New Zealand Rail 2014
Auckland, 18 June 2014
Andreas Hoffrichter, PhD
with material from Stephen Kent
Supervisors: Stuart ...
Outline
• Background
• UK Technical Railway Strategy
• Need for autonomous traction
• Hydrogen as an energy carrier for ra...
Postgraduate courses:
PhD/MPhil (various options) –
see PG prospectus
University of Birmingham
• University founded in 190...
Postgraduate courses:
PhD/MPhil (various options) –
see PG prospectus
Energy Research
Energy Production
• Oil & Gas
• Coal...
Birmingham Centre for Railway
Research and Education
• Leading expertise in:
– Aerodynamics
– Condition monitoring
– Data ...
Railway Education
• International Master of Science in Railway Systems Engineering and Integration.
20th anniversary in 20...
The Resurgent UK Railway
• Resurgence of demand for
rail in the UK:
– growth in passenger
numbers1
– freight also increasi...
UK Rail Technical Strategy
http://www.futurerailway.org/RTS/Vision/Pages/On-Video.aspx
Drive for Electrification
• UK has less electrification than most of Europe,
but catching up:
– currently around 40% elect...
Autonomous Options for the UK
• Battery / battery-hybrid by
Network Rail & Bombardier:
– currently converting Class 379
mu...
Hydrail at University of Birmingham
• Well-to-wheel analysis to evaluate general
benefit
• Construct and test prototype lo...
Well-to-Wheel Analysis
• Analysis of “well-to-wheel” efficiency and CO2 output of
various traction options
• Looked at ele...
Well-to-Wheel Analysis 2008
Hoffrichter, A., Miller, A., R., Hillmansen, S., & Roberts, C. (2012). Well-to-Wheel Analysis ...
Postgraduate courses:
PhD/MPhil (various options) –
see PG prospectus
Railway Challenge
(hydrogen-powered locomotive)
• Pa...
Prototype Locomotive:
Conceptual Design
• Peak traction load met by
batteries, with hydrogen fuel
cell rated for average d...
Electrical System
Auxiliaries
Motor
Controller
M
Hydrogen
Tank
Fuel Cell
DC - DC
DC - DC
Battery
Power-Plant
Coombe, D., F...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3i4zIBeKYgY
Drive-System Study
• Compressed gas cylinder
• Hydrogen mass flow meter
• Instrumentation measures
power consumption
throu...
Lessons from the Hydrogen Pioneer
• Design & operation:
– hydrogen system easy to design, install & operate
– runs quietly...
Feasibility Study of Stadler GTW
• Modern regional train – Stadler GTW
• Performance simulated for UK local
regional line
...
Real-World Application
• Secured funding to develop
bigger demonstrator for
full-scale application
• Severn Lamb produce l...
Laboratory & Single Train Simulator
• University has ideal test facility
for hybrid railway traction
drives
• Can take dri...
Postgraduate courses:
PhD/MPhil (various options) –
see PG prospectus
Rail Power and Energy
• Single train simulator for c...
Changing Attitudes to Hydrogen
• YouTube video has had
12,000 views
• Substantial press coverage
globally – Huffington Pos...
Other Hydrail Developments
• Prototype hydrogen-
powered shunter in USA
• Commercial operation of
mining locomotives in
So...
Contact
Birmingham Centre for Railway Research and
Education
University of Birmingham
Edgbaston
Birmingham, UK
Andreas Hof...
Acknowledgements
The Hydrogen Train Team 2012
The University of Birmingham Circles of Influence Fund
Birmingham Centre for...
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Dr Andreas Hoffrichter - University of Birmingham - INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Hydrogen propulsion to reduce operating and fuel costs

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Andreas Hoffrichter delivered the presentation at the 2014 New Zealand Rail conference.

The 2014 New Zealand Rail conference explored issues that would help to secure the economic development of New Zealand. With a focus on new projects and balanced funding, this event discussed ways to ensure the seamless growth of the next 10 years.

For more information about the event, please visit: http://www.informa.com.au/nzrailconference14

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Dr Andreas Hoffrichter - University of Birmingham - INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Hydrogen propulsion to reduce operating and fuel costs

