Lung cancer treatment in india at mumbai at low cost


Published on

Lung Cancer, Lung Cancer Treatment India, Lung Cancer Symptoms India, Lung Cancer Information India, Lung Cancer Charity India, Cancer India, Research India, Lung Cancer Donation India, India Hospital Tour India, Charitable Donation India, Charity Donation India, Histopathologic Tumar India, Lymphatic System India, Small Cell Lung Cancer India, Bronchogenic Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Smoking, Lung Cancer Symptom, Asbestos Lung Cancer, Warning Signs, Lung Failure Side Effects, Causes, Medical

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lung cancer treatment in india at mumbai at low cost

  2. 2. LUNG CANCER TREATMENT IN INDIA AT AFFORDABLE COSTWHAT IS LUNG CANCER?Lung cancer starts in the cells of the lung .The lungs are in the chest on either side of the heart. The rightlung has 3components or lobes and the left lung 2 lobes. Air is inhaled through the nose and throat andflows past the voice box (larynx) into the windpipe (Trachea).The windpipe divides into 2tubes the leftand right bronchi which supply air to each lung within the lung the tubes get smaller and smaller(bronchioles)until they reach air sacs(alveoli) The alveolis job is too add oxygen to the blood and to takewaste gases out. The waste gas is removed from the body as exhale
  3. 3. Types of lung cancerThere are two major types of lung cancer. Each type of lung cancer grows and spreads in different ways.Each type may be treated differently.Non-small cell lung cancer : -This is the most common type of lung cancer. It usually spreads more slowlythan some other lung cancers.There are three major types of non-small cell lung cancer : - • Squamous cell carcinoma. • Adenocarcinoma. • Large cell carcinoma.
  4. 4. Small cell lung cancer : -This is a less common type of lung cancer and it spreads faster than non-small-cell lung cancer.There are three major types of small cell lung cancer : - • Small cell carcinoma. • Mixed small cell/large cell. • Combined small cell carcinoma.RISKS OF LUNG CANCERTobacco Smoking : - By far the most prominent risk factor is tobacco smoking. More than 80% of lungcancers are thought to result from smoking. The longer a person has been smoking and the more packsper day smoked, the greater the risk. If a person stops smoking before a cancer develops, the damagedlung tissue starts to gradually return to normal. Even after ten years, the ex-smokers risk still does notequal the lower risk of a person who never smoked. However, an ex-smokers risk is about half the riskof people who continue to smoke.Nonsmokers who breathe in the smoke of others (also called second hand smoke or environmentaltobacco smoke) are also at increased risk for lung cancer. A nonsmoker who is married to a smoker has a30% greater risk of developing lung cancer than the spouse of a nonsmoker.Radon : - Radon is a gas found in the soil in many parts of the country. Radon can enter a buildingthrough cracks in the foundation or insulation, or through drains or walls. People who have a highexposure to radon at home, school and work are at higher risk of lung cancerAsbestos : - Asbestos is found is many workplaces and homes. In the past, it has been used in oven,brake pads, insulation, and many other industrial products Death from lung cancer is about seven timesmore likely to occur among asbestos workers than among the general population. Exposure to asbestosfibers is an important risk factor for lung cancer.Marijuana : - Marijuana cigarettes contain more tar than tobacco cigarettes. Also, they are inhaled verydeeply and the smoke is held in the lungs for a long time. Medical reports suggest marijuana may causecancers of the mouth and throat.Recurring Inflammation : - Tuberculosis and some types of pneumonia often leave scarred areas on thelung. This scarring increases the risk of the person developing the adenocarcinoma type of lung cancer.Talcum Powder : - While no increased risk of lung cancer has been found from the use of cosmetic
  5. 5. talcum powder, some studies of talc miners and millers suggest a higher risk of lung cancer and otherrespiratory diseases from their exposure to industrial grade talc.Personal and Family History : - People who have lung cancer have an increased risk of another lungcancer. Brothers, sisters and children of those who have had lung cancer may have a slightly higher riskof lung cancer themselves. However, it is difficult to say how much of this excess risk is due to inheritedfactors and how much is due to environmental tobacco smoke.Other Mineral Exposures : - People with silicosis and berylliosis (lung diseases caused by breathing incertain minerals) also have an increased risk of lung cancer.Vitamin A Deficiency or Excess : - People who do not get enough vitamin A are at increased risk of lungcancer. On the other hand, taking too much vitamin A may also increase lung cancer risk.Air Pollution : - In some cities, air pollution may slightly increase the risk of lung cancer. This risk is farless than that caused by smoking.Symptoms of Lung CancerLung cancer often does not produce symptoms in the early stages. When symptoms do occur, they are aresult of tumor growth, pressure and invasion on nearby structures and nerves, regional growths ormetastasis.If the cancer originated and grew in the bronchi and spread to nearby lymphnodes, the symptoms may include : - 1. coughing (when a tumor grew and blocked a passage). 2. coughing up blood. 3. chest pain. 4. shortness of breath. 5. pneumonia. 6. hoarseness (caused by pressure on a nerve). 7. difficulty in swallowing (caused by an obstruction of the esophagus). 8. swelling of the neck, face and upper extremities (caused by pressure on blood vessels). 9. fatigue.
