Bilingual typography: Hong Kong case studiesKeith TamInformation Design LabSchool of Design · Hong Kong Polytechnic Univer...
Bilingual typography is all about visual harmony?
Sheung Wan, Hong Kong 2008
Shatin, Hong Kong 2009
Central, Hong Kong 2007
Truck graphics, Hong Kong 2008
Peng Chau, Hong Kong 2005
字   A
字   a
字   a
字 word
字 Word
字 WORD
Chinese and English are linguistically and anatomically very different        字 Aahxg
Former Tai Po Market railway station architectural lettering c1913 (now Hong Kong Railway Museum)
Former Tai Po Market railway station signage c1913 (now Hong Kong Railway Museum)
War memorial arch at the Zoological and Botanical Gardens 1928
Central Government Offices lettering c1957
So Uk Estate architectural lettering c1960
Victoria Park School of the deaf entrance sign c1960
Riots in Hong Kong 1967   http://djyimg.com/i5/403112643869.jpg
Pages from the Laws of Hong Kong, Official Languages Ordinance, passed in 1974
Kowloon Tsai Park original lettering c1964
Kowloon Tsai Park swimming pool sign c1964 (?)
Kowloon Tsai Park sign post-1997
Kowloon Tsai Park sign, possibly post-2000
Exit sign, Mass Transit Railway, Hong Kong
Bilingual typography is all about visual harmony                       about how various constituent parts                ...
Insert in my secondary school report booklet c1984 (?)
Secondary school testimonial 1992
Secondary school testimonial 1992  English only
Secondary school testimonial 1992  Chinese only
Secondary school testimonial 1992  Inserted dynamic information only
A model for investigating typography                                       Culture                                       文...
Pragmatics, syntactics  semantics work in tandem to communicate effectively                                               ...
Typography is a verbal–graphic hybrid language            Visual            VerbalKeith Tam 2011
Typography is a verbal–graphic hybrid languageMultilingual typography becomes a meta language            Language 1       ...
Types of bilingualism / bilingual typography                                               Two languages presented as Para...
Types of bilingualism / bilingual typography                                               Two languages presented as Para...
An analytical model for bilingual typography  Verbal language (content)             Status relationship               Sema...
An analytical model for bilingual typographyglobal           Status           Sequence           Categorization   Grouping...
Is the (swiss) grid the ultimate solution?Typographie by Emil Ruder c1967
Is the (swiss) grid the ultimate solution?Typographie by Emil Ruder c1967
Is the (swiss) grid the ultimate solution?Typographie by Emil Ruder c1967
Is the (swiss) grid the ultimate solution?Typographie by Emil Ruder c1967
Analyzing a sample of bilingual typographyHong Kong Independent Film Festivl programme guide 2011
Le French Mayprogramme guide 2011
Are two or more elements the same or different in terms of . . .                   Status?            Category?          G...
Using cityscapes as an analogy . . .Hierarchical element – it’s more important than everything elseDistinguishing element ...
Using cityscapes as an analogy . . .a landmark such as a large cathedral is both ahierarchical and distinguishing element ...
Using cityscapes as an analogy . . .an eceletic cityscape – everything is different fromeverything else! Lacks focus and d...
Our eyes never stay still – they keep looking for patterns and organization                                               ...
Difference in run length               Language 1                         Language 2               Because of the nature o...
Different sequential order          Language 1 prioritized           by order in sequence               Searching for the ...
Same run length, different column width              Language 1 almost becomes a      Being more than three times the colu...
Parallel setting in list and matrix configurations
Parallel setting in list and matrix configurations
Parallel setting in list and matrix configurations
Customary reading directionsSheung Wan, Hong Kong 2008
Customary reading directionsSheung Wan, Hong Kong 2007
Truck graphics, Hong Kong 2010
A comparative descriptive framework (graphical  spatial attributes)                                       Chinese  中文     ...
Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
Xpress The Hong Kong Designers Association journal 2007
multiscript ≠              multilingual
Multiscript ≠ multilingual  The sign reads ‘Convention  Exhibition Centre metro station’Source: Yahoo news Hong Kong
Truck lettering, Hong Kong, 2011
Grouping – name                        Grouping – type of business              Syllable-by-syllable transliteration   Tra...
