Personal Selling
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Personal Selling






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    Personal Selling Personal Selling Presentation Transcript

      • Personal selling is selling technique involved between
      • person to person and between the prospective buyer
      • and seller.
      • Personal selling consists of human contact and direct
      • communication rather than impersonal mass
      • communication.
      • Personal selling involves developing customers
      • relationship, discovering & communicating customer
      • needs, matching the appropriate products with these
      • needs.
      • Personal selling is the most significant
      • promotional tool in terms of number of people
      • employed.
      • Personal selling is so important because the
      • sales person is the catalyst that making reaction
      • in the Marketing activities.
      • Eg: Business Firms, factories, Retailers, Banks, Hotels, Personal Computers, Laptops For Institutes, Audio Visual Equipments etc…
      • Retail selling :
      • Selling to ultimate consumer.
      • Field Selling :
      • Business to business selling that take place in the prospective customer's place of business.
      • Telemarketing :
      • Using the Telephone as the primary means of communicating with prospective customers & Telemarketers often used computers for order taking.
      • Inside Selling :
      • Business to business selling in the Sales person’s place of business.
    • Characteristics (P.S)
    • Marketing Planning
      • Henry Fayol stated, “ Marketing planning refers to forecasting and providing a means of examining action.”
      • Marketing planning involves the setting of marketing objectives, choice of marketing mix, selection of markets and designing of marketing programs for each product-market for a specified future period.
    • Nature of Marketing Planning
      • It is based on marketing information system.
      • It is an unending process because selling is a continuous
      • process, not a single act.
      • It is a process of building the foundation of confidence
      • with every prospect and future sales, rests on that
      • foundation.
      • This foundation is created by :
      • 1) Understanding the basic needs which should be
      • satisfied.
      • 2) Identifying the prospects that we have those needs n
      • wants.
      • 3) Making the prospects recognize the needs
      • 4) Convincing the prospects that the product will satisfy
      • his needs.
    • Importance of Marketing Planning
      • 1. Planning focuses on future direction, values and sense of purpose in which basic objective tell the direction of the growth.
      • 2. Planning helps to identify potential market opportunities and threats.
      • 3. Planning offers standards of performance for comparison and evaluation of actual performance.
      • 4. Planning provides a unique decision-making framework and facilitate co-ordination of efforts.
      • 5. Planning enables the organization to tune in business with the environment and establish a profitable relationship with the environment.
    • Benefits of Marketing Planning
      • Makes the company basically Market/Consumer-
      • oriented.
      • 2 . Encourages systematic thinking-ahead by
      • management.
      • 3 . Helps to identify the opportunities and the
      • problems.
      • Due to marketing planning, at the time of
      • planning we can get new ideas due to group efforts.
      • 5 . Planning injects innovations in the product or
      • organization.
    • Marketing planning is of two types namely:-
      • On the bases of time planning can be classified into two as:
      • 1) Short Term Planning.
      • 2) Long Term Planning.
      • Marketing planning cam also be classified under the heading Firm perspective/marketing perspective as:
      • 1) Operational Marketing Planning.
      • 2) Strategic Marketing planning.
    • Marketing Planning Process
      • Planning generally means looking into the future.
      • According to Henry Fayol “ Marketing planning
      • refers to forecasting and providing a means of examining the future and drawing up a plan of action.
      • Another feature of marketing planning is that it is an unending process. This is because selling is continuous process and not a single act.
    • Conceptual Process Assess areas of marketing opportunities. Determining market goals . Operational Process Developing The Marketing action Coordinating marketing action Evaluation of marketing Program. MARKETING PLANNING PROCESS
    • Strategic Marketing Planning Process Defining organizational goals Establishing strategic business unit (SBU) Setting Marketing Objectives Situation Analysis Developing marketing strategy Implementing tactics Monitoring results
      • 1) Defining organizational goals:
      • It refers to a long time commitment to a type of business and a place in market.