  1. 1. New Zealand Rail 2014 Auckland, 18 June 2014 Andreas Hoffrichter, PhD with material from Stephen Kent Supervisors: Stuart Hillmansen and Clive Roberts Hydrogen for Railway Propulsion
  2. 2. Outline • Background • UK Technical Railway Strategy • Need for autonomous traction • Hydrogen as an energy carrier for railway propulsion • Hydrogen Pioneer prototype locomotive • Conceptual design of a regional train • Future work at the BCRRE • Hydrail developments in other parts of the world
  3. 3. Postgraduate courses: PhD/MPhil (various options) – see PG prospectus University of Birmingham • University founded in 1900 • One of the first ‘Red Brick’ universities in the UK • Currently 30,000 postgraduate and undergraduate students • Placed 5th in the UK for quality of research • Placed 62th in the QS World University rankings in 2013 • Five Nobel Prize winners among staff and alumni • Railway research undertaken since 1970s • Founding member of Universitas 21
  4. 4. Postgraduate courses: PhD/MPhil (various options) – see PG prospectus Energy Research Energy Production • Oil & Gas • Coal • Nuclear • Renewables • Hydrogen • Bio Energy Energy Distribution • Electricity • Pipelines • Hydrogen Energy Application • Transport • Manufacturing Energy Policy • Emissions • Regulations • Economic analysis Over a century of energy research at Birmingham 100 academics across four colleges Part of Midland Energy Consortium Industrial Partners World Wide
  5. 5. Birmingham Centre for Railway Research and Education • Leading expertise in: – Aerodynamics – Condition monitoring – Data integration – Environmental engineering – Geotechnical engineering – Metallurgy and Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) – Modelling and computation – Power and energy – Risk and safety – Systems engineering – Railway capacity – Real-time traffic management – Railway education Largest university-based railway research group in Europe: 17 Academic staff, 18 Research staff, 3 Support staff, 45 PhD students, ~100 MSc/MRes students
  6. 6. Railway Education • International Master of Science in Railway Systems Engineering and Integration. 20th anniversary in 2014 – Sponsored students from: UK, Ireland, Norway, Turkey, USA, Australia, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and many more • International Master of Science in Railway Risk and Safety Management • Part-time and Continuing Professional Development available • MRes programme established in 2011 • Additional courses for: London Underground, Bechtel, Alstom, Bombardier and Department for Transport • Railway text books published
  7. 7. The Resurgent UK Railway • Resurgence of demand for rail in the UK: – growth in passenger numbers1 – freight also increasing, particularly containers1 • Drive to electrify: – increase capacity – supply power directly to point of use – not dependent on fossil fuels – legislation to cut emissions [1] Figures from Office of Rail Regulation
  8. 8. UK Rail Technical Strategy http://www.futurerailway.org/RTS/Vision/Pages/On-Video.aspx
  9. 9. Drive for Electrification • UK has less electrification than most of Europe, but catching up: – currently around 40% electrified – plans to increase to 51% over next 5 years • But cannot electrify everywhere: – not economically viable / affordable for rural lines – overhead wires not attractive and add complexity • UK will continue to need autonomous power & rely on diesel for time being: – unlikely train leasing companies will buy new DMUs – but cascaded diesel rolling stock will help
  10. 10. Autonomous Options for the UK • Battery / battery-hybrid by Network Rail & Bombardier: – currently converting Class 379 multiple unit – test various battery types & configurations – pantograph backup • Dual mode by Hitachi: – IEP Class 800 – pantograph & under floor diesel generator • Hydrogen by University of Birmingham Source: Wiki Commons Source: Wikipedia
  11. 11. Hydrail at University of Birmingham • Well-to-wheel analysis to evaluate general benefit • Construct and test prototype locomotive • Prove theoretical viability of hydrogen-powered regional train (100 km/h multiple unit) • Promote and support the development of a “real- world” application • Provide hybrid drive test facility to support development of future railway applications
  12. 12. Well-to-Wheel Analysis • Analysis of “well-to-wheel” efficiency and CO2 output of various traction options • Looked at electric traction based on UK generation mix, USA and California (high proportion of renewables) • Railway traction / locomotive efficiency is highly dependent on load and duty cycle – assumed maximum vehicle efficiencies for study • Assumes H2 generated from natural gas & then: – stored as a gas or stored as a liquid – used in fuel cell or in a combustion engine Hoffrichter, A., Miller, A., R., Hillmansen, S., & Roberts, C. (2012). Well-to-Wheel Analysis for Electric, Diesel and Hydrogen Traction for Railways. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 17(1), 28-34. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2011.09.002
  13. 13. Well-to-Wheel Analysis 2008 Hoffrichter, A., Miller, A., R., Hillmansen, S., & Roberts, C. (2012). Well-to-Wheel Analysis for Electric, Diesel and Hydrogen Traction for Railways. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment,17(1), 28-34. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2011.09.002
  14. 14. Postgraduate courses: PhD/MPhil (various options) – see PG prospectus Railway Challenge (hydrogen-powered locomotive) • Participated in the inaugural Institution of Mechanical Engineers Railway Challenge in 2012 • Railway Challenge aims to encourage interest and participation in railway engineering • Developed, designed, and constructed the UK’s first hydrogen-powered locomotive ‘Hydrogen Pioneer’ • Traction system suitable for standard gauge vehicle • Proof-of-concept vehicle
