Towards a paradigm of
Spiritual Leadership

M.J.H.A. Hurkens
University of Maastricht
Faculty of economics and Business ad...
ABSTRACT
The workplace is becoming the centerpiece of our lives. Since more and more time is
spend at the workplace, most ...
Table of content
1. Introduction ............................................................................................
3.8.3 Taoism.........................................................................................................50
3....
5
1. Introduction
The topic of management and especially leadership intrigues a broad range of people.
Not only do many peop...
1.1 Purpose of study

The purpose of this research is in an enhanced understanding of the emergence and
development of spi...
1.3 Outline

The following outline is chosen for this thesis: in section 1.4 the methodology of this
thesis is discussed, ...
1.4 Methodology

1.4.1 Planning the review
To conduct an adequate literature review the guidelines provided by Tranfield e...
International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). The following key words
were searched, for being present in the ...
article describe what spiritual leadership is?’ and ‘does the article address the factors
that contribute to spiritual lea...
2. Leadership in general

2.1 Introduction

To gain an insight into the developments in the leadership literature, this ch...
2.3 Developments in the academic leadership literature over the last century

Six main schools of thought concerning the l...
persistence in pursuit of goals, venturesomeness and originality in problem solving,
drive to exercise initiative in socia...
Three of the ten managerial roles relate to a manager’s behavior that focuses on
interpersonal contact; these are titled i...
relationships (networks) in the firm and the industry to operate effectively. An
excellent reputation and record of accomp...
power over the group members. Relationship-oriented leaders tends to perform best in
mixed situations where they only have...
contingency theories the SLM makes a distinction between task behavior and
relationship behavior. Furthermore, Hersey & Bl...
of the leader; 7) emotional involvement of the follower in the mission; 8) heightened
goals of the follower; and 9) feelin...
Weaknesses charismatic leadership theory
Most academics agree that charisma can be a double-edged sword capable of
produci...
range leadership that includes both transactional and transformational factors.
However, those leaders referred to as bein...
intelligence and job performance becomes more positive as cognitive intelligence
decreases.” Coté & Miners (2006, p. 5) de...
The trait –and behavioral theory (predominant in 1940-1960) are a quest to finding
one unique leadership trait or behavior...
Emotional Intelligence
Charismatic Leadership

Emotional

Transformational Leadership

Contingency Theory
Rational

Behavi...
Since the charismatic, transformational, and emotional intelligence theories are (as
previously indicated) of an emotional...
Recently, a new school of thought is upcoming, namely the spiritual leadership. Since
the emphasis of this thesis is on sp...
3. Spiritual leadership
Author and
year of
publication
Arabi, I
(1975)
Ashmos, D.
P., &
Duchon, D.
(2000)

Benefiel,
M. (2...
Delbecq,
A. L.
(1999)

Giving implications of
how Christian
spirituality impacts
contemporary business
leadership

(not ap...
C. L.
(2003)
Goldstein,
J., &
Kornfield,
J.(1987
Hawkins,
P. (1991)

performance (book)
Seeking the heart of
wisdom: The p...
M.,
Kageler,
W. V., &
Goodwin,
V. L.
Wilber, K.
(1999)

represents evidence of
legacy
leadership in terms of
the changed l...
discussed. Finally, the religious and non-religious inspired views on spiritual
leadership are compared.

3.2 Spirituality...
with formal / organizational religion, while spirituality was more often associated
with closeness with God and feelings o...
figure 3, the graphical representation of the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation is given.
EXTRINSIC
MO...
3.4 Workplace spirituality

Understanding workplace spirituality begins with acknowledging that people have
both an inner ...
implicitly present in their components of workplace spirituality, namely: inner life.
Workplace spirituality is, next to b...
3.5.1 Fairholm’s skeletal model of spiritual leadership
Fairholm (1996) specified a skeletal, holistic model of spiritual ...
things not seen,’ a direct quotation of Hebrews 11:1” (Benefiel, 2005, p. 727).
Furthermore, “Fry’s (2003) model includes ...
EFFORT
(Hope/Faith)
Works

PERFORMANCE
(Vision)

CALLING
Make a Difference,
Life has Meaning
ORGANIZATIONAL
COMMITMENT &
P...
Figure 5: Spiritual leadership as intrinsic motivation through vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love. (Fry, 2003,
p.719)...
organization doing service (meaning doing good for others), provides synergy in the
organization. “Through the service to ...
foresightful (use intuitive sense to bridge information gaps to better foresee the
unforeseeable); and are proponents of p...
discussed in depth. The first one is from Duchon & Plowman (2005) including an
exploratory study of six work units within ...
attitudes. This implies that leaders in spirit-friendly work units have a stronger sense
of spirit than leaders in less sp...
Figure 6: Structural equation model for Fort Hood Longbow attack squadron data (Fry et al., 2005, p. 845).

The results pr...
3.7 Spirituality and organizational transformation

In the current business environment there is only one thing consistent...
p. 731). Benefiel (2005) first discusses the process of individual leader’s spiritual
transformation, and then this unders...
learns to desire God for God’s self, not only for what God can give him. This may be
hard for the seeker to understand, es...
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
File11483 theory sl
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

File11483 theory sl

870 views
645 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
870
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

