Digitization for Access and Preservation:The Evolving Debate in the CulturalHeritage CommunityThe 2nd Scientific Conferenc...
Digitization for Access and Preservation2http://www4.uwm.edu/libraries/digilib/NEHgrant/
Conceptual DistinctionI. Digitization as a preservation strategy Conversion of analog materials to create high quality di...
• Interrelation of digitization and preservation Two complementary and sometimes confused goals ofdigitization Access P...
Extending Access5
Access to “Hidden”Film-Based Collections6
Film-Based CollectionsAccess and PreservationCharacters in Tibetan dance drama Milarepa or devil dance at Labrang Monaster...
I. DIGITIZATION AS A STRATEGYTO PRESERVE ANALOG MATERIALS8
• Can digitization be considered a preservation strategy? “Digitization is not preservation – at least not yet”(Smith, 19...
• The concerns of the preservation community Digital media is not as durable as paper and other analogmaterials Uncertai...
The Endorsement of Digitization as aPreservation Strategy• The Association of Research Libraries endorses digitization asa...
Digitization as a Preservation Strategy:Gaining Acceptance• Digitization as means of preservation when otherpreservation m...
Digitization as a Preservation Strategy:Gaining Acceptance• Library of Congress (LC) lists digitization as a preservation ...
Digitization as a Preservation Strategy:The Shift in the Debate• The shift from the emphasis on reformatting to the issues...
Digitization for Preservation of AudiovisualMaterials15
Enhancing the Usefulness16
II DIGITAL PRESERVATION17“Developing long-term strategies for preservingdigital resources presents challenges associatedwi...
Terminology18
Digital Curation• A set of policies and techniques to ensure that digitaldata are available and usable now and in the futu...
20• Creating digital objects of enduring value Supporting current intended use and likely future use The use-neutral app...
Dimensions of Digital Preservation• Technological“A range of managed activities to support the long-termmaintenance of bit...
22A repository whose mission is to provide reliable, long-termaccess to managed digital resources to its designated commun...
Dimensions of Digital Preservation• Contextual“Digital preservation is about more than keeping the bits, thosestreams of 1...
Conclusion• Digitization can be considered a viable preservation strategy if Original materials are fragile, damaged, or ...
Conclusion25“To fail to embrace digitization forpreservation of collections, either locally or incollaboration with others...
26• Arms, C. R. (2000). Keeping memory alive: Practices for pressingdigital content at the National Digital Library Progra...
27• Gertz, J. (2007). Preservation and Selection for Digitization. NDCC.http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/6Reformatt...
28DziękujęThank youContact:Krystyna K. Matusiak, Ph.D.Assistant ProfessorLibrary & Information Science ProgramMorgridge Co...
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Digitization for Access and Preservation: The Evolving Debate in the Cultural Heritage Community / Krystyna Matusiak

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II Konferencja Naukowa : Nauka o informacji (informacja naukowa) w okresie zmian, Warszawa, 15-16.04.2013 r. Instytut Informacji Naukowej i Studiów Bibliologicznych, Uniwersytet Warszawski

The 2nd Scientific Conference : Information Science in an Age of Change, April 15-16, 2013. Institute of Information and Book Studies, University of Warsaw

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  • Digitization for Access and Preservation: The Evolving Debate in the Cultural Heritage Community / Krystyna Matusiak