Milk magazine, June 2011  Table of contents
Milk magazine, June 2011  Front of book section
Advertisment in Milk magazine, July 2007
Muse magazine, September 2010
Code-switchingMuse magazine, September 2010
Code-switchingMuse magazine, September 2010
Code-switchingTao magazine, August 2011
Tao magazine, August 2011
Tao magazine, August 2011
Tao magazine, August 2011
Tao magazine, August 2011
Superlife Express November 2009  Supermarket newsletter
Superlife Express November 2009  Supermarket newsletter (close-up)
Bilingual typography: Hong Kong case studies
Bilingual typography: Hong Kong case studies
Bilingual typography: Hong Kong case studies
Bilingual typography: Hong Kong case studies
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Bilingual typography: Hong Kong case studies

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Keynote delivered at Same/Difference: Multilingual Typography Symposium 2011

Bilingual typography in Hong Kong has a long history. While much has been written about bilingualism in Hong Kong from a linguistic point of view, little has been done from a typographic standpoint. Through a systemic approach, this presentation will examine some case studies of Chinese–English bilingual typography in Hong Kong and attempt to establish links between the semantic, syntactic and pragmatic aspects of bilingual typographic communication. Two types of bilingual typography will be explored: 1. where two languages appear to be parallel to each other in terms of their literal meaning; and 2. where one language is embedded into another, termed as ‘code-mixing’ in linguistics. A descriptive and theoretical framework will be presented. These theoretical investigations will afford a glimpse of the socio-political and socio-linguistic evolutions of bilingualism in Hong Kong as well as shed light on the factors which influence the effectiveness of various approaches to bilingual typography.

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Transcript of "Bilingual typography: Hong Kong case studies"

  1. 1. Bilingual typography: Hong Kong case studiesKeith TamInformation Design LabSchool of Design · Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversitySame/difference: Multilingual Typography Symposium 2011Hong Kong Polytechnic University18 August 2011© Information Design Lab, Hong Kong Polytechnic University 2011
  2. 2. Bilingual typography is all about visual harmony?
  3. 3. Sheung Wan, Hong Kong 2008
  4. 4. Shatin, Hong Kong 2009
  5. 5. Central, Hong Kong 2007
  6. 6. Truck graphics, Hong Kong 2008
  7. 7. Peng Chau, Hong Kong 2005
  8. 8. 字 A
  9. 9. 字 a
  10. 10. 字 a
  11. 11. 字 word
  12. 12. 字 Word
  13. 13. 字 WORD
  14. 14. Chinese and English are linguistically and anatomically very different 字 Aahxg
  15. 15. Former Tai Po Market railway station architectural lettering c1913 (now Hong Kong Railway Museum)
  16. 16. Former Tai Po Market railway station signage c1913 (now Hong Kong Railway Museum)
  17. 17. War memorial arch at the Zoological and Botanical Gardens 1928
  18. 18. Central Government Offices lettering c1957
  19. 19. So Uk Estate architectural lettering c1960
  20. 20. Victoria Park School of the deaf entrance sign c1960
  21. 21. Riots in Hong Kong 1967 http://djyimg.com/i5/403112643869.jpg
  22. 22. Pages from the Laws of Hong Kong, Official Languages Ordinance, passed in 1974
  23. 23. Kowloon Tsai Park original lettering c1964
  24. 24. Kowloon Tsai Park swimming pool sign c1964 (?)
  25. 25. Kowloon Tsai Park sign post-1997
  26. 26. Kowloon Tsai Park sign, possibly post-2000
  27. 27. Exit sign, Mass Transit Railway, Hong Kong
  28. 28. Bilingual typography is all about visual harmony about how various constituent parts of each language interact with each other under many different contexts for many different purposes
  29. 29. Insert in my secondary school report booklet c1984 (?)
