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  • Planning

    2. 2. PLANNING MODULE - 2
    3. 3. The first of Management Functions Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling Selecting missions and objectives as well as the actions to achieve them, which requires decision making, i.e, choosing a course of action among alternatives
    4. 4. <ul><li>Guides to action </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale for decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Standard of performance. </li></ul>Need for Planning - Provides direction - Reduces uncertainty - Minimizes waste and redundancy - Sets the standards for controlling
    5. 5. Planning Activities <ul><li>Defining the organization’s objectives or goals </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities Planning is concerned with ends (what is to be done) as well as with means (how it is to be done). </li></ul>
    6. 6. Reasons for Planning
    7. 7. Criticisms Of Formal Planning <ul><li>Planning may create rigidity. </li></ul><ul><li>Plans can’t be developed for a dynamic environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal plans can’t replace intuition and creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning focuses managers’ attention on today’s competition, not on tomorrow’s survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal planning reinforces success, which may lead to failure. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Planning and Performance <ul><li>Formal planning generally means higher profits, higher return on assets, and other positive financial results. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning process quality and implementation probably contribute more to high performance than does the extent of planning. </li></ul><ul><li>When external environment restrictions allowed managers few viable alternatives, planning did not lead to higher performance. </li></ul>
    9. 9. ( NIB)
    10. 10. Strategic vs. Operational Plans <ul><li>Strategic Plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply to the entire organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish the organization’s overall goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positions organization in terms of its environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover extended periods of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational Plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes objectives exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies details of how overall goals will be achieved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover short time period </li></ul></ul>( NIB)
    11. 11. TYPES OF PLANS <ul><li>Mission or purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives or goals </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul>(APB)
    12. 12. Mission or purpose The basic purpose or function or tasks of an enterprise or agency or any part of it Objectives or goals The end towards which activity is aimed Strategies The determination of the basic long term objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and allocation of resources necessary to achieve these goals Policies General statements or understanding that guide or channel thinking in decision making
    13. 13. Procedures Plans that establish a required method of handling future activities Rules Rules spell out specific required actions or nonactions allowing no discretion Programs A complex of goals, policies, procedures, rules, task assignments, steps to be taken, resources to be employed, an other elements necessary to carry out a given course of action Budgets A statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms
    14. 14. Being Aware of opportunities Market, competition, Customers, Strengths Weakness Establishing objectives Where we want to be, what to achieve and when Developing premises In what environment ( I & E), scenarios Determining alternative courses How many and which are most promising Evaluating alternative courses In the light of objectives Selecting a course Formulating derivative plans Quantifying plans by budgeting Steps in planning
    15. 15. OBJECTIVES The end towards which activity is aimed Nature & aspects of objectives Verifiable Achievability Hierarchy Multiplicity Key Result Areas
    16. 16. Areas for Organizational Objectives <ul><li>Market standing </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Physical and financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial performance and development </li></ul><ul><li>Worker performance and attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Public responsibility </li></ul>
    17. 17. Developing a Hierarchy of Objectives <ul><li>A hierarchy of objectives is the overall organizational objectives and the subobjectives assigned to the various people or units of the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Suboptimization is a condition wherein organizational subobjectives are conflicting or not directly aimed at accomplishing the overall organizational objectives. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Individual ( Performance, development) Division Objectives Specific objectives ( e.g. KRA) Overall objectives Mission Socio-economic purpose Department Objectives Hierarchy of Objectives Top-down approach Bottom-top approach Board of Directors Top Management Middle Management First line management
    19. 19. Hierarchy of Objectives <ul><li>Top Management </li></ul><ul><li>Net profit of 10% or more </li></ul><ul><li>Provide customers with reliable products </li></ul><ul><li>Sales Department </li></ul><ul><li>Seek new market areas to grow sales by 15% annually </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain ad costs at 4% of sales </li></ul><ul><li>Production Department </li></ul><ul><li>Keep cost of goods <50% of sales </li></ul><ul><li>Increase labor productivity by 3%/year </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Keep scrappage to 2% of materials usage. Etc. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Working with Organizational Objectives Guidelines for Establishing Quality Objectives <ul><li>Let the people responsible for attaining the objectives have a voice in setting them. </li></ul><ul><li>State objectives as specifically as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate objectives to specific actions whenever necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Pinpoint expected results </li></ul>