File11483 theory sl

  1. 1. Towards a paradigm of Spiritual Leadership M.J.H.A. Hurkens University of Maastricht Faculty of economics and Business administration Maastricht, 18 September 2007 I121967 Student International Business Supervisor: Dr. Peter Berends Master Thesis
  2. 2. ABSTRACT The workplace is becoming the centerpiece of our lives. Since more and more time is spend at the workplace, most of us also have to find their full sense of meaning there. This implies that our spiritual needs also have to be fulfilled at the workplace. The purpose of this study to enhance the understanding of the emergence and development of spiritual leadership theories. By studying the current spiritual leadership theories, the impact of this new stream of literature could be determined. As the spiritual leadership theories are still at the infancy stage of development they increase the awareness of researchers and organizational leaders to think about the urge people have to express their spiritual selves at the workplace. However, through the implementation of the suggestions for improvement of the spiritual leadership theories provided in this study, the spiritual leadership literature is going to be a step closer to developing towards a new spiritual leadership paradigm. 2
  3. 3. Table of content 1. Introduction ..........................................................................................................6 1.1 Purpose of study ...................................................................................................7 1.2 Research questions ...............................................................................................7 1.3 Outline..................................................................................................................8 1.4 Methodology ........................................................................................................9 1.4.1 Planning the review.......................................................................................9 1.4.2 Selection of the studies..................................................................................9 2. Leadership in general ......................................................................................12 2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................12 2.2 Leadership history ..............................................................................................12 2.3 Developments in the academic leadership literature over the last century ........13 2.3.1 Trait school..................................................................................................13 2.3.2 Behavioral or style school ...........................................................................14 2.3.3 Contingency school .....................................................................................16 2.3.4 Visionary or charismatic school..................................................................18 2.3.5 Transformational school..............................................................................20 2.3.6 Emotional Intelligence school.....................................................................21 2.4 Integration Leadership schools of thought .........................................................22 2.5 Conclusion..........................................................................................................25 3. Spiritual leadership..........................................................................................27 3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................30 3.2 Spirituality versus religion .................................................................................31 3.3 Spirituality and motivation.................................................................................32 3.4 Workplace spirituality ........................................................................................34 3.5 Spiritual leadership.............................................................................................35 3.5.1 Fairholm’s skeletal model of spiritual leadership .......................................36 3.5.2 Fry’s model of spiritual leadership..............................................................36 3.6 Spirituality and leadership effectiveness............................................................41 3.7 Spirituality and organizational transformation...................................................45 3.8 Spiritual leadership from a religious point of view............................................48 3.8.1 Judeo-Christian............................................................................................48 3.8.2 Islam ............................................................................................................49 3
  4. 4. 3.8.3 Taoism.........................................................................................................50 3.8.4 Buddhism ....................................................................................................52 3.9 Comparison; religious & non-religious inspired views on spiritual leadership .53 3.10 Conclusion........................................................................................................54 4. Spiritual leadership: a critical review .......................................................55 4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................55 4.2 Spirituality-Religion dichotomy.........................................................................56 4.2.1 Spirituality unites where religion divides....................................................56 4.2.2 Spirituality, and the ‘whole’ person view ...................................................57 4.3 Scrutinizing the empirical research about spirituality leadership ......................58 4.3.1 Study 1: Duchon & Plowman (2005)..........................................................58 4.3.2 Study 2: Fry, Vitucci & Cedillo (2005).......................................................60 4.3.3 Results studies .............................................................................................60 4.4 How ‘spiritual’ is spiritual leadership ................................................................61 4.4.1 Spirituality, and Wilber’s Great Chain of Being.........................................61 4.4.2 Is there a fundamental difference between ‘normal’ leadership theories and spiritual leadership theories?................................................................................64 4.5 Suggestions for improvement.............................................................................65 4.5.1 Suggestions critical point 1 .........................................................................65 4.5.2 Suggestions critical point 2 .........................................................................66 4.5.3 Suggestions critical point 3 .........................................................................66 4.6 Conclusion..........................................................................................................67 5. Conclusion ...........................................................................................................68 5.1 Answering the research questions ......................................................................68 5.2 Limitations of this study.....................................................................................71 References ................................................................................................................72 Appendices ...............................................................................................................84 Appendix A: Extensive description of the six leadership schools of thought..........84 Appendix B: Questionnaire items used by Duchon & Plowman (2005). ..............106 Appendix C: Questionnaire items used by Fry et al. (2005)..................................110 Appendix D: Individual spiritual transformation (Benefiel, 2005, p. 733)............112 Appendix E: Organizational spiritual transformation (Benefiel, 2005, p. 736). ....113 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 1. Introduction The topic of management and especially leadership intrigues a broad range of people. Not only do many people buy so-called ‘popular literature’ books about leadership, there has also been a broad range of academic research in this specific management area. The question of what makes a good leader and / or a profitable and successful organization has been on the top of people’s minds since the first exchange of commodities took place. Because, without effective leadership at all levels in private as well as public organizations, it is difficult to maintain profitability, productivity, and excellent customer service (DuBrin, 2004). However, leadership can be a doubleedged sword; leaders can be very effective but not necessarily ethical, leading to exposures of the dark side of business leadership. Examples of the unethical practices are CEOs enriching themselves at the cost of employees and stockholders. Due to recent exposures of this dark side of business leadership, now more than ever, attention is paid to the values and personal characteristics of leaders and followers. Additionally, the need for spirituality in the workplace is becoming more pressing over the last decade. The following statement gives a nice example of this recent development in business: “Our premise is that the wealth of corporations and institutions consist of their human element – what is called ‘human capital’ – not simply intellectual property, not only human knowledge and skills, but human spirit as well. To nurture and value the human spirit is an integral part of leadership.” (Spirituality, Leadership, and Management Network, 2003) This comes from the view that organizations must care for the employee’s physical, emotional, as well as spiritual well being (Cacioppe, 2000). Some companies are encouraging meaningful work by combining their profit motive with the values of social responsibility. Encouraging employees’ spirit of accomplishment and motivation, by the idea that the company supplies a reasonable amount of money to charity. However, to encourage the spirituality in the workplace, leaders have to take on a different leadership style named spiritual leadership. 6
  7. 7. 1.1 Purpose of study The purpose of this research is in an enhanced understanding of the emergence and development of spiritual leadership theories. However, the field of spiritual leadership is still in its infancy stage, and therefore marked by differences in definitions and other basic characteristics (Dent et al., 2005). Therefore, it is interesting to structure the current leadership literature to build on a better understanding of spiritual leadership. This is done by performing a systematic literature review; about leadership in general, and specifically about spiritual leadership. 1.2 Research questions As mentioned previously, spiritual leadership is a relatively new area of research in the leadership literature. There are many different angles of research, theories formed, and claims made, concerning the link between spiritual leadership and organizational performance. Accordingly, this research aims to analyze, compare and criticize spiritual leadership. Therefore, the following general research question is formed: What is the impact of the spiritual leadership theories? To answer this general research question, it is divided into the following sub questions: 1. How are the different schools of thought in the leadership literature over the last century interlinked? 2. What are the essential developments in the spiritual leadership literature? 3. What are problematic issues within the spiritual leadership literature? 7
  8. 8. 1.3 Outline The following outline is chosen for this thesis: in section 1.4 the methodology of this thesis is discussed, including what resources were used to find the literature used for the analysis. The keywords used, the amount of hits and the restriction criteria, which the selected articles and books had to fulfill to be selected are presented. Additionally, the results of the electronic search will be presented schematically. In chapter two, the different schools of thought in the leadership literature, over the last century are explained and analyzed for the developments over time. To be able to understand the developments of the leadership literature towards spirituality, a valid comprehension of previous developments in the leadership literature is necessary. Therefore, a special emphasis is put on the links between the different schools of thought. Questions central in this chapter are: when did people first start writing about leadership? What are recent (this century) developments in the academic leadership literature? Are there certain schools of thought that can be distinguished? This chapter will be concluded with a schematical representation of the schools of thought in the academic general leadership literature over time, and how these leadership schools of thought relate. In chapter three, a more in-depth analysis will be conducted, for the spiritual leadership literature. According to specific criteria (indicated in section 1.4) several books and articles will be selected. These books and articles are used to clarify the concept of spirituality in a systematic manner. The purpose is to gain an insight into the different theories of spiritual leadership, and related concepts like motivational theories, workplace spirituality, spiritual transformation, and leadership according to religious traditions. Furthermore, chapter four gives a critical review of the spiritual leadership literature and its related concepts, discussed in chapter three. Emphasizing issues like incoherent acceptance of spirituality versus religion, validity of the empirical studies, and how ‘spiritual,’ spiritual leadership is. The critical review of spiritual leadership is closed by suggestions for improvement of the critical issues found. Finally, a conclusion, answering the research questions of this final thesis is provided, followed by the limitations of this study. 8