  15. 15. Prototype Locomotive: Conceptual Design • Peak traction load met by batteries, with hydrogen fuel cell rated for average demand of duty cycle • “Off-the-shelf” Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell power-plant • Two options for hydrogen storage: 1) compressed gas or 2) metal hydride store • Pure regenerative service braking (i.e., braking energy captured and stored), with friction emergency brakes • Wireless remote control Coombe, D., Fisher, P., Hoffrichter, A., Kent, S., Reed, D., Rowshandel, H., et al. (2014). Development and design of a narrow-gauge hydrogen-hybrid locomotive. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit. doi: 10.1177/0954409714532921
  16. 16. Electrical System Auxiliaries Motor Controller M Hydrogen Tank Fuel Cell DC - DC DC - DC Battery Power-Plant Coombe, D., Fisher, P., Hoffrichter, A., Kent, S., Reed, D., Rowshandel, H., et al. (2014). Development and design of a narrow-gauge hydrogen-hybrid locomotive. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit. doi: 10.1177/0954409714532921
  17. 17. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3i4zIBeKYgY
  18. 18. Drive-System Study • Compressed gas cylinder • Hydrogen mass flow meter • Instrumentation measures power consumption throughout electrical system • Demonstrated fuel cell efficiency around 40%+ • Overall efficiency only 15%: – lightly loaded – high proportion for auxiliaries – low motor efficiency Hoffrichter A, Fisher P, Tutcher J, Hillmansen S, Roberts C, Performance evaluation of the hydrogen-powered prototype locomotive ‘Hydrogen Pioneer’, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 250, Pages 120-127, DOI 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.134.
  19. 19. Lessons from the Hydrogen Pioneer • Design & operation: – hydrogen system easy to design, install & operate – runs quietly & cleanly in contrast to competitors – third year using same hybrid drive – traction control required • Performance: – proof-of-concept established – it worked as intended – quick response and little difference between duty cycle & steady state – power plant matches manufacture claims – need to optimise for overall efficiency
  20. 20. Feasibility Study of Stadler GTW • Modern regional train – Stadler GTW • Performance simulated for UK local regional line • Used diesel-electric baseline for journey time and range while retaining passenger space • Evaluated with: – hydrogen fuel cell – hydrogen hybrid (smaller fuel cell with batteries) • Both options viable with same journey time • Duty-cycle energy consumption: – hydrogen 34% less than diesel – hydrogen-hybrid 55% less • Well-to-wheel CO2 emissions: – hydrogen 55% less than diesel – hydrogen-hybrid 72% less Hoffrichter A (2013). Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier for Railway Traction, PhD Thesis, University of Birmingham, http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/4345 Source: Wiki Commons Source: Wiki Commons
  21. 21. Real-World Application • Secured funding to develop bigger demonstrator for full-scale application • Severn Lamb produce low speed people movers – many are battery powered • Hydrogen would provide longer range and quicker refuelling Source: Severn Lamb • Intention is to provide Severn Lamb with the confidence to offer hydrogen as an option • Initial testing of fuel cell in laboratory based simulation, then install on vehicle and test at local test track
  22. 22. Laboratory & Single Train Simulator • University has ideal test facility for hybrid railway traction drives • Can take drive system through simulated duty cycle • Includes traction motors & battery cycler capable of 100kW+ load (electrical or mechanical) • Ideal for relatively low power applications such as people movers or trams / light rail Source: S Kent
  23. 23. Postgraduate courses: PhD/MPhil (various options) – see PG prospectus Rail Power and Energy • Single train simulator for calculating power and energy requirements and comparing new rolling stock designs • Developed widely used multi-train simulator to understand power flows in AC and DC railway power networks • Electrical Storage Integration Laboratory part-funded by ERDF • Supporting the UK Department for Transport and Singapore Land Transit Authority with train procurement • Development of methods for energy efficient timetables • Helping industrial partners with the design of battery, hybrid (diesel-electric) and hydrogen powered trains 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x 10 5 -0.1 -0.08 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 Gradient profile distance (m) gradientslope 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x 10 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Velocity profile distance (m) velocity(m/s) 0 20 40 60 80 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x 10 5 running diagram time (m) distance(m) 0 20 40 60 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 specific traction, resistance and acceleration curve velocity (m/s) specificforces(m/s2) specific traction resistance acceleration 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x 10 5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 acceleration distance (m) acceleration(m/s2) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 x 10 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Traction/Braking Power distance (m) power(MW) Traction Braking
  24. 24. Changing Attitudes to Hydrogen • YouTube video has had 12,000 views • Substantial press coverage globally – Huffington Post, New Scientist, MSN … • Appeared at H2 Moves in Hannover • Featured in UK Department for Transport Technical Strategy launch video • Subsequent published papers attracting interest www.futurerailway.org
  25. 25. Other Hydrail Developments • Prototype hydrogen- powered shunter in USA • Commercial operation of mining locomotives in South Africa • Commercial operation of hydrogen-powered trains trams in Aruba starting this year
  26. 26. Contact Birmingham Centre for Railway Research and Education University of Birmingham Edgbaston Birmingham, UK Andreas Hoffrichter a.hoffrichter@bham.ac.uk www.railway.bham.ac.uk
  27. 27. Acknowledgements The Hydrogen Train Team 2012 The University of Birmingham Circles of Influence Fund Birmingham Centre for Railway Research & Education Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council The School of Metallurgy and Materials The School of Chemical Engineering

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