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  • 1.
  • 2. Suffixes
  • 3. Suffixes are word endings that change the meaning or part
    of speech of a word. Suffixes that can be added to form:
    ADVERBS
    AJECTIVES
    VERBS
    NOUNS
  • 4. To form adjectives, you can add:
    (Verb-adjective)Adds the meaning 'that can be' or 'worth being'
    avoid avoidablebend bendabledesire desirableadmire admirableflex flexible
    -able/-ible
    (noun-adjective)Connected with the stated thing
    nation national
    culture culturalemotion emotionalnature natural
    -al
  • 5. noun-adjective)Connected with or belonging to the stated place, group or type
    America AmericanRome RomansuburbsuburbanSagittariusSagittarianEuropeEuropean
    -an
    (verb/noun-adjective)Having the stated quality to a high degree, or causing it
    -ful
    power powerful
    hope hopefulfear fearfuldelightdelightful
  • 6. (noun/adjective-adjective)
    Connected with the stated country
    BritainBritish
    PolandPolish
    -ish
    (disapproving) being like the stated thing
    -ish
    baby babyish
    foolfoolish
    Used to add the meaning 'to some degree'
    young youngish
    red reddishshort shortishnewnewish
    -ish
  • 7. (noun-adjective)Like the stated person or thing
    fatherfatherly
    cowardcowardly
    friendfriendly
    heavenheavenly
    -ly
  • 8. To form nouns, you can add:
    (verb-noun)The action described by the verb, or its result
    wastewastagebreak breakagemarrymarriagespillspillage
    -age
    (verb-noun)The action described by the verb
    approve approval
    bury burialarrive arrivalremoveremoval
    -al
  • 9. (noun-noun)A person who studies the stated subject, or who belongs to the stated place or group
    historyhistorianEuropeEuropeanParis Parisian
    -an/-ian/-ean
    (adjective-noun)The state or quality described
    brilliant brilliance
    distant distanceabsent absencesilentsilence
    -ance/-ence
  • 10. (verb-noun)The person to whom the action of the verb is being done
    empladdressaddressee
    interview oyemployee
    interviewee
    traintrainee
    -ee
    (verb-noun)The person that does the action
    runrunner
    employemployer
    actactor
    -er/-or
    (verb-noun)
    The device that does the action
    cook cooker
    time timergenerate generatorindicateindicator
    -er/-or
  • 11. (noun-noun)The amount of something needed to fill the stated container or place
    spoon spoonfulhand handfulhouse housefulbag bagful
    -ful
    (verb-noun)The process or condition connected with the verb
    educate education
    tax taxationadd additioncollide collision
    -ation/-ition/-ision
  • 12. (adjective/noun-noun)Social, political or religious beliefs or ways of behaving
    modern modernismconsumer consumerismmilitary militarismBuddaBuddism
    -ism
    (adjective/noun-noun)A person with a particular set of beliefs or way of behaving, or with knowledge of an area of study
    extreme extremist
    Marx Marxismeconomy economistscience scientist
    -ist
  • 13. (adjective-noun)The state or quality referred to by the adjective
    sincere sinceritygenerous generosityfluid fluidityacid acidity
    -ity
    (verb-noun)The action or process described by the verb, or its result
    govern government
    invest investmentdevelop developmentdisappoint disappointment
    -ment
    (adjective-noun)The quality or condition described by the adjective
    happy happiness
    ill illnessdark darknessclever cleverness
    -ness
  • 14. To form adverbs, you can add:
    (adjective-adverb)In the stated way
    loud loudlyhappy happilycareful carefullysudden suddenly
    -ly
    (noun-adverb/adjective)happening at the stated regular period of time
    hour hourly
    year yearlyday dailynight nightly
    -ly
    In this case, the -ly form can usually be used as an adjective.
    · daily newspaper
    · hourly rate
  • 15. (preposition/noun-adverb)In the stated direction or towards the stated place
    down downwardsearth earthwardshome homewardsin inwards
    -wards
    The -wardform can also be used as an adjective.
    · downward spiral
    · homeward bound
    · inward-looking
  • 16. To form verbs, you can add:
    (adjective-verb)To cause to have or increase the stated quality
    fresh freshenblack blackenthick thickenfat fatten
    -en
    (adjetive-verb)To cause to become
    -ize/ise
    central centralize
    commercial commercializemodern modernizestandard standardize
    In British and Australian English these words are usually spelled -ise.
  • 17. (adjective/noun-verb)To cause to have the stated quality
    simplesimplify
    purepurify
    solidsolidify
    beautybeautify
    -ify