  9. 9. 1.4 Methodology 1.4.1 Planning the review To conduct an adequate literature review the guidelines provided by Tranfield et al., 2003 are used. They identify the following stages for conducting a systematic review: Stage I: Planning the review Phase 0 – Identification for the need for a review Phase 1 – Preparation of a proposal for a review Phase 2 – Development of a review protocol Stage II: Conducting a review Phase 3 – Identification of research Phase 4 – Selection of studies Phase 5 – Study quality assessment Phase 6 – Data extraction and monitoring progress Phase 7 – Data synthesis Stage III: Reporting and dissemination Phase 8 – The report and recommendations Phase 9 – Getting evidence into practice Figure 1. Stages of a systematic review, (Tranfield, et al., 2003, p.214). These steps provided by Tranfield et al., (2003) are taken into account while conducting this research. Since stage I (planning the review) has already been executed, stage II (conducting the review) will be conducted in this chapter. Therefore, in the introduction the identification of the research took place (phase three). The selection of the studies (phase four) will be presented next, starting with the identification of key words and search terms (Tranfield et al., 2003). The studies that meet the restriction criteria presented next, are included in this research. 1.4.2 Selection of the studies For the selection of the studies several search engines were used to obtain the academic articles; EBSCO (containing; Business Source Premier, Regional Business News, Econlit, and PsycARTICLES), Emerald, Oxford journals, Science Direct, and 9
  10. 10. International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). The following key words were searched, for being present in the title and / or the abstract: ‘spiritual leadership’ and ‘leadership and spirituality.’ This led to the following search results: ACADEMIC LITERATURE SEARCH: EBSCO: (spiritual leadership) --> title: 8 results; abstract: 10 results title: 11 results; abstract: 43 results title: 1 result; abstract: 15 results (leadership and spirituality) --> title: 3 results; abstract: 10 results (spiritual leadership) --> title: 2 results; abstract: 1 result (leadership and spirituality) --> title: 2 results; abstract: 5 results title: 0 result; abstract: 5 results title: 1 result; abstract: 2 results title: 11 results; abstract: 15 results title: 5 results; abstract: 7 results (leadership and spirituality) --> Emerald: (spiritual leadership) --> IBSS: Oxford journals: (spiritual leadership) --> (leadership and spirituality) --> Science Direct: (spiritual leadership) --> (leadership and spirituality) --> Figure 2: sources and results academic literature search To refine the search in the EBSCO database, the following restriction criteria were used: publication type: academic journals; document type: article. In total fifty-four distinctive hits were obtained from the EBSCO database. The Emerald search engine generated twenty distinctive hits, IBSS had nine distinctive hits, whereas Oxford journals had seven distinctive hits. Finally, Science Direct gave twenty-five distinctive hits on the search terms ‘spiritual leadership’ and ‘leadership and spirituality,’ searching in article title and article abstract. A total of eighty-nine unique hits were retrieved in the academic literature search at the first stage. After collecting the eighty-nine different papers, phase five ‘study quality assessment’ of the literature review, consisting of making a selection of useful articles, to answer research questions two and three (see section 1.2) is carried out. The selection is based on the title, abstract, and content of the articles. Using selection criteria as ‘does the 10
  11. 11. article describe what spiritual leadership is?’ and ‘does the article address the factors that contribute to spiritual leadership like motivational theories, workplace spirituality, spiritual transformation, and leadership according to religious traditions?’ Phase five of conducting a review resulted in seventeen useful articles. Furthermore, twelve books were selected, to analyze spiritual leadership. These seventeen articles and twelve books are summarized and presented schematically, in the beginning of chapter three (phase six and seven). 11
  12. 12. 2. Leadership in general 2.1 Introduction To gain an insight into the developments in the leadership literature, this chapter contains a discussion about the concepts of leadership, and an analysis of the developments in the leadership literature over time. For the most recent (this century) leadership literature a just a short summary will be provided, since it is assumed that readers have extensive knowledge of the leadership topic. However, an extensive description of the leadership schools of thought is given in appendix A for totality purposes. To introduce the topic of leadership, first a short overview of the history of leadership is provided. Followed by, the summarized overview of the recent developments in the academic leadership literature, including the six schools of thought. The seventh school of thought spiritual leadership will be discussed separately and in-depth in chapter three. 2.2 Leadership history Throughout history people have tried to establish what makes a good leader. This goes back to as early as 500 years Before Christ. At that time, Confucius recognized some virtues of effective leaders. There were four cornerstones to his belief namely: 1. Jen - love, 2. Li - proper conduct, 3. Xiao - piety, 4. Zhang rong - moderation (Turner & Müller, 2005). It is striking that three of the four virtues are emotional and just one is managerial. Aristotle’s view of pathos, ethos, and logos is similar to Confucius in the sense that he also identifies both emotional and managerial values. According to Aristotle’s a leader must: “1. Build relationships with those who are led, 2. Advocate a moral vision, 3. Persuade by logic to manage actions,” (Turner & Müller, 2005, p.50). Furthermore, there are other famous authors that have been quoted many times throughout history including; Machiavelli, Hobbes, and Locke from the West, (Collinson, 1998). However, these studies are outside of the scope of this academic literature review, because the focus in this study is on the development of the leadership theory throughout the 20th century, which is discussed next. 12
  13. 13. 2.3 Developments in the academic leadership literature over the last century Six main schools of thought concerning the leadership theory have been identified over the last seven decades by amongst others; Dulewicz & Higgs, 2003; Handy, 1982; Partington, 2003; Turner & Müller, 2005. The six schools of thought they mention are; 1. Trait school which was predominant in the 1940s, 2. Behavioral or style school, which was predominant from the 1940s to the 1960s, 3. Contingency school, which was predominant in the 1960s and 1970s, 4. Visionary or charismatic school, which was predominant in the 1980s and 1990s, and at the same time the 5. Transformational school was forthcoming. Transformational leadership is part of the visionary or charismatic school. However, it is prevailing as a separate entity, and therefore discussed separately. Finally, 6. Emotional intelligence school, which was predominant since the late 1990s, is discussed. Per school of thought the weaknesses are provided, and at the end of this chapter the matching schools of thought and predominance periods are represented schematically. Additionally, an analysis of the linkages between the six schools of thought is given, followed by a schematic representation of the analysis. From the late 1990’s onwards, there is a new development forming in the leadership literature namely; spiritual leadership. Since, spiritual leadership is central in this academic literature review, it is analyzed separately in the forthcoming chapters. 2.3.1 Trait school The origin of the trait school is traced back to the 19th century, where the “great man” leadership theories were very popular. These theories are the foundation of the trait school theory. The “great man” theories assert that leadership qualities are inherited, especially by people from the upper class, (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991). Conversely, the trait theory does not make assumptions about whether the leadership traits are inherited or acquired, it is only emphasize that, leaders’ traits and characteristics are dissimilar from the traits and characteristics from non-leaders (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991). Several efforts have been made to identify the key leadership traits. Bass & Stogdill (1990), summarize over 3,000 books and articles on leadership spanning the period from 1947-1981. According to Bass & Stogdill (1990), “the leader is characterized by a strong drive for responsibility and task completion, vigor and 13
  14. 14. persistence in pursuit of goals, venturesomeness and originality in problem solving, drive to exercise initiative in social situations, self-confidence and sense of personal identity, willingness to accept consequences of decision and action, readiness to absorb interpersonal stress, willingness to tolerate frustration and delay, ability to influence other persons’ behavior, capacity to structure social interaction systems to the purpose at hand,” (Bass & Stogdill, 1990, p. 87). Weaknesses of the trait theory A limitation to the trait approach is that it does not indicate which specific leadership traits are required in different situations and to what proportions leaders should use certain traits. Furthermore, a hazard of the trait approach is that it can nurture the conception that leadership is elitist, thereby discouraging people who do not score exceptionally in these key leadership traits to search for leadership positions. Therefore, a more balanced perspective on the trait approach is generally accepted; which indicates that certain traits, motives, and characteristics increase the probability that a leader will be effective, yet it does not guarantee effectiveness (DuBrin, 2004). Furthermore, the trait theory is unable to offer a clear distinction between leaders and non-leaders, and fails to incorporate situational variance in leadership behavior (Zaccaro, 2007). 2.3.2 Behavioral or style school In the behavioral style school it is assumed that leaders adopt certain styles or behaviors that make them effective, therefore, it is implied that leaders can be made. The emphasis is on what effective and ineffective leaders do on the job, (how they behave). There are two prevalent behavioral leadership theories, namely Mintzberg’s ten managerial roles, and Kotter’s leadership factor. Mintzberg’s Ten Managerial Roles Mintzberg, (1971) identifies three basic managerial behaviors to which he assigns ten managerial roles. The ten managerial roles form a whole with the three managerial behaviors, and cannot be considered in isolation. The three basic managerial behaviors Mintzberg (1971) distinguishes are 1) interpersonal contact; 2) processing of information; and 3) decision-making. 14
  15. 15. Three of the ten managerial roles relate to a manager’s behavior that focuses on interpersonal contact; these are titled interpersonal roles. The interpersonal roles identified by Mintzberg (1971) are figurehead, leader, and liaison and derive directly from the authority and status associated with holding a managerial office. A second set of managerial activities relate to the processing of information and the manager’s behavior to accomplish information processing by taking on informational roles. Three managerial roles are assigned to the processing of information activity of a manager: nerve center, disseminator and spokesman. Since, the manager is legally responsible for the important actions, strategies, and decisions made in the organization, there are four decisional roles described by Mintzberg (1971). These are the entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator. The manager bears great responsibility being the human chain between the external environment, the top management, and his subordinates. The manager’s behaviors and roles are interlinked; an example is a manager who wants to improve performance of the organization. The manager will use his leadership skills (interpersonal), while at the same time he needs to act as a nerve center keeping everybody informed, and facing the same direction (informational). Kotter’s Leadership Factor Kotter (1988, p.5) defines leadership as “the process of moving a group (or groups) in some direction through mostly non-coercive means. Effective leadership is defined as leadership that produces movement in the long-term best interest of the group(s).” Kotter has extensively researched general managers’ and leaders’ behaviors and daily activities. In his article ‘what effective general managers really do,’ he identifies two fundamental challenges general managers face in their jobs. Most general managers have difficulties in figuring out what to do despite uncertainty and enormous amounts of potentially relevant information, along with, getting things done by a large and diverse group of people on which the general manager has little direct control due to capacity problems (Kotter, 1999). According to Kotter (1999) effective general managers tackle these problems with the help of two mechanisms, namely: agenda setting, and network building. Furthermore, Kotter (1999) indicates several characteristics that effective senior managers need to possess. First, they need to possess extensive industry and organizational knowledge, including fruitful 15