    1. 1. Digitization for Access and Preservation:The Evolving Debate in the CulturalHeritage CommunityThe 2nd Scientific ConferenceInformation Science in an Age of ChangeWarsaw, April 15, 2013Krystyna K. Matusiak, Ph.D.Library & Information Science ProgramMorgridge College of EducationUniversity of Denverkrystyna.matusiak@du.edu
    2. 2. Digitization for Access and Preservation2http://www4.uwm.edu/libraries/digilib/NEHgrant/
    3. 3. Conceptual DistinctionI. Digitization as a preservation strategy Conversion of analog materials to create high quality digitalcopies for preservation purposes To capture the content of deteriorating analog materialsII. Digital preservation New and increasingly important area of preservationconcerns The inherent tension between the nature of digital information andpreservation Digitization creates new resources that need to be preserved Long-term maintenance to ensure that digital master files remainaccessible, authentic, and intactDigitization and Preservation3
    4. 4. • Interrelation of digitization and preservation Two complementary and sometimes confused goals ofdigitization Access Preservation May exist within the same digitization initiative• The benefits of access Extending the reach of libraries “Digitization is access – lots of it” (Smith, 1999) Expanded access to primary sources Search capabilities of digital text The ability to bring together scattered research materials Making available a new body of research materialsAccess and Preservation4
    5. 5. Extending Access5
    6. 6. Access to “Hidden”Film-Based Collections6
    7. 7. Film-Based CollectionsAccess and PreservationCharacters in Tibetan dance drama Milarepa or devil dance at Labrang Monastery, 1937The Harrison Forman Collection. American Geographical Society Library, University ofWisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries. http://collections.lib.uwm.edu/cdm/ref/collection/tibet/id/647
    8. 8. I. DIGITIZATION AS A STRATEGYTO PRESERVE ANALOG MATERIALS8
    9. 9. • Can digitization be considered a preservation strategy? “Digitization is not preservation – at least not yet”(Smith, 1999) “Digitization is NOT preservation”(Gertz, 2007)• The preference for the well-established preservationmethods Paper facsimiles Microfilm Photo and film duplication The assisting role of digitizationDigitization as a Preservation Strategy?The Early Approach9“Digitization can provide a form of insurance forpreserving content, even though digital surrogates cannotreplace physical originals” (Lynch, 2006)
    10. 10. • The concerns of the preservation community Digital media is not as durable as paper and other analogmaterials Uncertainty about long-term access and retrieval of digitized data Integrity and authenticity of digital objects Loss of data and data corruption Stability of digital formats Stability of digital storage Technological obsolescence Hardware and software to read and display data Systems for access and retrieval of digital collectionsDigitization as a Preservation Strategy?The Early Approach10
    11. 11. The Endorsement of Digitization as aPreservation Strategy• The Association of Research Libraries endorses digitization asa preservation reformatting strategy (2004) Digital conversion as one of the viable preservation options Each preservation approach has limitations and strengths The concerns of the preservation community areaddressed by emphasizing The progress in standardization of file formats The development of digitization standards and best practices The commitment of the cultural heritage institutions to digitalstewardship and the preservation of digital objects A growing experience in refreshing and migration of digital data.11
    12. 12. Digitization as a Preservation Strategy:Gaining Acceptance• Digitization as means of preservation when otherpreservation methods are not available The Endangered Archive Programme (EAP) at theBritish Library http://eap.bl.uk/ Established preservation methods such as microfilming or photoduplication are not feasible The lack of preservation methods in developing countries Digitization projects undertaken primarily for preservation ofarchival materials and manuscripts that are in danger ofdestruction or physical deterioration The EAP’s guidelines emphasize the quality of digital images andstandardized formats to facilitate long-term preservation ofdigitized objects12
    13. 13. Digitization as a Preservation Strategy:Gaining Acceptance• Library of Congress (LC) lists digitization as a preservation methodfor at-risk archival materials among other options Digitization as a method for preservation of film and audiorecorded on unstable media (Marcum, 2007) National Audio-Visual Conservation Center Dedicated to the preservation of audiovisual heritage in USA Incorporates a variety of preservation workflows, including digitalconversion13
    14. 14. Digitization as a Preservation Strategy:The Shift in the Debate• The shift from the emphasis on reformatting to the issues ofusefulness and quality of preserved items Digitization for preservation defined as “activities thatresult in the creation of digital products worthy of long-term preservation ” (Conway, 2010)• The dual nature of preservation1. Slowing down the deterioration of archival materials2. Restoring their usefulness as an information source• Digitization as a preservation approach Protects fragile and rare items Captures and represents the content of deteriorating materials Enhances the usefulness of digitized materials through aggregation,item-level metadata, contextual information, and digital presentation14
    15. 15. Digitization for Preservation of AudiovisualMaterials15
    16. 16. Enhancing the Usefulness16
    17. 17. II DIGITAL PRESERVATION17“Developing long-term strategies for preservingdigital resources presents challenges associatedwith the uncertainties of technological change.*….+Technology advances, while sure to presentnew challenges will also provide new solutionsfor preserving digital content” (Arms, 2000).
    18. 18. Terminology18