  30. 30. Secondary school testimonial 1992
  31. 31. Secondary school testimonial 1992  English only
  32. 32. Secondary school testimonial 1992  Chinese only
  33. 33. Secondary school testimonial 1992  Inserted dynamic information only
  34. 34. A model for investigating typography Culture 文化 Language Typography Technology 語言 文字信息設計 科技 Aesthetics 美學Keith Tam 2010
  35. 35. Pragmatics, syntactics semantics work in tandem to communicate effectively visual elements and principles, rules of visual Syntactics perception how it is understood, how meaning is created (verbal graphic language) Semantics Pragmatics how it works for the user, in terms of searching and accessing information in a given context
  36. 36. Typography is a verbal–graphic hybrid language Visual VerbalKeith Tam 2011
  37. 37. Typography is a verbal–graphic hybrid languageMultilingual typography becomes a meta language Language 1 Language 2  Visual Visual Language 3 Verbal VerbalKeith Tam 2011
  38. 38. Types of bilingualism / bilingual typography Two languages presented as Parallel 雙語並行 equivalence of each other One language is embedded into Code-mixing 語碼混合 another below the clause level (words and short phrases) One language is interweaved into Code-switching 語碼轉換 another at clause level or above
  39. 39. Types of bilingualism / bilingual typography Two languages presented as Parallel 雙語並行 equivalence of each other One language is embedded into Code-mixing 語碼混合 another below the clause level (words and short phrases) One language is interweaved into Code-switching 語碼轉換 another at clause level or above
  40. 40. An analytical model for bilingual typography Verbal language (content) Status relationship Semantic structure Global visual hierarchy Local visual hierarchy Verbal–graphic language (form)Keith Tam 2011
  41. 41. An analytical model for bilingual typographyglobal Status Sequence Categorization Groupingproperties 地位 排序 類別 群組local Hierarchy Sequence Categorization Groupingproperties 層級 排序 類別 群組 Graphical spatial attributesKeith Tam 2011
  42. 42. Is the (swiss) grid the ultimate solution?Typographie by Emil Ruder c1967
  43. 43. Is the (swiss) grid the ultimate solution?Typographie by Emil Ruder c1967
  44. 44. Is the (swiss) grid the ultimate solution?Typographie by Emil Ruder c1967
  45. 45. Is the (swiss) grid the ultimate solution?Typographie by Emil Ruder c1967
  46. 46. Analyzing a sample of bilingual typographyHong Kong Independent Film Festivl programme guide 2011
  47. 47. Le French Mayprogramme guide 2011
  48. 48. Are two or more elements the same or different in terms of . . . Status? Category? Grouping? Semantic Language? Sequence? level?  by looking at and comparing graphical spatial attributesKeith Tam 2011
  49. 49. Using cityscapes as an analogy . . .Hierarchical element – it’s more important than everything elseDistinguishing element – it’s different from everything else
  50. 50. Using cityscapes as an analogy . . .a landmark such as a large cathedral is both ahierarchical and distinguishing element and it becomesa focal point of a city
  51. 51. Using cityscapes as an analogy . . .an eceletic cityscape – everything is different fromeverything else! Lacks focus and does not facilitatingsearching or grouping
  52. 52. Our eyes never stay still – they keep looking for patterns and organization Fixations = 2/10 to 8/10 seconds Movements between fixations = 1/100 to 8/100 secondsPatterson 2002 p.213
  53. 53. Difference in run length Language 1 Language 2 Because of the nature of the language, a large gap is created
  54. 54. Different sequential order Language 1 prioritized by order in sequence Searching for the starting point of language 2 becomes more difficult
  55. 55. Same run length, different column width Language 1 almost becomes a Being more than three times the column sidebar or margin notes rather width of language 1, the visual precence than the main text of language becomes greater, hence more emphasised
  56. 56. Parallel setting in list and matrix configurations
  57. 57. Parallel setting in list and matrix configurations
  58. 58. Parallel setting in list and matrix configurations
  59. 59. Customary reading directionsSheung Wan, Hong Kong 2008
  60. 60. Customary reading directionsSheung Wan, Hong Kong 2007
  61. 61. Truck graphics, Hong Kong 2010