  16. 16. relationships (networks) in the firm and the industry to operate effectively. An excellent reputation and record of accomplishments are necessary to get respect and cooperation inside the firm and from external networks. Weaknesses of the behavioral theory Although the behavioral leadership theory made major contributions to the leadership research, (Minzberg’s leadership theory is still widely used to train leaders) research efforts to determine the one best leadership style have been weak and inconsistent for most criteria of leadership effectiveness, (Lussier & Achua, 2004). In other words, there is no one best style of leadership in every situation. This led to the next leadership paradigm; the contingency school of thought, which is discussed next. 2.3.3 Contingency school “The essence of the contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent upon internal and external situational forces, including group member characteristics,” (DuBrin, 2004, p.135). Three of the most renowned contingency theories are; Fiedler’s contingency theory, House’s path-goal theory, and the Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model (SLM). These theories are discussed separately in this section. Fiedler’s contingency theory Fiedler created a completely new school of thought with his contingency theory namely; the contingency school. The contingency model Fiedler developed is widely researched, and quoted. Fiedler was the first to link appropriate leadership styles to, the situation leaders are working in, rather than seeking for a universal leadership theory. Fiedler distinguishes two types of leadership behaviors, 1) task-oriented leadership, and 2) relationship-oriented leadership. Behaviors are difficult to modify since they are ingrained in our characters. Therefore leaders should become aware of their leadership behavior (style). Once leaders are aware of their specific leadership behavior they are able to match the work situation to their leadership style. Similarly, organizations should help managers match their leadership styles and situations (DuBrin, 2004). Furthermore, Fiedler indicated that “task-oriented leadership style works best in situations at both extremes, those in which the leaders has a great deal of influence and power and also in situations where the leader has no influence and 16
  17. 17. power over the group members. Relationship-oriented leaders tends to perform best in mixed situations where they only have moderate influence over the group,” (Fiedler, 1969, p. 29). Path-Goal Theory of leadership effectiveness In short, the path-goal theory of Robert House specifies what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation (DuBrin, 2004). The pathgoal theory is based on the expectancy theories of motivation from amongst others Atkinson, 1958; Galbraith and Cummings, 1967; Graen, 1969; and Vroom 1964. “The central concept of the expectancy theories is that the force on an individual to engage in a specific behavior is a function of 1) his expectancies that the behavior will result in a specific outcome, and 2) the sum of the valences, that is personal utilities or satisfactions, that he derives from the outcome,” (House, 1971, p.322). Similarly, the path-goal theory indicates that the leader should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the subordinates, and the demands of the task, thereby, matching the leadership style to the situation (contingency theory). In the latest version of the path-goal theory, four different leadership styles / behaviors are indicated: 1) Directive style; 2) Supportive style; 3) Participative style; and 4) Achievement-oriented style (House, 1971). Each leadership style is appropriate for a situation. The directive style is considered to improve the group morale when the task is vague and unclear. Whereas the supportive style is preferred if there are insecure group members who are working on dissatisfying and stressful jobs were they need a supportive leader to keep their morale up. A participative style is best suited for improving the morale of subordinates performing non-repetitive tasks and who are well motivated and involved in the task to be performed. For the even more achievement oriented teams working in an ambiguous environment where they have to perform non-repetitive tasks the achievement-oriented style is said to be most appropriate (DuBrin, 2004). The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model (SLM) The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model is an extension of the leadership theories presented in the Managerial Grid by Blake & Mouton (1969). The HerseyBlanchard SLM offers procedures that can be repeated, which guide matching leadership style to the readiness of the group members. Like Fiedler’s and House’s 17
  18. 18. contingency theories the SLM makes a distinction between task behavior and relationship behavior. Furthermore, Hersey & Blanchard also identify four appropriate leadership styles (telling, selling, participating, and delegating style) that contribute to four levels of subordinate maturity. Weaknesses contingency theory Although the contingency theory is one of the most validated of all leadership theories (Lussier & Achua, 2004), there are some critical points that have to be noted. Most of the criticism on the contingency theory is because of its inconsistent empirical findings. Numerous studies have tested the theory, and although research tends to support the theory, this is not the case for every situation, and not as strong for field studies as it is for laboratory studies, continuing the debate on the validity of the contingency theory (Lussier & Achua, 2004). 2.3.4 Visionary or charismatic school In Greek ‘charisma’ means ‘divinely inspired gift.’ Max Weber was the first to describe charismatic leadership. He contributed characteristics as mystical, narcissistic, and personal magnetic savior who would arise to lead people through crises to a charismatic leader (DuBrin, 2004). “A leader becomes charismatic when he/she succeeds in changing his/her followers’ attitudes to accept the advocated vision,” (Conger & Kanungo, 1987, p.640). There are three main schools of thought in the charismatic leadership approach. First, House’s theory of charismatic leadership will be shortly discussed, followed by a description of the attribution theory of charisma. Finally, the self-concept theory of charismatic leadership is described. House’s Theory of Charismatic Leadership House developed a theory of charismatic leadership that defines charisma in terms of its effects. House (1977), listed nine charismatic effects of leaders which led him to define a charismatic leader as ‘any person who brings about certain outcomes to an unusually high degree’. The nine charismatic effects House (1977) presents are: 1) follower trust in the correctness of the leader's beliefs; 2) similarity of followers' beliefs to those of the leader; 3) unquestioned acceptance of the leader; 4) affection for the leader; 5) willing obedience to the leader; 6) identification with and emulation 18
  19. 19. of the leader; 7) emotional involvement of the follower in the mission; 8) heightened goals of the follower; and 9) feeling on the part of followers that they will be able to accomplish or contribute to the accomplishment of the mission. Halpert (1990), factor-analyzed these nine hypothesized charismatic effects and put them as immediate antecedents to follower performance, thereby identifying three dimensions of charisma, namely: 1) job involvement; 2) referent power; 3) expert power. Job involvement refers to the last three charismatic effects listed by House. Referent power refers to the number 2, 4, and 6 of the nine hypothesized outcomes by House (1977). Finally, expert power refers to 1, 3, and 5 of the hypothesized outcomes by House (1977). Attribution Theory of Charisma The attribution theory is about how the followers perceive certain characteristics the leaders possesses and which specific characteristics makes the leaders be identified as charismatic. DuBrin (2004) names many characteristics charismatic leaders have, such as; masterful communication skills, the ability to inspire trust and to make group members feel capable. Furthermore, DuBrin (2004) states that, lots of energy and an action orientation characterizes charismatic leaders, they are emotionally expressive and warm, they romanticize risk, use unconventional strategies to achieve success, and usually have a self-promoting personality. Next to that, a major contributor to charisma is being dramatic and unique in a positive way. Self-Concept Theory of Charismatic Leadership The self-concept theory of charismatic leadership attempts to explain how charismatic leaders are able to engage to followers’ self-concepts in the interest of the mission articulated by the leader and to put aside their self-interest for the sake of enhancement of the organization. This theory builds on the findings of earlier and related studies supplementing these theories with this motivational theory that will depict the relationship between leader behaviors and effects on followers with the reservation that humans are self-expressive. The theory identifies four processes: 1) personal identification, 2) social identification, 3) value internalization, and 4) selfefficacy (individual as well as collective). 19
  20. 20. Weaknesses charismatic leadership theory Most academics agree that charisma can be a double-edged sword capable of producing both positive as negative outcomes (Lussier & Achua, 2004). This implies that not all charismatic leaders are good leaders. The best-known example is Adolf Hitler, who was perceived as being very charismatic. The lone star individualistic approach of charismatic leaders might not be appropriate for an organization facing serious internal weaknesses and a threatening external environment. “Most of the descriptive literature on effective leaders suggests that charisma in its individualized form may be inadequate to achieve major changes in an organization, and improve its performance,” (Lussier & Achua, 2004, p. 355). 2.3.5 Transformational school Transformational leadership is also very much involved with the relationship between the leader and the follower. Transformational leadership is a part of charismatic leadership. However, most researchers differentiate between transformational and transactional leaders. Transformational leaders are able to stimulate group members to think beyond their self-interests towards the good of the group, organization, or society, whereas, transactional leaders focuses more on routine transactions with an emphasis on rewarding group members’ pre-set targets, which is known as contingent reinforcement (DuBrin, 2004). Bass’ theory of transformational leadership is predominant in the transformational leadership literature and is discussed next. Followed by an overview of the weaknesses in the transformational literature. Bass’ Theory of transformational leadership Bass and his later colleagues essentially built upon Burns’ notion of ‘transformational leadership,’ which operates from the vision that transformational leadership has to do with transforming behaviors (Conger, 1999). “Transforming leadership ultimately becomes moral in that it raises the level of human conduct, and ethical aspiration of both the leader and the led, and thus transforming effects on both,” (Burns, 1982, p. 20). Ethics is an important topic in the transformational leadership literature, since transformational leaders set examples that are emulated by their followers. When leaders are more morally and ethically mature, those who are being led display a higher degree of moral reasoning as well (Bass & Steidlmeir, 1999). There are no pure transactional or pure transformational leaders; most leaders have a profile of full 20
  21. 21. range leadership that includes both transactional and transformational factors. However, those leaders referred to as being transformational display more transformational behaviors than they do transactional, and vice versa. Weaknesses transformational leadership theory A weakness of the transformational leadership theory is in the subdivision in certain vaguely defined leadership ‘types’. These ‘types’ are often simplistic stereotypes with little potential and use, to facilitate in understanding effective leadership (Yukl, 1999). Next to that, the emphasis on universal applicability has been too strong; more attention should be paid to the situation at which facilitating and limiting conditions should be identified specifically to transformational and charismatic leadership (Yukl, 1999). Furthermore, it is still too early to justify applying labels as ‘transformational,’ ‘transactional,’ and ‘charismatic’ to individual leaders (Yukl, 1999). Another problem with the subdivision in the categories of ‘transformational,’ ‘transactional,’ and ‘charismatic’ is that the underlying influence processes are not described clearly, nor do they specify how the leaders are related to these processes (Yukl, 1999). 2.3.6 Emotional Intelligence school Each of the leadership schools of thought discussed until now have one thing in common, they all argue about what makes up a good leader. In this section the concept of emotional intelligence is discussed. Emotional intelligence linked to job performance and leader effectiveness Goleman (1998), argues that leaders are alike in one crucial way, in that they all have a high degree of emotional intelligence (EQ). In Goleman’s opinion leaders obviously need a high intelligence level (IQ) and sufficient technical skills and knowledge. However, these are the minimal requirements for being a leader. Emotional intelligence is what makes the difference between a leader and an effective leader according to this school of thought. There are three groups of capabilities; technical, cognitive, and emotional intelligence capabilities. Next to Goleman (1998; 2004), several other studies have linked emotional intelligence to an increase in organizational performance, amongst others; Bachman at al., 2000; Coté & Miners, 2006; Lam & Kirby, 2002; Law et al., 2004; and Sue-Chan & Latham, 2004. Coté & Miners (2006, p. 1), found evidence that “the association between emotional 21