    21. 21. Working with Organizational Objectives Guidelines for Establishing Quality Objectives (Cont.) <ul><li>Set goals high enough that employees will have to strive to meet them. </li></ul><ul><li>Specify when goals are expected to be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Set objectives only in relation to other organizational objectives </li></ul><ul><li>State objectives clearly and simply </li></ul>
    22. 22. Management By Objectives (MBO) <ul><li>MBO is a management approach that uses organizational objectives as the primary means of managing organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>The MBO Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>The MBO Process </li></ul><ul><li>Factors Necessary for a Successful MBO Program </li></ul><ul><li>MBO Programs: Advantages and disadvantages </li></ul>
    23. 23. Management By Objectives (MBO) The MBO Strategy <ul><li>All individuals within an organization are assigned a specialized set of objectives that they try to reach during a normal operating period. These objectives are mutually set and agreed upon by individuals and their managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance reviews are conducted periodically to determine how close individuals are to attaining their objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards are given to individuals on the basis of how close they come to reaching their goals. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Management By Objectives (MBO) The MBO Process <ul><li>Review organizational objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Set worker objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor progress </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate performance </li></ul><ul><li>Give rewards </li></ul>
    25. 25. Management By Objectives (MBO) Factors Necessary for a Successful MBO Program <ul><li>Top management commitment to the MBO process. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting appropriate objectives for the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and subordinates together must develop and agree on each individual’s goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Employee performance should be fairly evaluated against established objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Management must follow through on employee performance evaluations by rewarding employees accordingly. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Management By Objectives (MBO) MBO Programs: Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MBO programs continually emphasize what should be done to achieve organizational goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MBO process secures employees commitment to attaining organizational goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of objectives can be time-consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborate written goals, communication, and detailed performance evaluations increases the volume of paperwork. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Strategies, Policies, and Planning Premises
    28. 28. Strategies The determination of the basic long term objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and allocation of resources necessary to achieve these goals Policies General statements or understanding that guide or channel thinking in decision making
    29. 29. Strategic Management <ul><li>The set of managerial decisions and actions that determines the long-run performance of an organization. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Why Strategic Management Is Important <ul><li>It results in higher organizational performance. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires that managers examine and adapt to business environment changes. </li></ul><ul><li>It coordinates diverse organizational units, helping them focus on organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very much involved in the managerial decision-making process. </li></ul>
    31. 31. The Strategic Planning Process
    32. 32. Step 1: ID Current Mission, Goals, & Strategies <ul><li>You know what goals and strategies look like from . What do missions look like? </li></ul><ul><li>A mission is the firm’s reason for being, and usually includes some of the following items… </li></ul>
    33. 33. Components of a Mission Statement <ul><li>Customers: Who are the organization’s customers? </li></ul><ul><li>Products or services: What are the organization’s major products or services? </li></ul><ul><li>Markets: Where does the organization compete geographically? </li></ul><ul><li>Technology: How technologically current is the organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for survival growth, and profitability: Is the organization committed to growth and financial stability? </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy: What are the organization’s basic beliefs, values, aspirations, and ethical priorities? </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept: What is the organization’s major competitive advantage and core competencies? </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for public image: How responsive is the organization to societal and environmental concerns? </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for employees: Does the organization consider employees a valuable asset? </li></ul>
    34. 34. The Marketing Environment and Competitor Analysis <ul><li>SWOT analysis </li></ul><ul><li>PEST analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Five forces analysis </li></ul>
    35. 35. SWOT analysis <ul><li>Strengths (internal) </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses (internal) </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities (external) </li></ul><ul><li>Threats (external) </li></ul>
