InstitutionalizingInformation Literacy           Sharon Weiner, EdD, MLS, AHIP Professor and W. Wayne Booker Chair in Info...
Outline   IL and different types of literacies   Why IL continues to be   an important issue   Apply existing higher e...
Information Literacy…
Why IL Continues to be anImportant Issue   Global recognition and efforts       Tied to individual and community        ...
Why IL Continues to be anImportant Issue   Employers want information literate critical    thinkers, problem-solvers   N...
Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue?   Difficulties associated with institutionalizing IL    varied and complex   Lack ...
Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue?   “Good enough” work can be successful   Success stories without IL
Why is Institutionalizing IL  an Issue?IL crossesboundariesacross alldisciplines,so who isresponsiblefor it?
Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue?   Need research:       Are IL programs effective?       What do they contribute t...
Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue?   Case reports, surveys, and focus groups can    help to develop hypotheses, need f...
Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue?Lack of understanding of the organizationalfunctioning of colleges and universitiesma...
Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue?   Need research to support a scientific approach   Research is based on models and...
Application of Organizational Theory Birnbaum, How Colleges Work Models of organizational functioning:     Collegial   ...
Characteristics:Collegial Model Small institutions Informal communication Administrators equals of faculty Faculty sat...
Characteristics:Collegial Model Value thoroughness and deliberation Decisions take long time, influence  and consensus ...
Characteristics:Collegial Model      Like a family
Collegial institutions:Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY:                    IL APPLICATION:Listen, to understand      ...
Collegial institutions:  Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY:                   IL APPLICATION:Use established           ...
Characteristics:Bureaucratic Model Larger institutions Efficiency, effectiveness are goals Org chart—systematic divisio...
Characteristics:Bureaucratic Model   Rules/regulations guide behaviors, ensure    consistency, fairness   Rational—objec...
Characteristics:Bureaucratic Model       Like a machine
Bureaucratic institutions:   Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY:                       IL APPLICATION:Place in org chart...
Characteristics:Political Model Complex organizations; compete for  power, resources Power, decision-making diffused Po...
Characteristics:Political Model   Conflict     inherent; choices between competing      goods     between different aut...
Characteristics:Political ModelLike a shifting kaleidoscope of interest   groups, changing as issues emerge
Political institutions:      Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY:                      IL APPLICATION:Get agreement on va...
Political institutions:      Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY:                           IL APPLICATION:Find common gr...
Characteristics: OrganizedAnarchies Problematic goals, vague, unclear Unclear processes to achieve goals Fluid particip...
Organized anarchies   Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY:                      IL APPLICATION:Spend time to influence a ...
Organized anarchies       Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY:                  IL APPLICATION:Overload the system       ...
Conclusion   All institutions of higher education    have characteristics of each mode   1 characteristic usually domina...
Thank you!    Comments and questions?
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Weiner - Institutionalizing Information Literacy

  1. 1. InstitutionalizingInformation Literacy Sharon Weiner, EdD, MLS, AHIP Professor and W. Wayne Booker Chair in Information Literacy Vice President, National Forum on Information Literacy
  2. 2. Outline IL and different types of literacies Why IL continues to be an important issue Apply existing higher education organizational theory to IL
  3. 3. Information Literacy…
  4. 4. Why IL Continues to be anImportant Issue Global recognition and efforts  Tied to individual and community empowerment, workforce readiness, global competitiveness  UNESCO IFLA TTT  Alexandria Proclamation • Essential to lifelong learning • Empowers people in all walks of life • Is a basic human right • Promotes social inclusion of all nations
  5. 5. Why IL Continues to be anImportant Issue Employers want information literate critical thinkers, problem-solvers No established, consistent strategy for instilling this competency throughout an institution (institutionalizing)
  6. 6. Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue? Difficulties associated with institutionalizing IL varied and complex Lack of understanding of value of IL Considered to be “extra” so not enough time, not enough money, not enough people
  7. 7. Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue? “Good enough” work can be successful Success stories without IL
  8. 8. Why is Institutionalizing IL an Issue?IL crossesboundariesacross alldisciplines,so who isresponsiblefor it?
  9. 9. Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue? Need research:  Are IL programs effective?  What do they contribute to student success, ability to engage in lifelong learning, employability?  What works in teaching IL?