  22. 22. intelligence and job performance becomes more positive as cognitive intelligence decreases.” Coté & Miners (2006, p. 5) define cognitive intelligence as “the specialization of general intelligence in the domain of cognition in ways that it reflect experience and learning about cognitive processes such as memory.” Contrarily, “emotional intelligence represents the specialization of general intelligence in the area of emotions in ways that reflect experience and learning about emotions,” (Coté & Miners, 2006, p. 5). Goleman (1998; 2004), identify five personal capabilities that emotionally intelligent people posses: 1) self-awareness; 2) self-regulation; 3) motivation; 4) empathy; and 5) social skill. Weaknesses Emotional Intelligence theory However, there are also authors that are not convinced that emotional intelligence in a good indicator or even predictor of leadership effectiveness. “According to several researchers (Abelson, 1981, p. 727; Zeidner et al., 2001; Becker, 2003) learning, retrieving, and acting on scripts can be applied to a variety of condition-action procedures or causal sequences, including the meanings associated with emotions,” (Antonakis, 2004, p. 177). This indicates that emotional intelligence is general intelligence, directed at an emotional phenomenon, by forming scripts, which can be learned experientially or vicariously. 2.4 Integration Leadership schools of thought Based on the studies of Dulewicz & Higgs (2003), Handy (1982), and Partington, (2003); Turner & Müller (2005) six main schools of leadership theory could be identified. Additionally, they classified them according to predominance in time. The matching schools of thought and predominance periods are represented in model 1 below. 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 trait behavioral contingency visionary/charismatic transformational emotional intelligence Model 1: Schematic presentation of the leadership schools of thought over time based on Turner & Müller (2005). 22
  23. 23. The trait –and behavioral theory (predominant in 1940-1960) are a quest to finding one unique leadership trait or behavior that can be applied in all business circumstances and environments. The behavioral theory is a follow-up from the trait theory, in that it goes further than the assumption that effective leaders are born with certain traits, which make them more effective than others. In the behavioral theory it is assumed that leaders adopt certain behaviors that make them more effective, therefore it is implied that leaders can be made. The trait and especially the behavioral theory are at the foundation of the contingency theory (predominant in 1960-1980) they led to a paradigm shift (Lussier & Achua, 2004). Because at that point in time, academics did not search anymore for the one leadership trait or behavior, that led to unique and outstanding leadership performance in all situations. Situational models were developed, with the underlying assumption that there is not one universal leadership style, prescribing to use the existing behavioral leadership style that best met the situation (Lussier & Achua, 2004). “The essence of the contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent upon internal and external situational forces, including group member characteristics,” (DuBrin, 2004, p.135). Charismatic and transformational leadership theories (predominant in 1980 - late 1990s) also find their roots in the behavioral theory. However, “charismatic and transformational theories highlight the importance of feelings and emotional reactions by followers towards leaders; earlier theories emphasize the quantitative, rational aspects of leader-to-follower relationships,” (Lussier, Achua, 2004, p. 355). Obviously, the emotional intelligence theory incorporates feelings and emotions, as do the charismatic and transformational leadership theories. The emotional intelligence theory (predominant since late 1990s) leans more towards the universal trait theory, since it is argued that all effective leaders have one thing in common which makes them so effective, namely a high degree of emotional intelligence. Based on the previously performed literature review, there are four dimensions, which can be identified. These dimensions are rational versus emotional, and situational versus universal. The six schools of thought can be categorized according to these four dimensions. 23
  24. 24. Emotional Intelligence Charismatic Leadership Emotional Transformational Leadership Contingency Theory Rational Behavioral Theory Trait Theory Situational Universal Model 2: Framework six schools of thought in the leaderships theory, developed by Moniek Hurkens Starting with the trait theory, which is rational in nature; emphasizing that leaders traits and or characteristics are dissimilar from the traits and characteristics of nonleaders (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991). Trait theory scholars search for the key (universal) trait or characteristic. Therefore, the trait theory is placed on the bottom right of model 2 being universal of nature and most rational of all leadership schools of thought. In the behavioral school of thought it is assumed that leaders adopt certain styles or behaviors that make them effective, therefore, it is implied that leaders can be made, identifying different roles leaders can adopt; interpersonal contact, processing information, and decision-making (Mintzberg, 1971). These behavioral roles give an indication how leaders should best approach other individuals, groups or tasks. Due to these interpersonal exchanges in the behavioral theory it is argued that, although behavioral theory is universal and rational in nature, it is more leaning towards emotions than the trait theory. For this reason the behavioral theory is placed above the trait theory in model 2. The only theory of a truly situational nature is the contingency theory. “The essence of the contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent upon internal and external situational forces, including group member characteristics,” (DuBrin, 2004, p.135). Because the contingency theory incorporates the group member characteristics it is more emotional in nature than the trait and the behavioral theory, and therefore placed in model 2 in the left corner at a higher level than the previously discussed theories. 24
  25. 25. Since the charismatic, transformational, and emotional intelligence theories are (as previously indicated) of an emotional nature they are placed at the upper field of the model. Whereas charismatic and emotional intelligence leadership theories are of a universal nature, is transformational leadership is somewhere between being situational and universal. Charismatic leadership theories emphasize how followers perceive certain characteristics the leader possesses and which specific characteristics makes the leader be identified as charismatic, and is therefore universal of nature. Similarly, the emotional intelligence theory predicates that all leaders have one thing in common; a high degree of emotional intelligence. Therefore, it is stated that the emotional intelligence theory is more universal than the charismatic leadership theory, operating at the same level as the trait theory, at the highest emotional level (see model 2). Transformational leadership is slightly less emotional than charismatic leadership. Although they are similar in set up there is one difference, which is that the transformational leadership theory has three specific behaviors, making the transformational leadership theory not truly universal of nature. Due to the reason that these three identified behaviors (passive management by exception, active management by exception, and laissez-faire leadership) are not assigned to three specific situations, transformational leadership is also not truly situational of nature, and therefore placed in the middle of model 2 just below the emotional level of charismatic leadership. 2.5 Conclusion In this chapter, the developments (six schools of thought) over the last century in the leadership literature have been discussed, and placed in specific time periods. This is represented schematically in model 1. Furthermore, the six leadership schools of thought are linked to one another by an analysis on four dimensions; rational versus emotional, and situational versus universal. The six schools of thought are placed in a model according to these four dimensions (see model 2). 25
  26. 26. Recently, a new school of thought is upcoming, namely the spiritual leadership. Since the emphasis of this thesis is on spiritual leadership it will be discussed, analyzed and criticized in depth. This is done separately from the previously presented leadership schools of thought, in the upcoming chapters. 26
  27. 27. 3. Spiritual leadership Author and year of publication Arabi, I (1975) Ashmos, D. P., & Duchon, D. (2000) Benefiel, M. (2005) Block, P. (1996) Bracey, H., Rosenblum , J. Sandford, A., & Trueblood, R. (1990) Cacioppe, R. (2000) Chakrabort y, S. K. & Chakrabort y, D. (2004) Conger, J. A. (1994) Dehler, E. G. & Welsh, M. A. (1994) Purpose Main variables Conclusion The wisdom of the prophets (book) Develop a conceptualization and definition of spirituality at work (not applicable) (not applicable) Inner life, meaningful work, and community Develop a conceptual framework for spiritual leadership of individual and organizational transformation Stewardship (book) (not applicable) Definition spirituality at work: recognition of an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community See appendix D and E (not applicable) (not applicable) Managing from the heart (book) (not applicable) (not applicable) Describing a new vision for leadership and the development of organizations, which integrates main variables Emerging perspectives from the fields of science, transpersonal psychology, eastern philosophy and management Providing conceptual insights and practical examples about spiritually transformed leadership Spirit at work (book) Yoga-Vedanta spiritual model Spirituality in the workplace is seen as important in helping human beings experience the fundamental meaning and purpose of their work Leader, lead thyself (not applicable) (not applicable) Giving implications for a new management paradigm (spirituality) (not applicable) New paradigm (spiritual) managers will emphasize the creating of visions that inspire employees and enable them to transcend the emotional limitations of 27
  28. 28. Delbecq, A. L. (1999) Giving implications of how Christian spirituality impacts contemporary business leadership (not applicable) Dent, E. B., Higgins, M. E. & Wharff, D. M. (2005) Empirical review of definitions, distinctions, and embedded assumptions concerning spirituality and leadership Elmes, M., & Smith, C. (2001) Contextualizing the workplace environment in Amarican spiritual ideals Leadership Jazz (book) Eight areas of distinction: 1) definition, 2) connected to religion, 3) marked by epiphany, 4) teachable, 5) individual development, 6) measurable, 7) profitable/productive, and 8) nature of the phenomenon (not applicable) DePree, M. (1993) Fairholm, G. W. (1996) Fleischman , P. R. (1994) Fry, L.W. (2003) Examining what fulfills peoples whole-self needs at work The healing spirit: Explorations in religion and psychotherapy (book) Developing a causal theory of spiritual leadership Fry, L.W., Vitucci, S., & Cedillo, M. (2005) Testing the spiritual leadership theory of Fry (2003) Giacalone, R.A., & Jurkiewicz, Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational the organization Themes reported are: a sense of calling, desire to integrate personal values in the leadership role, spirituality as a source of courage Most researchers couple spirituality and religion and most have either found, or hypothesized a correlation between spirituality and productivity Spirituality as ideology (not applicable) (not applicable) (not applicable) Spirituality is the answer (not applicable) (not applicable) Hope/faith, vision, altruistic love, calling, membership, organizational commitment and productivity Hope/faith, vision, altruistic love, calling, membership, organizational commitment and productivity See figure 4 and 5 (not applicable) 28 Initial support for the causal model hypothesizing positive relationships between the qualities of spiritual leadership, spiritual survival, and organizational productivity and commitment (not applicable)
  29. 29. C. L. (2003) Goldstein, J., & Kornfield, J.(1987 Hawkins, P. (1991) performance (book) Seeking the heart of wisdom: The path of insight meditation (book) The spiritual dimension of the learning organization (book) Critically analyze the scholarship on spirituality and leadership (not applicable) (not applicable) (not applicable) (not applicable) (not applicable) Howard, S. (2002) Providing a spiritual perspective on learning in the workplace (not applicable) KoracKakabadse, N., Kouzmin, A., & Kakabadse, A. (2002) Kriger, M., & Seng, Y. (2005) Explain spiritual influence on leadership theory from the Taoist, Christian, Buddhist philosophy and physics, sociology, and psychology Create a foundation for a contingency theory of leadership based on the inner values and worldviews of five religions (not applicable) A structure and culture in which leaders can respectfully negotiate religious and spiritual diversity should be created Leaders who are open to spirituality are learning to develop their personal spirituality and the impact they are having on organizations and society (not applicable) Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999) A spiritual audit of Corporate America: Multiple designs for fostering spirituality in the workplace (book) Review of spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness The world’s religions (book) Presenting logic for a causal model of spiritual leadership that Hicks, D. A. (2002) Raeve, L. (2005) Smith, H. (1992) Whittingto n, J. L., Pitts, T. Inner meaning, leader values, vision, moral examples, multiple levels of being (not applicable) Values as integrity, honesty, and humility An integrative model of organizational leadership is proposed and created based on the main variables and behavior-based contingency theories (not applicable) (not applicable) Main variables have been demonstrated to have an effect on leadership success (not applicable) The 10 leadership qualities of the Apostle Paul The legacy of the leader’s influence is perpetuated through 29
  30. 30. M., Kageler, W. V., & Goodwin, V. L. Wilber, K. (1999) represents evidence of legacy leadership in terms of the changed lives of followers. The marriage of sense an soul: integrating science and religion (book) (based on Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonians) (not applicable) the followers’ incorporation of legacy principles into their lives as they become leaders (not applicable) 3.1 Introduction The field of leadership is known for being a ‘soft’ science, which is difficult to explain by solid facts. Therefore, there are many leadership theories, and schools of thought (as previously discussed). This is certainly true for the spiritual leadership school of thought. The field of spiritual leadership is still in its infancy stage, and therefore marked by differences in definitions and other basic characteristics, (Dent et al., 2005). Nowadays, arguably, there is no more important and pressing topic than, the relation of science and religion (Wilber, 1999). While, science is concerned with discovering the truth, religion and spirituality are about generating meaning. There are four recent trends in society that enhance the interest in spirituality related to business: 1) downsizing, reengineering, and layoffs have turned the workplace environment into one in which workers are demoralized, and where there is a growing inequity in wages (Brandt, 1996; Hamel & Prahalad, 1994); 2) the workplace is serving as a community (Conger, 1994; Fairholm, 1996); 3) the curiosity about Eastern philosophies like Zen Buddhism, and Confucianism (Brandt, 1996); and 4) some are hinting that since the baby boomers move closer to life’s greatest uncertainty (death) there is a growing interest in considering life’s meaning (Brandt, 1996; Conger, 1994). To analyze spiritual leadership in depth the following issues will be addressed in this chapter: first, the difference between spirituality and religion is explained, followed by the link between spirituality and motivation. Then, the concept of workplace spirituality is exemplified. Next, several models of spiritual leadership will be discussed in depth, which will be tested in the subsequent section, followed by the relationship between spiritual leadership and organizational transformation. Additionally, several religions and their spiritual leadership implications will be 30
  31. 31. discussed. Finally, the religious and non-religious inspired views on spiritual leadership are compared. 3.2 Spirituality versus religion Although religion and spirituality are not necessarily the same, nobody denies that they interlink, in the sense that they both incorporate ‘meaning.’ Spirituality is broader than a single organized religion, with its prescribed doctrines, it is the source for one’s search for meaning in life and sense of interconnectedness with others (Fry, 2003). According to Chakraborty & Chakraborty (2004, p. 202), “Spiritual perception represents higher and wider understanding than fragmentist mental thinking and reasoning.” In this definition again the difference between truth and meaning becomes apparent, spirituality sets out further than the truth. It goes for a wider understanding of the truth. Therefore, spirituality is considered to be present and necessary in religion, whereas, religion is not a precondition for spirituality. Spirituality has historically been rooted in religion (Korac-Kakabadse et al., 2002). However, in the current business and workplace environment it is not associated with any specific religious tradition. “Religion comes from the Latin word ‘religio’ which has been translated as reliance or connection,” (Scott-Peck, 1993, p. 23). “Spirit comes from the Latin word ‘spiritus’ meaning breath” (Kriger & Seng, 2005, p. 797). Religion is said to focus more on a specific group, whereas spirituality is more generic, and may include more than one religion; religions can be viewed as the ‘maps,’ while spirituality can be considered to be the ‘territory’ (Raeve, 2005). People could even feel excluded when spirituality is viewed through a lens of religion, by the people who are not part of that specific religion (Cavenaugh, 1999; Nadesan, 1999, Fry, 2003). Goertzen & Barbuto (2001) describe three components of spirituality: 1) belief in the sacred; 2) belief in the Unity; and 3) belief in transformation. Spirituality mostly is defined as “a search for meaning, reflection, inner connectedness, creativity, transformation, sacredness and energy,” (Dent et al., 2005, p. 633). However, there are many different definitions of spirituality due to its highly individualistic and intensely personal nature. Especially since spirituality is something which is not physically present or scientifically proven, it is difficult to give it an all encompassing definition. Zinnbauer et al., (1999, p. 903) have done a meta-analysis for over a hundred different studies and concluded that: “religion was predominantly associated 31
  32. 32. with formal / organizational religion, while spirituality was more often associated with closeness with God and feelings of interconnectedness with the world and living things.” Especially, the interconnectedness with the world and all living things should be emphasized, it encompasses terms as truth, love, service, wisdom, joy, peace and wholeness, and it combines our basic philosophies of life, and personal values to our conduct and practices (Howard, 2002). Religion can be seen as a ‘way of life’ whereas spirituality is what our lives are about (Howard, 2002). Furthermore, spirituality is assumed to be a dimension of the human being that is shared by all persons, while this is not the case for religious traditions which are shared by groups of people but differ among groups (Hicks, 2002). Fry (2003) who developed the most comprehensive theoretical model towards developing a theory of spiritual leadership to date, states that the common bridge between spirituality and religion is altruistic love – regard or devotion to the interests of others. Now that we have a more complete image of the commonalities and discrepancies between spirituality and religion it is possible to go deeper into the topic of spirituality, starting with the link between spirituality and motivation. 3.3 Spirituality and motivation Nowadays, the question of how to achieve a good work-life balance is becoming more pressing. Since we are spending more time at work, work has become the centerpiece of our lives, whether we like it or not. Work is the place where most of us find our sense of full meaning, in some cases work even replaces family, friendship circles, and even church (Fairholm, 1996). “We spend too much time at work or work related leisure activities for us to compartmental our lives in separate, work, family, religious and social domains,” (Fairholm, 1996, p.11). “Yet in 1994 only one out of four workers were extremely satisfied with their work, compared to 40% in 1973,” (Fairholm, 1996, p.11). So, the work spirit is dropping. Therefore, the following questions arise; what are employees looking for in their jobs? What motivates them to do their job properly, meanwhile, giving them the sense of personal satisfaction? “Motivation is primarily concerned with what energizes human behavior, what directs and channels such behavior, and how this behavior is maintained or sustained,” (Fry, 2003, p. 698). There are two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In 32
  33. 33. figure 3, the graphical representation of the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is given. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION EFFORT PERFORMANCE REWARD (Give me a reward to work) INTRINSIC MOTIVATION EFFORT PERFORMANCE REWARD (My work is my reward) Figure 3: Extrinsic versus intrinsic motivation (Fry, 2003, p. 698). Specifically, the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is that extrinsic motivation behaviors are motivated by factors external to the individual, like salary increase, promotions, more vocation time etc., whereas with intrinsic motivation behaviors are motivated by interest or enjoyment of the activity for the individual’s own sake, promoting growth and satisfaction of the higher order needs (selffulfillment) (Fry, 2003). “Intrinsic motivation is associated with better learning, performance, and well-being,” (Benware & Deci, 1984; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Valas & Slovik, 1993; Fry, 2003, p. 699). Intrinsic motivation for our work gets more important, since a lot more time is spend at work. Consequently, people are searching for more than economic gain from their work. Given that people can eat, shower, drop their children, and exercise at work, the workplace has an extensive influence on the whole family instead of just being a workplace. As a consequence, people are less able to fulfill other personal needs they might have outside the job, like maintaining their spiritual identity, inner meaning, and personal satisfaction. Since, we are not able to compartmental our lives anymore in the way we could a few decades ago, the need for obtaining these personal needs at the workplace is increasing (Fairholm, 1996). Another factor that is of influence is the abandonment of the traditional psychological contract connecting workers to a life-long career at a company. This traditional policy gave workers the feeling of security ensuring them a steady income. By leaving this policy the tranquility and security of the workplace has been shattered. According to all the authors that will be mentioned in this chapter, the answer to repairing the damage that has been done to the tranquility of the workplace is incorporating spirituality into the workplace. 33
  34. 34. 3.4 Workplace spirituality Understanding workplace spirituality begins with acknowledging that people have both an inner and an outer life, and that nourishment of the inner life can lead to a more meaningful and productive outer life (Fox, 1994). “In order for this to occur, organizations must care for the whole employee’s physical, emotional, and spiritual well being. Leaders, therefore, have a major role in providing the conditions where balance can be returned to employees’ lives, and to develop a purpose for organizational activities that are in harmony with all of life,” (Cacioppe, 2000, p.49). Some companies are encouraging meaningful work by combining their profit motive with the values of social responsibility. Encouraging employees’ spirit of accomplishment and motivation, with the idea that the company supplies a reasonable amount of money to charity. The most referred to definition of workplace spirituality is the one of Giacalone & Jurkiewicz (2003, p.13): “A framework of organizational values evidenced in the culture that promotes employees’ experience of transcendence (calling) through the work process, facilitating their sense of being connected in a way that provides feelings of compassion and joy.” According to Fleischman (1994) and Maddock & Fulton (1998) there are two aspects of workplace spirituality: 1) the sense of calling (transcendence); and 2) need for membership (social connection). These are exactly the two aspects that are oppressed in the current way of doing business where everything is focused on values of self interest, power, and financial gain. That in combination with the long hours that are currently spend at the workplace leaves a great gap of feeling meaningful and loved, which influences the work spirit in a negative way. Pfeffer (2003, p.33) indicates four fundamental dimensions of what people seek to make their life more meaningful: “1) interesting and meaningful work that permits them to learn, develop, and have a sense of competence and mastery; 2) work that provides them with a feeling of purpose, 3) a sense of connection and positive social relations with their coworkers, and 4) the ability to live an integrated life, so that one’s work role and other roles are in harmony with his or her essential nature and who the person is as a human being.” This is coherent with the two components of workplace spirituality that Fleischman (1994) and Maddock & Fulton (1998) indicate, namely the first two dimensions are related to calling and the second two are related to membership. Although not explicitly mentioned by Fleischman (1994), Maddock & Fulton (1998), and Pfeffer (2003) there is a component that is 34