    36. 36. Steps 2 and 3: SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths (internal) What does well? What is it’s “competitive advantage” (core strength)? What resources possess? Opportunities (external) (positive trends) Weaknesses (internal) What does poorly? What resources don’t have? Threats (external) (negative trends)
    37. 37. Identifying the Organization’s Opportunities Exhibit 8.3
    38. 38. PEST analysis <ul><li>Political factors </li></ul><ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>Technological factors </li></ul>
    39. 39. Political/legal <ul><li>Monopolies legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental protection laws </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation policy </li></ul><ul><li>Employment laws </li></ul><ul><li>Government policy </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul>
    40. 40. Economic Factors <ul><li>Inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable income </li></ul><ul><li>Business cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Energy availability and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul>
    41. 41. Sociocultural factors <ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of income </li></ul><ul><li>Social mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle changes </li></ul><ul><li>Consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of education </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul>
    42. 42. Technological <ul><li>New discoveries and innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Rates of obsolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Information technology </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul>
    43. 43. Forces in the Industry Analysis Porter’s 5 Forces
    44. 44. Five Forces Analysis: Key Questions and Implications <ul><li>What are the key forces at work in the competitive environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there underlying forces driving competitive forces? </li></ul><ul><li>Will competitive forces change? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the strengths and weaknesses of competitors in relation to the competitive forces? </li></ul><ul><li>Can competitive strategy influence competitive forces (eg by building barriers to entry or reducing competitive rivalry)? </li></ul>
    45. 45. Five Competitive Forces <ul><li>Threat of New Entrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ease or difficulty with which new competitors can enter an industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Threat of Substitutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which switching costs and brand loyalty affect the likelihood of customers adopting substitutes products and services. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bargaining Power of Buyers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which buyers have the market strength to hold sway over and influence competitors in an industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bargaining Power of Suppliers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The relative number of buyers to suppliers and threats from substitutes and new entrants affect the buyer-supplier relationship. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Rivalry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity among rivals increases when industry growth rates slow, demand falls, and product prices descend. </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Steps 4, 5, 6 <ul><li>Step 4: Formulate strategy (develop strategic alternatives and pick best one) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Implement strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6: Evaluate strategy (how effective were they? What adjustments are needed? </li></ul>
    47. 47. Levels of Organizational Strategy Exhibit 8.4
    48. 48. Levels of Organizational Strategies <ul><li>Corporate: what businesses should we be in? </li></ul><ul><li>Business: How should we compete in each of our businesses? </li></ul><ul><li>Functional-Level Strategies: How can we support the business-level strategy? </li></ul>
    49. 49. Types of Corporate Strategies <ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal </li></ul>
    50. 50. Types of Growth Strategies <ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forward, backward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Related, unrelated </li></ul></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Stability Strategy <ul><ul><li>Seeks to maintain the status quo possibly to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deal with the uncertainty of a dynamic environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cope with industry slow- or no-growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Owners of firm don’t want to grow for personal reasons </li></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Renewal Strategies <ul><ul><li>Strategies to counter organization weaknesses that are leading to performance declines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retrenchment: eliminate non-critical weaknesses and restoring strengths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turnaround: strong cost elimination measures and large-scale organizational restructuring solutions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Product Strategies BCG – Portfolio Matrix
    54. 54. The BCG Matrix Exhibit 8.5
    55. 55. Competitive Basic Strategies <ul><li>Cost Leadership Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking to attain the lowest total overall costs relative to other industry competitors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differentiation Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempting to create a unique and distinctive product or service for which customers will pay a premium. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a cost or differentiation advantage to exploit a particular market segment rather a larger market. </li></ul></ul>Porter’s Strategies
    56. 56. The Rule of Three <ul><li>The competitive forces in an industry, if unfettered, will inevitably create a situation where three companies (full-line generalists) will dominate any given market </li></ul><ul><li>Some firms in the same market become super niche players and while others end up as “stuck-in-the-ditch” bottom dwellers. </li></ul>