  6. 6. 10. loss of appetite. 11. loss of weight.If the cancer originated and grew at the top of the lung, the symptoms mayinclude : - • Pancoasts syndrome (weakness and pain in the shoulder, arm and hand, caused by pressure on the nerves)If the cancer has metastasized and traveled to other parts of the body, thesymptoms may include : - • Metastasis to brain: headache, weakness, behavioral changes, speech problems and memory lapses. • Metastasis to other parts: pain, bone fractures, jaundice and blood clots.Additionally, lung tumors also may alter the production of hormones (calledParaneoplastic syndrome) that regulate body functions, causing : - • breast enlargement in males. • bone and joint pain. • Cushings syndrome (overproduction of corticosteroid hormones). • Carcinoid syndrome (excess of serotonin hormone in the body). • Hypercalcemia.Diagnosis of Lung CancerIf lung cancer is suspected, the person will have their medical history taken, a physical examination, anda variety of tests to confirm the diagnosis.During the physical exam, the doctor will look for lymph node enlargement in the neck or in the regionabove the collarbones, liver enlargement, abnormal abdominal enlargement, and signs of a lung mass.
  7. 7. The tests may include the following : - 1. chest x-ray to look for growths 2. a sputum test (phlegm coughed up from the lung) to detect cancerous cells 3. Biopsy (the surgical removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination). There are various methods to obtain a biopsy. One way is with a procedure called a bronchoscopy. A bronchoscopy involves inserting a flexible lighted tube (a bronchoscope) into the persons mouth or nose and guiding it into the bronchi. Other instruments can then be passed through the bronchoscope to remove the sample. Another method is called a percutaneous needle biopsy, in which a needle is inserted through the skin into the lung. With the help of ultrasound or a CT scan, the doctor is able to guide the needle to the cancerous growth and remove a sample. 4. Pulmonary function test, called a spirometry. Using a machine called a spirometer, the doctor is able to record the rate at which a person exhales air from the lungs and the total volume exhaled, thus indicating a narrowing or obstruction in the airways.Staging of Lung CancerOnce the diagnosis of lung cancer is made, further staging studies are done to determine the spread ofthe disease and the appropriate treatment method. These studies include computed tomography (CT orCAT scan), a bone scan and a PET scan.The CT/CAT scan is a series of x-rays taken as a scanner revolves around the body. A computer thenreceives the x-ray images and creates a cross-sectional picture of the area being examined.A bone scan, also called a radionuclide or nuclear medicine scan, involves injecting a radioactivesubstance into the body. An instrument then scans the body to measure radiation levels. A PET scan issimilar to a bone scan except it gives information on all the organs of the body. It is especially useful todetermine if the lung cancer has spread outside of the lung. It is important to realize, though, it is not100% accurate; for example areas of cancer that range 0.6 centimeters to one centimeter will often notbe visible on PET scan.Once the additional tests are done, the doctor will determine what stage the cancer is in and basetreatment decisions on this information.
  8. 8. Treatment of Lung Cancer in IndiaStandard treatment for patients with lung cancer is of limited effectiveness in all but the most localizedtumors. For this reason, patients are encouraged to consider participating in clinical trials (research studies)designed to evaluate new approaches to therapy.Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy (used alone or in various combinations) are the standardmethods used to treat lung cancer. The choice of treatment depends on many factors, including the type oftumor, the extent of the disease when it is diagnosed, the age and general health of the patient and othervariables. The first question to ask is whether the lung cancer is caught at an early enough stage to allow forsurgery with curative intent.Surgical procedures that may be employed include wedge or segmental resection (removal of a portion of theaffected lungs), lobetomy (removal of the entire lobe of the lung) or pneumonectomy (removal of the entireright or left lung).Radiation therapy is usually given by external beam, using machines located outside the body that deliver x-rays or electrons to the location of the tumor. The radiation dose is based on the size and location of thetumor.Some patients first receive external therapy to a wide area that includes the primary tumor and surroundingtissue. After the initial treatments, a smaller area is treated and a final treatment area that may be quitesmall. Radiation here is referred to as a "boost." Like surgery, radiation therapy is called local treatment,because it affects only the cells in the area being treated.Chemotherapy (treatment with anticancer drugs) is a systemic treatment - the drugs enter the bloodstreamand travel through the body, affecting cancer cells outside the lung area. Drugs given to treat lung cancermay be given by mouth or injection to a muscle or vein. Most chemotherapy is taken on an outpatient basis.
  9. 9. Please log on to: us: