit means many things… 
•Unit audit: 
•A chat amongst friends 
•Accreditation: 
•A chat with new friends? 
•Tax audit: 
...
The extremes of audit. 
•Bedside audit 
•Began in Queensland 
•Now enshrined in the mechanisms of accreditation 
•At its b...
Clinical audit: a comprehensive review of the literature(The Centre for Clinical Governance Research in Health ) 
Limitati...
So what if audit was … 
•Evidence based 
•Targeted 
•Designed & agreed by the clinicians responsible 
•Automatic & IT-enab...
And here’s one I prepared earlier.. 
Target Zero 
•Essentially a targeted improvement program 
•Risk based 
•Clinician dri...
A Trick? 
•Our performance 
•Not benchmarked –just not good enough! 
•Of course Zero harm is unachievable 
•But a 50% redu...
Target Zero 
•Extreme clinical risks only 
•Executive responsible for the risk 
•Performance reported monthly & directly t...
Target Zero Risk Management Committee. 
•Executive chair 
•Multidisciplinary & expert 
•Evidence based: 
•Performance meas...
Target Zero Risk Management Committee. 
•Program logic mapping exercise 
•Identify the performance gap 
•Identify inputs 
...
PLM for deteriorating patient
The Evidence. 
•What should our performance be as a minimum 
•What should we be measuring 
•Sensitivity / Specificity 
•Pr...
How did we make it work? 
•Cornerstone of organisational strategic plan 
•Therefore talked about by: 
•Board of Directors ...
Talks Cheap–and its not clinical audit 
•Monthlyreporting of performance measures 
•Against a target for that year 
•Eithe...
How did we embed Target Zero 
•Quarterly report by Risk Management Committee (RMC) to executive 
•Risk rating reviewed 
•A...
How did we embed Target Zero - downwards 
•Critical part of Executive performance plan 
•Therefore: 
•Critical part of Med...
How did we embed Target Zero - downwards 
Unit Head M&M report 
•Listing of all deaths and adverse events: 
•Deaths 
•MET ...
What did the reports look like? 
Instant hits and perennial misses! 
•DVT/ PE: an instant hit 
•Deteriorating patients: an...
What did the reports look like? 
0.00 
0.50 
1.00 
1.50 
2.00 
2.50 
Jul 
Aug 
Sep 
Oct 
Nov 
Dec 
Jan 
Feb 
Mar 
Apr 
May...
What did the reports look like? 
0.00 
0.10 
0.20 
0.30 
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0.50 
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0.90 
Jan 
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Mar 
Apr 
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What did the reports look like? 
Rate of falls resulting in serious injury (e.g. death, fracture or head trauma) per 1000 ...
What did we learn? 
•We are not different from other health care organisations: 
•We have the same risks 
•These risks hav...
Learning & learning organisations and improvement 
•Learning: 
•the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, expe...
Triple Loop Learning: Chris Argyris 
•What are we doing now 
•Anything? 
•Something? 
•Can we do it better-Improvement 
•A...
Another depiction attributed to Argyris 
•http://www.thorsten.org/wiki/index.php?title=Triple_Loop_Learning 
Have we got a...
A learning view of Target Zero. 
0 
20 
40 
60 
80 
100 
120 
Year Zero 
Year One 
Year Two 
Year Three 
Year Four 
Single...
Consider DVT/ PE(A single loop learning success story) 
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60 
80 
100 
120 
Year Zero 
Year One 
Year Two 
Year T...
Now Consider Detiorating patients 
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Year Zero 
Year One 
Year Two 
Year Three 
Year Four 
The ...
Now consider FallsA double loop learning success/failure 
0 
20 
40 
60 
80 
100 
120 
Year Zero 
Year One 
Year Two 
Year...
What did we do about falls? 
•A process of constant revisiting: 
•Why do people fall in hospital? 
•What did we plan to do...
Making audit ordinary. Why Target Zero worked 
•Important 
•Comparisons are odious & not allowed 
•Performance measures 
•...
Making Audit Ordinary 
•Purposeful & worthy 
•Clinician designed evidence based measures 
•Easy to collect and reproducibl...
Dr Bill Shearer - Monash Health - “Making Audit Ordinary” and Getting Extraordinary Results: Introducing Target Zero, a 5 ...
Dr Bill Shearer - Monash Health - “Making Audit Ordinary” and Getting Extraordinary Results: Introducing Target Zero, a 5 ...
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Dr Bill Shearer - Monash Health - “Making Audit Ordinary” and Getting Extraordinary Results: Introducing Target Zero, a 5 Year Clinical Improvement Program Instituted at Monash Health to Reduce Adverse Outcomes

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Dr Bill Shearer delivered the presentation at the 2014 Clinical Audit Improvement Conference.