  35. 35. implicitly present in their components of workplace spirituality, namely: inner life. Workplace spirituality is, next to being beneficial for personal outcomes also responsible for reducing absenteeism, and improving productivity and turnover, (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003). There appears to be considerable overlap between workplace spirituality and motivation based theories of leadership, especially the components and processes of intrinsic motivation, and spiritual survival through meaning / calling and membership, are important for developing a theory towards spiritual leadership (Fry, 2003). Furthermore, there is evidence that suggests that workplace spirituality can be influenced through teaching, implying that organizational leaders appear to be able to take actions that influence workplace spirituality (Kolb, 1988; Vaill, 1996). However, nourishing the spirit at the workplace requires leaders to enquire further than the normal leader-follower relationship, and consider and respond to yet another dimension of life (Fairholm, 1996). According to Fairholm (1996, p. 12-13) “spiritual leaders clarify followers’ moral identities, strengthen, and deepen their commitments. Furthermore, they can make the connections between others’ interior worlds of moral reflection and the outer world of work and social relationships.” Fairholm is one of the first to describe the phenomenon of spiritual leadership. Fairholm (1996, p. 13) is also the first one to indicate what a working definition of spiritual leadership should entail, namely “ideas like teaching our followers correct principles and the application of techniques that enable self-governance. It is creating circumstances in which followers can function freely with the leader, and within their work subject only to broad accountability. It is redefining leadership in terms of service and stewardship.” Fairholm is the first, but not the only one providing a model for spiritual leadership. Other models will be discussed in depth in the next section. 3.5 Spiritual leadership To date there are only a few models of spiritual leadership. In this section the two most prevailing models of spiritual leadership will be discussed to give a better insight into what spiritual leadership is. The spiritual leadership movement encompasses the leadership servant (Greenlaef, 1977; DePree, 1993); stewardship (Block, 1996) and empowerment models (Bracy et al., 1990; Elmes and Smit, 2001). These components of spiritual leadership will be integrated in this part. 35
  36. 36. 3.5.1 Fairholm’s skeletal model of spiritual leadership Fairholm (1996) specified a skeletal, holistic model of spiritual leadership that embodies those values and practices proven to be effective in various kinds of organizations. Fairholm’s (1996, p.13) model’s characteristics include: • Carefully designed corporate philosophy or vision embedded in a corporate culture; • Value of personal and other forms of development (growth) to become one’s best self; • Commitment to serving others; • Sense of interactive, mutual trust; • Authentic concern for people and organizational goals; • Environment that encourages openness, fairness, individuality and creativity; • Commitment to group unity, teamwork and sharing; • Integrity in all interpersonal relationships; • Simplicity and flexibility of structure and systems; • Process that emphasizes continuing evaluation of progress. This holistic approach (meaning that the individual parts provide synergetic support for the whole) includes services that address the personal as well as the professional lives of the workers, which is coherent with the needs of the workers as discussed under the spirituality and motivation heading. Fairholm’s model of spiritual leadership provided the foundation for Fry’s model of spiritual leadership. According to the extensive research of articles about spiritual leadership, and its definitions, distinctions, and embedded assumptions by Dent et al., (2005), the most comprehensive theoretical model towards developing a theory of spiritual leadership to date is Fry’s (2003) model, which will be discussed next. 3.5.2 Fry’s model of spiritual leadership “Fry draws on Horton (1950), Smith (1992), and (indirectly) the Christian New Testament for his understanding of spirituality. He uses Horton’s continuum of God as Higher Power, Smith’s understanding of the commonality of all religions, and Webster’s definition of faith as ‘The assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of 36
  37. 37. things not seen,’ a direct quotation of Hebrews 11:1” (Benefiel, 2005, p. 727). Furthermore, “Fry’s (2003) model includes intrinsic motivation as well as religiousbased and ethics and values-based approaches to leadership. This model proposes conceptual distinctions among hope/faith, vision/mission, and altruistic love. The model is also causal, suggesting, for example, that hope/faith leads to vision/mission, which in turn leads to calling,” (Dent et al., 2005, p. 647). Fry (2003) reasons from a holistic view on leadership that integrates four fundamental arenas that define the essence of human existence: the body, mind, heart, and spirit. “Spiritual leadership taps into the fundamental needs of both leader and follower for spiritual survival so they become more organizationally committed and productive,” (Fry, 2003, p. 694). A major proposition of Fry (2003) is that spiritual leadership is necessary for the transformation to and continued success of a learning organization. In Fry’s definition of spiritual leadership he entails the “values, attitudes, and behavior’s that are necessary to intrinsically motivate one’s self and others so that they have a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership,” (Fry, 2003, p. 695). Creating a vision wherein followers experience a sense of calling, and establishing a social / organizational culture based on altruistic love, where organizational members have a genuine appreciation and concern for each other, thereby, creating a sense of membership, are part of spiritual leadership (Fry, 2003). The qualities of spiritual leadership are represented in table 1 below. This is followed by the causal model of spiritual leadership that Fry’s (2003) has developed, which is graphically represented in figure 4. Qualities of spiritual leadership Vision Altruistic love Hope/faith Broad appeal to key stakeholders Defines the destination and journey Reflects high ideals Encourages hope/faith Establishes a standard of excellence Forgiveness Kindness Integrity Empathy/compassion Honesty Patience Courage Trust/loyalty Humility Endurance Perseverance Do what it takes Stretch goals Expectation of reward/victory Table 1: Qualities of spiritual leadership. (Fry, 2003, p. 695). 37
  38. 38. EFFORT (Hope/Faith) Works PERFORMANCE (Vision) CALLING Make a Difference, Life has Meaning ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT & PRODUCTIVITY REWARD (Altruistic Love) Leader values Attitudes, & behaviors MEMBERSHIP Be Understood Be Appreciated Follower needs for spiritual survival Organizational Outcomes Figure 4: Causal model of spiritual leadership (Fry, 2003, p. 695). This causal model of spiritual leadership incorporates an “intrinsic motivation cycle based on vision (performance), altruistic love (reward), and hope/faith (effort) that result in an increase in one’s sense of spiritual survival (calling and membership), and ultimately positive organizational outcomes such as organizational commitment, productivity and continuous improvement increased,” (Fry, 2003, p.714). The vision refers to the long-term plan of an organization, providing a picture of the future. Altruistic love as intended in the spiritual leadership theory brings about a sense of wholeness and harmony through care, concern and appreciation for both self and others, also see table 1 (Fry, 2003). Whereas, “hope is a desire with expectation of fulfillment, faith adds an extra dimension to hope, it is the conviction that something, which cannot be proved by irrefutable evidence is true,” (Fry, 2003, p.713). “The ultimate effect of spiritual leadership is to bring together or create a sense of fusion among the four fundamental forces of human existence (body, mind, heart, and spirit) so that people are motivated for high performance, have increased organizational commitment, and personally experience joy, peace, and serenity,” (Fry, 2003, p. 718). To elaborate on the process of spiritual leadership Fry (2003) presents a more extensive model than the previous causal model of spiritual leadership (see figure 5). 38
  39. 39. Figure 5: Spiritual leadership as intrinsic motivation through vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love. (Fry, 2003, p.719). Spiritual leadership theory can be a source of spiritual survival (feeling calling and membership) in a learning organization by implementing hope / faith in the organization’s vision, which keeps followers looking forward to the future and provides the desire and positive expectation that fuels effort through intrinsic motivation (Fry, 2003). Furthermore, the organizational culture must integrate the values of altruistic love, which can only be realized when the leaders embody and abide by these values through their every day attitudes and behaviors (Fry, 2003). The main point that should be stressed in this model is that spiritual leadership is necessary for the transformation into and continued success of learning organizations. “The fundamental building block of a learning organization is the self-directed, empowered team,” (Fry, 2003, p.719). Elmes & Smit (2001), already made the connection between workplace empowerment and spirituality. According to Elmes & Smit (2001), there are three places to locate empowerment in spiritual ideals, namely in 1) individual and collective visions; 2) doing service; and 3) learning and continuous improvement. Vision in discourse of empowerment offers workers a sense of purpose and direction by aligning workers’ goals and objectives (Elmes & Smit, 2001). Furthermore, in a team-based 39
  40. 40. organization doing service (meaning doing good for others), provides synergy in the organization. “Through the service to others, workers and the workplace become empowered, because the relationships are transformed, and a larger proportion of the workforce is allowed to participate in ‘shaping the future,’” (Senge, 1996, p.3). The discussion of empowerment also emphasizes the importance of learning and continuous improvement of performance, meaning that empowered workers learn from positive as well as negative feedback in order to become more effective in future situations (Elmes & Smit, 2001). According to Senge (1990), learning (to be seen from an empowerment perspective), is very much an exercise in soul searching, striving to identify one’s faults and improve both individually and collectively as a learning organization. These views on empowerment and spirituality correspond with Fry’s model on the process of spiritual leadership presented in figure 5. Fry (2003) also indicates that strategic leaders, in addition to empowering their followers, also should encourage followers to embrace the organizations vision and provide them with knowledge of how they influence the organization’s performance and vision/mission. According to Fry (2003, p.719) “empowered teams and their leaders should also establish a culture and ethical system that embodies the values of altruistic love where group members are challenged to persevere, be tenacious, ‘do what it takes,’ and pursue excellence by doing their best in achieving challenging goals through hope and faith in the vision, their leaders, and themselves.” This all is to improve the continuous learning in the organization. Thus in sharing power strategic leaders actually free people from leadership through fear, coercion and control, allowing the empowered employees to commit more of themselves to do the job through trust in the strategic leaders, and the hope and faith results from this trust (Fry, 2003). As mentioned by Fry (2003) and Elmes & Smit (2001) ‘doing service’ is very important in spiritual leadership. For this reason, it is important to take a closer look at servant leadership. Serving followers is the central theme of servant leadership and stewardship (Greenlaef, 1977). Furthermore, a holistic approach to work, personal development, and shared decision-making are important factors of servant leadership. “Servant leadership embodies seven characteristics: they are servants first; articulators of goals (vision); inspiration of trust; knowledgeable in the art of listening; masters of positive feedback (accept a person, not necessarily a person’s effort or performance); 40
  41. 41. foresightful (use intuitive sense to bridge information gaps to better foresee the unforeseeable); and are proponents of personal development (the process of change starts in the servant, not out there),” (Korac-Kakabadse et al., 2002, p. 169). Additionally, DePree (1993) describes 14 characteristics of becoming a servant leader: integrity, vulnerability, discernment, awareness of the human spirit, courage in relationships, sense of humor, intellectual energy and curiosity, respect for the future, regard for the present, understanding of the past, predictability, breath, comfort with ambiguity, and presence. A theory that comes close to that of the servant leadership theory is stewardship. For Block (1996), stewardship is a triumvirate which includes empowerment, brings accountability and balances responsibility through partnerships. “Spiritual leadership rejects the past models of human leadership, which focused on values of self interest. Spiritual leaders focus on ethical values such as integrity, independence and justice,” (Korac-Kakabadse et al., 2002, p. 173). Furthermore, spiritual leaders clarify the follower’s moral identity, strengthen and deepen their commitment as can bee seen in Fry’s (2003) model, which states the internally motivation cycle of hope/faith, vision and altruistic love that increases followers organizational commitment. Therefore, it can be concluded that spiritual leadership functions as a natural progression of the servant leadership and stewardship literature. The above established where spiritual leadership originates from and the predominant models of spiritual leadership were discussed. The following step is to have a closer look at the empirical studies, which tested these models of spiritual leadership. This is done in section 4.3. 3.6 Spirituality and leadership effectiveness As previously presented in the models of spiritual leadership, there is an assumed positive relationship between spiritual leadership and leadership effectiveness and therefore organizational performance. There are many studies linking certain values to leader effectiveness, however, there are only a few empirical studies, which investigate the connection between spiritual leadership and organizational outcomes. The reason for this is that ‘spirituality’ is a broad all-embracing concept, and therefore difficult to measure and test empirically. However, two of these empirical studies met the restriction criteria that are mentioned in the methodology section, and will be 41