  62. 62. A comparative descriptive framework (graphical spatial attributes) Chinese  中文 English  英文 Chinese  中文 English  英文 A  Type style 01 Songti or Mingti  宋體或明體 seriffed  襯線體 A  Spatial sequence 01 order in vertical sequence  縱向排序 order in vertical sequence  縱向排序 字體風格 02 Heiti  黑體 sanserif  無襯線體或等線體 空間排序 02 order in horizontal sequence  橫向排序 order in horizontal sequence  橫向排序 03 Kaiti  楷體 — 03 sequence assumed via position sequence assumed via position 04 Fang Song  仿宋體 — 位置引申的次序 位置引申的次序 05 cursive  草寫體 cursive  草寫體 04 sequence assumed via graphical attributes sequence assumed via graphical attributes 視覺屬性引申的次序 視覺屬性引申的次序 06 display  標題字 display  標題字 05 order of appearance in linear sequence order of appearance in linear sequence 07 calligraphy  書法 calligraphy  書法 線性流向的出場次序 線性流向的出場次序 08 handlettering  手繪字 handlettering  手繪字 06 reveal or hide after interaction reveal or hide after interaction 09 writing tool ﹠ material  書寫工具及物料 互動後揭示或隱藏 互動後揭示或隱藏 10 typesetting and production method  排字及製作方法 07 transform after interaction transform after interaction 互動後轉化 互動後轉化 B  Scale measure 01 actual point size  實際點數 大小及量度 02 appearing size  視覺大小 appearing size  視覺大小 B Configuration 01 linear stream  純線性流動 03 character height  字元高度 cap height  大寫字母高度 配置方法 02 prose (linear interrupted)  段落(線性中斷) 04 — x-height  X高度 03 verse (lines broken for sense)  詩句(根據字義換行) 05 — ascender length  上椽長度 04 branching (tree)  分支(樹形結構) 06 — descender length  下椽長度 05 list  列表 07 — baseline  基線 06 matrix  表格 08 Ideographic Character Face (ICF) size — 表意字面(內框)大小 C  Reading direction 01 left to right  從左至右 閱讀方向 02 top to bottom, right to left (vertical) — C Weight density 01 actual stroke width  實際筆畫粗細 從上而下,從右至左(縱向) 粗細及密度 02 weight  重量(粗細) weight  重量(粗細) 03 right to left (horizontal)  從右至左(橫向) — 03 overall density  整體密度 overall density  整體密度 04 — stacked letters, top to bottom 縱向叠起字母,從上而下 D Typographic variants 01 — upper- and lowercase  大小楷 05 sideways, top to bottom  轉側,從上而下 字元變換 02 — all-capitals  全大楷 06 sideways, bottom to top  轉側,從下而上 03 — small-capitals  小型大楷 04 — italic or oblique   草寫斜體或傾斜體 D Alignment 01 justified  左右齊行 05 — swashed characters  花體字 靠齊方法 02 flush left, ragged right  齊左散右 flush left, ragged right  齊左散右 06 — superscript  上標 03 flush top, ragged bottom  齊上散下 — 07 — subscript  下標 04 flush right, ragged left  齊右散左 flush right, ragged left  齊右散左 08 circled framed characters  圓及方框字元 — 05 centered  分中 centered  分中 09 jiazhu (split-column notes)  夾注 — E Spacing 01 column width  欄寬 10 oblique effect  傾斜 oblique effect  傾斜 空間處理 02 line spacing  行間間距 E Typographic adornments 01 underlining  底線 03 paragraph spacing  段間間距 字元裝配 02 strikethrough  刪除線 04 first line indent  首行縮進 03 paragraph rules  段落嵌線 05 indent  縮進 04 emphasis marks  著重號 — 06 outdent  突出 05 zhuyin (phonetic glosses)  注音 — 07 character spacing  字元間距 — 06 other graphical effects applied to the text  其它字元效果 08 — letterspacing  字母間距 09 — word spacing  字間間距 F Graphical devices 01 text colour  字元顏色 視覺元素 02 background colour  背景顏色 03 border width  線框粗細 04 border style  線框風格 05 border colour  線框顏色 06 other graphical devices  其它標識Keith Tam 2007–2011
  63. 63. Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
  64. 64. Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
  65. 65. Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
  66. 66. Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
  67. 67. Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
  68. 68. Silkroad inflight magazine, August 2009
  69. 69. Xpress The Hong Kong Designers Association journal 2007
  70. 70. multiscript ≠  multilingual
  71. 71. Multiscript ≠ multilingual  The sign reads ‘Convention Exhibition Centre metro station’Source: Yahoo news Hong Kong
  72. 72. Truck lettering, Hong Kong, 2011
  73. 73. Grouping – name Grouping – type of business Syllable-by-syllable transliteration Translation Longer English word spans across Chinese compound wordRestaurant sign, Central, Hong Kong 2007
  74. 74. Milk magazine, June 2011  Table of contents
  75. 75. Milk magazine, June 2011  Front of book section
  76. 76. Advertisment in Milk magazine, July 2007
  77. 77. Muse magazine, September 2010
  78. 78. Code-switchingMuse magazine, September 2010
  79. 79. Code-switchingMuse magazine, September 2010
  80. 80. Code-switchingTao magazine, August 2011
  81. 81. Tao magazine, August 2011
  82. 82. Tao magazine, August 2011
  83. 83. Tao magazine, August 2011
  84. 84. Tao magazine, August 2011
  85. 85. Superlife Express November 2009  Supermarket newsletter
  86. 86. Superlife Express November 2009  Supermarket newsletter (close-up)

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