The Clinical Audit Improvement Conference explored the role of clinical audit in the new era of National Care Standards.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://bit.ly/clinicalaudit14

Published in: Business
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Dr Bill Shearer - Monash Health - “Making Audit Ordinary” and Getting Extraordinary Results: Introducing Target Zero, a 5 Year Clinical Improvement Program Instituted at Monash Health to Reduce Adverse Outcomes

  1. 1. Making Audit “ordinary” And achieving extraordinary results!
  2. 2. Clinical Audit “Clinical auditis a process that has been defined as "a quality improvement process that seeks to improve patient care and outcomes through systematic review of care against explicit criteria and the implementation of change". (Wikipedia) “Clinical audit is a quality improvement process that seeks to improve patient care and outcomes through systematic review of care against explicit criteria…Where indicated, changes are implemented…and further monitoring is used to confirm improvement in healthcare delivery.” (Principles for Best Practice in Clinical Audit ,2002, NICE/CHI ) “Clinical audit is an independent review of the quality of clinical care against explicit criteria or recognised standards”
  3. 3. Audit means many things… •Unit audit: •A chat amongst friends •Accreditation: •A chat with new friends? •Tax audit: •Perhaps less friendly
  4. 4. The extremes of audit. •Bedside audit •Began in Queensland •Now enshrined in the mechanisms of accreditation •At its best it identifies opportunities for improvement •Fits all the definitions that talk about a “process” •“Chaps” audit •Been around since Hippocrates •Enshrined in the medical psyche •At it’s best is a fantastic forum for peer learning •And at its worst…
  5. 5. Clinical audit: a comprehensive review of the literature(The Centre for Clinical Governance Research in Health ) Limitations of clinical audit •clarity and measurability of the criteria and standards chosen, •quality of the data available, •engagement of clinicians, •involvement of consumers’ •skills and training of participants, •time involved to undertake an audit, •use of information technology, •feedback provided, •if and how the findings are translated into quality improvement strategies, •evaluation of improvement strategies (closing the loop).
  6. 6. So what if audit was … •Evidence based •Targeted •Designed & agreed by the clinicians responsible •Automatic & IT-enabled •Embedded in the organisation •Unavoidable •Designed by clinicians to drive improvement •Designed to be self-sustaining
  7. 7. And here’s one I prepared earlier.. Target Zero •Essentially a targeted improvement program •Risk based •Clinician driven •Clinical audit embedded •Specific •Improvement is mandatory •And innovation is inevitable •AND a TRICK
  8. 8. A Trick? •Our performance •Not benchmarked –just not good enough! •Of course Zero harm is unachievable •But a 50% reduction in harm each year for just 5 years can’t be that hard can it? •After all 96.875 % isn't zero! •And of course we wont get there but imagine if we get 3 years of improvement!
  9. 9. Target Zero •Extreme clinical risks only •Executive responsible for the risk •Performance reported monthly & directly to •Executive Management Team •Chief Executive •Board of Directors •Plan to reduce harm by 50% each year for 5 years •A Risk Management Committee formed
  10. 10. Target Zero Risk Management Committee. •Executive chair •Multidisciplinary & expert •Evidence based: •Performance measures –how we measured achievement •Performance-what we should achieve •Activities
  11. 11. Target Zero Risk Management Committee. •Program logic mapping exercise •Identify the performance gap •Identify inputs •Describe what the end point looks like •Describe how the end point will be “measured” •Describe the activities and the short term outcomes along the way
  12. 12. PLM for deteriorating patient
  13. 13. The Evidence. •What should our performance be as a minimum •What should we be measuring •Sensitivity / Specificity •Process / Outcome •Easily collected •Reproducible •What should we be doing •Best practice
  14. 14. How did we make it work? •Cornerstone of organisational strategic plan •Therefore talked about by: •Board of Directors •Chief Executive •Executive Management Team •Monash Innovation & Quality Team •Medical Directors •Nursing & Site Directors
  15. 15. Talks Cheap–and its not clinical audit •Monthlyreporting of performance measures •Against a target for that year •Either: •Green = target achieved •Amber = better than last year’s target •Red = worse than last year’s target •Reported to: •Organisation •Risk Management Committee •Executive Management Committee •Board Quality Committee •Board of Directors
  16. 16. How did we embed Target Zero •Quarterly report by Risk Management Committee (RMC) to executive •Risk rating reviewed •Actions taken •Barriers identified by RMC •Strength of controls •Each risk reported activities ,achievements & barriers to Board Quality Committee yearly
  17. 17. How did we embed Target Zero - downwards •Critical part of Executive performance plan •Therefore: •Critical part of Medical & Nursing Directors performance plan •Part of Unit Head & Nurse Unit Managers performance plan •At least part of the conversation with clinicians •Hawthorne effect