  42. 42. discussed in depth. The first one is from Duchon & Plowman (2005) including an exploratory study of six work units within a large healthcare system, examining the workplace differences in terms of openness to spirituality, and whether these are associated with differences in work unit performance. The model Duchon & Plowman (2005) use is similar to the one of Fry (2003) causally linking effort, performance and rewards to inner life, meaningful work, and sense of community, which is linked to work unit performance. Secondly, the actual causal model of spiritual leadership as presented by Fry (2003) will be tested using longitudinal data from a newly formed Apache Longbow helicopter attack squadron at Ft. Hood, Texas. This is done by Fry, Vitucci, & Cedillo (2005). Duchon & Plowman (2005) reason from the definition of workplace spirituality provided by Ashmos & Duchon (2000, p. 137), which considers a workplace to be spiritual when it recognizes the following three components: “that employees have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work, that takes place in the context of community.” Inner life, meaning that people bring their whole selves to work, including their spiritual self. This is consistent with Mitroff & Denton’s (1999a, 1999b) who argue that employees should be allowed to bring their ‘whole’ personal identity to the workplace, including their spiritual ideas and expressions. To capture the three personal components of workplace spirituality as proposed by Ashmos & Duchon (2000), Duchon & Plowman (2005) used the ‘Meaning and Purpose at Work’ questionnaire. “The questionnaire also addresses the work unit-level issues by capturing the informants’ observations of their work unit as a whole (in contrast to how things affect them personally), as a community (Work Unit Community), and as passing meaning (Work Unit Meaning) (Duchon & Plowman, 2005, p.818). The questionnaire items are represented in appendix A. The health care organization uses measures of patient satisfaction as the key indicator of work unit performance, so instead of measuring performance as e.g. utilization of resources, turnover, employee performance rating etc., patience satisfaction is used. Duchon & Plowman (2005), used two types of patient satisfaction measures: 1) patients’ evaluation of overall quality of care; and 2) patients’ evaluation of overall sensitivity of the staff providing the care. These patient attitudes are measured with the questionnaire that the health care organization distributes to each patient. Conclusions that can be drawn from this research are that although they cannot speak of causality, the data suggests co-varying 42
  43. 43. attitudes. This implies that leaders in spirit-friendly work units have a stronger sense of spirit than leaders in less spirit-friendly units. Furthermore, employees of spiritfriendly work units seemed to share more strongly with the views of the leader (Duchon & Plowman, 2005). As mentioned before, Fry, Vitucci, and Cedillo (2005) empirically test the previously discussed causal model of spiritual leadership of Fry (2003), using longitudinal data from a newly formed Apache Longbow helicopter attack squadron at Ft. Hood, Texas. Fry et al., (2005) administered two surveys; the first survey provided a database for the study, whereas, the second survey (which was administered approximately five months later) focused on the qualities vision/mission, altruistic love, hope/faith, meaning/calling, and membership as key components of spiritual survival, to examine the impact on organizational commitment and productivity. Combined, these surveys were used to test the spiritual leadership theory’s structural equation causal model. Three dimensions of spiritual leadership (hope/faith; vision; altruistic love), two dimensions of spiritual survival (meaning/calling; membership), and organizational commitment and productivity were measured using the survey questions (see appendix C). To test the spiritual leadership theory’s structural equation causal model, Fry et al., (2005) used a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) program. SEM uses two types of variables: latent variables (hope/faith; vision; altruistic love; meaning/calling; membership; organizational commitment and productivity) and manifest variables, which are measured by the survey questions associated with each latent variable. Figure 6 below shows the hypothesized causal model including the depicted linkages between manifest and latent constructs. 43
  44. 44. Figure 6: Structural equation model for Fort Hood Longbow attack squadron data (Fry et al., 2005, p. 845). The results provide initial support for the spiritual leadership theory’s (SLT) causal model and its measures, all standardized path coefficients in the hypothesized SLT causal model with the exception of calling organizational commitment, are positive and significant (Fry et al., 2005). “The goodness of fit test and the indices were all highly significant giving empirical support that, overall, the model fitted the data well.”(Fry et al., 2005, p. 846). In chapter 4 a critical review of the literature will be given in which also these two models will be discussed, and whether they really measure what is implied by their authors. However, first, spirituality and organizational transformation will be discussed, which has been indicated to be of great importance to the spiritual leadership literature by amongst others; Fairholm, 1996; Fry, 2003; Fry et al., 2005; Benefiel, 2005; Howard, 2005. 44
  45. 45. 3.7 Spirituality and organizational transformation In the current business environment there is only one thing consistent, which is change, and the organizational transformation related to it. Therefore, it is important to have a closer look at organizational transformation in relation to spirituality. “The ideal of organizational transformation has grown out of the organizational development movement over the past 20 years. Organizational transformation cannot be neatly defined, but it suggests organizations need to change in thought and action at a much more fundamental level than has been accomplished so far by change agents,” (Howard, 2002, p. 237). The organizational transformation movement has come to terms with the spiritual; it seeks greater environmental responsibility, social justice, transparency, morality, and accountability from organizations (Howard, 2002). Furthermore, “organizational transformation proposes that organizations can choose to support the development of individual spirituality, and choose to organize themselves around spiritual principles and goals,” (Howard, 2002, p. 238). Dehler and Welsh (1994) link spirituality (they call it emotion-based response) as a mediator between vision, transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation, and work setting, to improved organizational performance and alignment of values, as a result from change interventions (organizational transformation). This could have been the first step made in the direction to the development of the spiritual leadership theory as suggested by Fry (2003). Fry (2003) emphasizes in his spiritual leadership theory (SLT) that spiritual leadership is necessary for the transformation to and the continued success of a learning organization, by incorporating the intrinsic motivation cycle based on vision, altruistic love, hope/faith that result in an increase in one’s sense of spiritual survival (calling and membership) to increase organizational commitment and productivity. Benefiel (2005) proposes a conceptual framework of spiritual leadership for organizational transformation. “A key element of this conceptual framework, drawn from the study of spirituality, is to understand that spiritual development is fundamentally discontinuous and continuing at the same time: it involves distinct stages and continual rediscovery of the spiritual core in new places,” (Benefiel, 2005, 45
  46. 46. p. 731). Benefiel (2005) first discusses the process of individual leader’s spiritual transformation, and then this understanding will be extended to organizational transformation. Central in Benefiel’s article is the what is referred to as the ‘second part of the journey’ meaning the part of the spiritual organizational transformation journey where the leader and the organization realize that the spiritual journey is more about their own transformation than about the material gain they can obtain from being on the spiritual path (Benefiel, 2005). Since there is a second half of the spiritual journey there ought to be a first half. The whole individual spiritual transformation journey as proposed by Benefiel (2005) is represented in appendix D. The first half of the journey consists of two stages: the awakening and the transformation stage. The awakening stage (stage I) explains how people come to taking this spiritual transformation journey. Mostly people (seekers) seem to show interest in the spiritual path due to some dissatisfaction in life without spirituality. At first they feel like their prayers are answered, feeling oneness with the universe, a feeling that can be compared to people falling in love (Benefiel, 2005). However, in stage II people will encounter the transition to what is referred to as the ‘second half of the journey’. This is the part of the spiritual journey in which people transition from thinking that the spiritual journey is about getting gifts, to realizing it is about their own transformation (Benefiel, 2005). This is the stage where the initial cut is made often people find that their prayers are not being answered. People feel that they are doing something wrong, and try harder just to get disappointed again. Some people give up and decide that the spiritual path is not cut out for them. These people will never cross to the second half of the spiritual transformational journey, which proceeds from here on. However, feeling abandoned is a normal and predictable part of the spiritual journey according to spiritual teachers (Benefiel, 2005). In the third stage, named recovery, people become aware that the spiritual journey is more about their own transformation than it is about getting what you want. “Maturing spirituality involves embracing and letting go, embracing and letting go, time and again: of ways of prayer and meditation, of relationships, of work commitments, and of personal commitments,” (Barks, 1997; Heschel, 1997; Kornfield, 2001; May, 1991, 2004; Benefiel, 2005, p. 734). In the fourth stage the ‘dark night,’ the seeker may come to a dark night of soul when not only his old form of prayer or meditation does not work anymore, but even God seems to have disappeared. “It is in this time that the seeker 46
  47. 47. learns to desire God for God’s self, not only for what God can give him. This may be hard for the seeker to understand, especially if the desires have been reshaped so much that what he desires is his own spiritual transformation,” (Benefiel, 2005, p.734). In the fifth and last stage, called dawn, the seeker can ‘surrender,’ at which his ego and his life become revitalized to a higher good, enabling him to fully let go (Kornfield, 2001; May, 1991, 2004). Leaders probably will not stay in the dawn phase very long, because the ego-centric nature of the current business environments pulls them back. However, overtime, as the leader continues to walk the spiritual path, they can learn to let go and surrender fully to this higher place (Benefiel, 2005). According to Benefiel (2005) the leaders who live predominantly in this higher place (dawn stage) are more available to the needs of the people they serve, and the organizations they work for. “Because their egos have been revitalized to the higher good, they can use their skills and energies to serve the good of the organizations as a whole, rather than using them to fill their own ego needs,” (Benefiel, 2005, p. 735). The graphical representation of the spiritual journey of the organization is presented in appendix E. Just as with individual spirituality, organizations and its leaders primarily turn to spirituality because they need help, which they hope to find in spiritual transformation. Initially, when companies and leaders embrace spirituality, they become more energized, joy-filled, productive, and profitable (Benefiel, 2005). However, organizations will eventually bump into some problems that can, if the leader and the organizations are open to it, serve as an invitation to the second half of the journey (Hawkins, 1991). The previously discussed spirituality literature has primarily discussed the first half of the journey, therefore, leaders know little about how to facilitate organizations to get through the second half. “For spirituality reorients an organization to its higher purpose, and when the higher purpose is no longer being served, a spirituality grounded organization will either restructure itself to serve a higher purpose or, if necessary, allow itself to die, so that new forms can emerge that will serve the higher purpose,” (Hawkins, 1991; Benefiel, 2005, p. 735). The leaders of these spiritual organizations must continuously strive to lead through a vision that is bold and courageous; still they have to stay flexible due to the changing environment. This calls for detachment from what is comfortable and familiar (second part of the 47

×