  10. 10. Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue? Case reports, surveys, and focus groups can help to develop hypotheses, need formalized study These approaches may be useful in developing hypotheses, but have not been subjected to formalized study
  11. 11. Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue?Lack of understanding of the organizationalfunctioning of colleges and universitiesmay contribute to the difficulty
  12. 12. Why is Institutionalizing ILan Issue? Need research to support a scientific approach Research is based on models and theories IL relatively new field—can borrow from other more-established disciplines
  13. 13. Application of Organizational Theory Birnbaum, How Colleges Work Models of organizational functioning:  Collegial  Bureaucratic  Political  Organized Anarchy
  14. 14. Characteristics:Collegial Model Small institutions Informal communication Administrators equals of faculty Faculty satisfaction from college activities rather than external
  15. 15. Characteristics:Collegial Model Value thoroughness and deliberation Decisions take long time, influence and consensus Strong, coherent culture with distinctive symbols, rites (Dead Poets Society)
  16. 16. Characteristics:Collegial Model Like a family
  17. 17. Collegial institutions:Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY: IL APPLICATION:Listen, to understand Attend meetings, socials, eventsAppeal to norms/values to Use symbolsinspire trust Sponsor forum Involve key peopleMake deviations from group Publicize IL efforts withvisible disciplines, give incentives, awards
  18. 18. Collegial institutions: Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY: IL APPLICATION:Use established Campus newspaper,communication channels discussion list, blog, social occasions, mtgsUse expert power Give presentations, write, consultInfluence, not coercion Discuss and persuadeDirect, don’t sanction or Prepare recommendationsalienate
  19. 19. Characteristics:Bureaucratic Model Larger institutions Efficiency, effectiveness are goals Org chart—systematic division of labor; defines status, communication channels, codifies functions Campus units isolated, no consistent beliefs
  20. 20. Characteristics:Bureaucratic Model Rules/regulations guide behaviors, ensure consistency, fairness Rational—objectives, goals Administrators are specialists, spend little time with faculty, talk to other admins and external non-faculty
  21. 21. Characteristics:Bureaucratic Model Like a machine
  22. 22. Bureaucratic institutions: Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY: IL APPLICATION:Place in org chart Dean involvement; IL Director reportingUse power to reward, punish; Other Deans, Provost,superiors give directives Senates, incentives, awardsDecisions by rational analysis, Use literature, conductdata studies, benchmarkProcesses, procedures are Develop a planacceptedIndividuals have control of Meet with Provost, Deans,specific areas Chairs, Senate, Student Affairs, fundraisers, etc.
  23. 23. Characteristics:Political Model Complex organizations; compete for power, resources Power, decision-making diffused Power is issue-specific No pervasive culture
  24. 24. Characteristics:Political Model Conflict  inherent; choices between competing goods  between different authority groups  increases cohesiveness
  25. 25. Characteristics:Political ModelLike a shifting kaleidoscope of interest groups, changing as issues emerge
  26. 26. Political institutions: Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY: IL APPLICATION:Get agreement on values, Sponsor forum or retreat,then design programs structuredconsistent with the valuesConflict and disagreement are Anticipate reactions, plan fornormal; negotiate conflict resolutionRealize you may not get all Decide in advance what isyou want but can usually get critical to win, what can besomething; make incremental deferred; develop strategy forprogress next stepsCoalitions Meet with stakeholders in advance to get support
  27. 27. Political institutions: Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY: IL APPLICATION:Find common ground; Learn about agendas andcompromise priorities across campusReduce cost of participation, Assign staff to participate ingive incentives implementation; awards and incentivesUse intuition, experience, Find out about what the orgsense of the particular situation climate is likeBe present, timing is critical; Ear to the ground; engage allcan then influence library staff; network
  28. 28. Characteristics: OrganizedAnarchies Problematic goals, vague, unclear Unclear processes to achieve goals Fluid participation in issues Garbage-can decision making
  29. 29. Organized anarchies Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY: IL APPLICATION:Spend time to influence a Meet formally and informallydecisionPersist; due to garbage can, Have backup plans; maintainmay not succeed first time momentumFocus attention on a limited Identify most critical things toagenda accomplishFacilitate opposition Involve possible opponents inparticipation planning
  30. 30. Organized anarchies Strategies for effectivenessSTRATEGY: IL APPLICATION:Overload the system Saturate faculty and administrators with library itemsManage unobtrusively Listen for curriculum reviews, new programs Publish in discipline journalsIdentify small innocuous Rovers, embedded librarian,changes with large-scale First year experience program,effects retirement learning, college reads, book discussion groupsInterpret history “When the university was founded…” Refer to respected professor
  31. 31. Conclusion All institutions of higher education have characteristics of each mode 1 characteristic usually dominates Develop strategies for effectiveness given the predominant model’s characteristics
  32. 32. Thank you! Comments and questions?
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