  18. 18. How did we embed Target Zero - downwards Unit Head M&M report •Listing of all deaths and adverse events: •Deaths •MET calls, delayed METs, unplanned ICU admissions •ISR 1 & 2 incidents incl. falls and medication errors •Staph Aureus bacteraemia •DVT/PE •Taken from Riskman and clinical coding data •Sent monthly via email direct to Unit Head •Informs “Chaps”style of clinical audit
  19. 19. What did the reports look like? Instant hits and perennial misses! •DVT/ PE: an instant hit •Deteriorating patients: an eventual hit •Falls: perennial miss but actually a success story-but don’t tell anyone
  20. 20. What did the reports look like? 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Rate of preventable hospital acquired DVT/PE per 1000 separations
  21. 21. What did the reports look like? 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Rate of In-patient Cardiac Arrests
  22. 22. What did the reports look like? Rate of falls resulting in serious injury (e.g. death, fracture or head trauma) per 1000 bed days
  23. 23. What did we learn? •We are not different from other health care organisations: •We have the same risks •These risks have the same causes •These risks have the same solutions •We aredifferent from other health care organisations: •The way a risk develops in each organisation varies •The way solutions develop in each organisation varies •The barriers to improvement vary between and within organsiations
  24. 24. Learning & learning organisations and improvement •Learning: •the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught •Learning organizations are skilled at five main activities: •systematic problem solving, •experimentation with new approaches, •learning from their own experience and past history, •learning from the experiences and best practices of others, •transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization.
  25. 25. Triple Loop Learning: Chris Argyris •What are we doing now •Anything? •Something? •Can we do it better-Improvement •Are we actually doing what we think we are-AUDIT •How well are we doing what we do-AUDIT •What else can we do-Innovation •What haven’t we tried •What hasn’t anyone tried
  26. 26. Another depiction attributed to Argyris •http://www.thorsten.org/wiki/index.php?title=Triple_Loop_Learning Have we got a problem? Are we fixing it as well as possible? Is this the best solution? What haven’t we thought of?
  27. 27. A learning view of Target Zero. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Year Zero Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four Single Loop Learning Double Loop Learning (Anything is better) ( More is better) No idea at all! ( Better is More ) Triple Loop Learning
  28. 28. Consider DVT/ PE(A single loop learning success story) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Year Zero Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four The Problem. 1.Ongoing measurement 2.No new actions or interventions 1.Org wide measurement of rate DVT/PE & audit DVT prophylaxis 2.Standardised Risk assessment & prophylaxis 3.Audits compliance 4.Case reviews of all in hospital DVT/PE 1.Continued measurement & auditing compliance 2.National Medication Chart 3.SHIPP includes DVT/PE 4.Case reviews of all in hospital DVT/PE
  29. 29. Now Consider Detiorating patients 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Year Zero Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four The Problem. Performance always amber or green Double loop learning from the start: Missed MET calls Local responses Education of ward staff Single Loop Learning: MET introduced Call criteria agreed World Best Practice! What’s happening ?
  30. 30. Now consider FallsA double loop learning success/failure 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Year Zero Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four The Problem. Steady decline in rate of falls but never of planned magnitude. Significant fluctuation in rate but difficult to attribute to any action of ours Focus on risk assessment, prevention strategies & assessment after fall has occurred. Introduction of best practice prevention strategies& post falls Mxprocedure. Medical Engagement, Volunteer ObserversApproaching world best rates
  31. 31. What did we do about falls? •A process of constant revisiting: •Why do people fall in hospital? •What did we plan to do about that? •Was this the best plan? •How well was it implemented? •How can we improve implementation •What else can we do?
  32. 32. Making audit ordinary. Why Target Zero worked •Important •Comparisons are odious & not allowed •Performance measures •Evidence based •Clinician agreed •Minimal effort •Improvement unavoidable •And there’s a trick within the trick! •As it got harder everyone tried harder •Then they tried different
  33. 33. Making Audit Ordinary •Purposeful & worthy •Clinician designed evidence based measures •Easy to collect and reproducible data •Questioning the data requirednot resented •Simple improvement methodology: •begins with PLM •Clinicians chose what to improve •IT enabled &distributed •Process & outcome measures •Owned by everryone

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