    19. 19. Digital Curation• A set of policies and techniques to ensure that digitaldata are available and usable now and in the future• Creating high quality digital objects of enduring value Focus on managing digital objects from their creation Enhancing the usefulness through valued-addedfunctions and preservation of digital objects• Digital preservation represents an important aspect ofdigital curation19Digital curation involves maintaining, preserving andadding value to digital research data throughout itslifecycle.Digital Curation Centre (DCC): http://www.dcc.ac.uk/digital-curation/what-digital-curation
    20. 20. 20• Creating digital objects of enduring value Supporting current intended use and likely future use The use-neutral approach with the notion of digital mastersand derivatives for immediate access Adhering to digitization standards and best practices Use of open, non-proprietary formats Authenticating digital objects in regard to Origin Digital format Providing item-level descriptive metadata and contextualinformation Developing an institutional approach to digital preservation Setting up a policy for data backup, refreshment, andmigration Establishing an infrastructure for digital preservation Recording preservation metadata Practicing responsible custody of digitized materials Digital preservation needs to be active, dynamic, and ongoingDigital Curation in the Context of Digitization
    21. 21. Dimensions of Digital Preservation• Technological“A range of managed activities to support the long-termmaintenance of bit streams to make sure that digital objectsare usable” (Rieger, 2008).• Key issues Preserving the media on which digital files (bit-stream) are recorded Preserving the means of interpreting, reading, and utilizing the bit-stream• Digital preservation strategies Refreshing Migration Emulation• Infrastructure Institutional or shared repositories21
    22. 22. 22A repository whose mission is to provide reliable, long-termaccess to managed digital resources to its designated community,now and in the future (RLG/OCLC, 2002)Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference ModelTrusted Digital Repositories
    23. 23. Dimensions of Digital Preservation• Contextual“Digital preservation is about more than keeping the bits, thosestreams of 1s and 0s that we use to represent information. It isabout maintaining the semantic meaning of the digital object andits content, about maintaining its provenance and authenticity,about retaining its ‘interrelatedness,’, and about securinginformation about the context of its creation and use” (Ross,2012).• The lack of contextual information turns digital data into “a digitalcemetery” Users have to be able to understand and interpret the bits to turn them intouseful information• A new area of research Users and contextual information in building digital preservation systems(Chowdhury, 2010) A Framework for Contextual Metadata Used in the Digital Preservation ofCultural Objects (Beaudoin, 2012)23
    24. 24. Conclusion• Digitization can be considered a viable preservation strategy if Original materials are fragile, damaged, or recorded on unstable analogmedia There is no other preservation method available• It should be part of a comprehensive approach to access and preservation Conservation efforts need to be applied to maintain original items High-quality digital representations of deteriorating materials• A renewed attention to preservation efforts, especially in thearea of visual resources, audio, and video• Digitization should be undertaken as part of a larger digitalcuration framework Focus on enhancing the research value of digitized materials Practice active digital preservation Address multiple dimensions of digital preservation• New directions in research on digital preservation 24
    25. 25. Conclusion25“To fail to embrace digitization forpreservation of collections, either locally or incollaboration with others, is to riskorganizational obsolescence”Conway, P. (2010). Preservation in the age of Google: Digitization, digitalpreservation, and dilemmas. Library Quarterly, 80(1), 61-79.
    26. 26. 26• Arms, C. R. (2000). Keeping memory alive: Practices for pressingdigital content at the National Digital Library Program of the Libraryof Congress. RLG DIgiNews, 4 (3).http://webdoc.gwdg.de/edoc/aw/rlgdn/preserv/diginews/diginews4-3.html• Arthur, K. et al., for the Association of Research Libraries (2004).Recognizing digitization as a preservation reformatting method.Microform and Imaging Review , 33 (4).• Beaudoin, J. E. (2012). A Framework for Contextual Metadata Used inthe Digital Preservation of Cultural Objects. D-Lib Magazine,18(11/12), 3.http://dlib.org/dlib/november12/beaudoin/11beaudoin1.print.html• Chowdhury, G. (2010). From digital libraries to preservation research:the importance of users and context. Journal of Documentation,66(2), 207-223.• Conway, P. (2007). The Relevance of Preservation in a Digital World.NDCC.http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/6Reformatting/04RelevanceOfPreservation.php• Conway, P. (2010). Preservation in the age of Google: Digitization,digital preservation, and dilemmas. Library Quarterly, 80(1), 61-79.References
    27. 27. 27• Gertz, J. (2007). Preservation and Selection for Digitization. NDCC.http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/6Reformatting/06PreservationAndSelection.php• Lynch, C. (2006). Mass Digitization: Implications for InformationPolicy. http://www.lib.umich.edu/mdp/symposium/NCLIS-report.pdf• Marcum, D. B. (2007). Digitizing for access and preservation:Strategies of the Library of Congress. First Monday, 12(7), 1.• Rieger, O. (2008). Preservation in the Age of Large-Scale Digitization:A White Paper, CLIR Publication 141 (Washington, D.C.: Council onLibrary and Information.• RLG/OCLC (2002). Trusted Digital Repositories: Attributes andResponsibilities.https://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/activities/trustedrep/repositories.pdf• Ross, S. (2012). Digital preservation, archival science andmethodological foundations for digital libraries. New Review OfInformation Networking, 17(1), 43-68.• Smith, A. (1999). Why digitize? Council on Library and InformationResources. www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub80-smith/pub80.htmlReferences
    28. 28. 28DziękujęThank youContact:Krystyna K. Matusiak, Ph.D.Assistant ProfessorLibrary & Information Science ProgramMorgridge College of EducationUniversity of Denvere-mail: krystyna.matusiak@du.eduQuestions?

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