      • 2) Establishing strategic business unit:
      • Each SBU is a self-contained division, product line or product department with in an organization with a specific market focus and a manager with complete responsibility for integrating all functions into a strategy.
    • 3) Setting marketing objectives: Marketing objectives are not independent but are closely related to business goals. The objectives should be formulated in quantitative and qualitative statements. 4) Situation analysis: It is one of the preparatory exercises for setting marketing objectives. In this analysis, an organization identifies the marketing opportunities and potential problem it faces.
      • 5) Developing marketing strategies:
      • A marketing strategy outlines the manner in which marketing mix is used to attract and satisfy the target markets and accomplish the organization’s objectives.
      • 6) Implementing tactics:
      • Whatever strategies are developed, they
      • are implemented in the marketing areas.
      • 7) Monitoring results:
      • The results arising out of marketing planning are monitored and the deviations are corrected for achieving desired results.
    • Boston Consulting Group Approach (BCG)
      • The Boston Consulting Group is a leading management consultant firm in US, developed an approach known as BCG Growth Share Matrix.
      • Two variables taken in this matrix were:
      • 1) The Market Growth Rate.
      • 2) Relative Market Share of an SBU.
      • Market growth rate is shown in the vertical axis, which represents the annual growth rate of the market which the SBU operated.
      • The Relative market share of SBU is hone on the horizontal axis.
    • 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 3 2 1 Question marks Stars 4 6 Cash cows 5 7 Dogs 8 High Market Growth Rate (%) Low 10 High 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.1 Low Relative Market Share
      • The BCG matrix categorized SBU into four groups
      • Question marks.
      • Stars.
      • Cash cows.
      • Dogs.
    • 1. Question Marks:
      • These SBUs struggling to make there presence felt in a high market growth areas.
      • Most of the SBUs in this segment is in the initial period of their launch.
      • The firm has to decide whether it should continue to invest in these SBUs or not.
    • 2. Stars:
      • These are the SBUs in which the firm has acquired market leadership.
      • This situation occurs only when the firm has successfully evolved strategies to convert Question Marks into Stars.
    • 3. Cash Cows:
      • These SBUs are generating desired cash for the company. In this the company already occupies a market leader position.
      • In this, the Brands are household and the Firm has to do very little to market them. Eg. Colgate, Lux, Lifebuoy and Godrej products (Godrej falling)
    • 4. Dogs:
      • These SBUs have lost their glamour.
      • The firm has lost the market leadership and market is also not growing at a high rate.
      • The recommended strategy is to “KILL THE DOG” or “DROP THE PRODUCT” from product line.
    • Marketing Audit :
      • Meaning:
      • “ Marketing audit is a comprehensive systematic, independent and periodic examination of a company (or) business units and recommending a plan of actions to improve the company’s marketing performance”
      • A market audit is a systematic critical review and appraisal of the environment and the company’s marketing operations.
      • It is a powerful tool in ascertaining whether a company is in its dynamic phase and under rapidly changing marketing environment (or) not.
      • Marketing audit may also referred to as situation analysis.
      • A marketing audit included a careful appraisal of a company’s past performance as well as an evaluation of its marketing strength.
      • Thus its is a systematic and thorough examination of company's marketing position.
      • Types:
      • There are two types of marketing audits
      • 1. Horizontal marketing audit.
      • 2. Vertical marketing audit.
    • Components Of Marketing Audit Part I. Marketing Environment Audit
      • (a) Macro environment:
      • 1. Demographic.
      • 2. Economic.
      • 3. Environmental.
      • 4. Technological.
      • 5. Political.
      • 6. Cultural.
      • (b) Task environment :
      • 1. Markets.
      • 2. Customers.
      • 3. Competitors.
      • 4. Distribution &
      • Dealers.
      • 5. Suppliers.
      • 6. Facilitators &
      • Marketing
      • Firms.
      • 7. Publics.
    • Components Of Marketing Audit
      • Part II. Marketing Strategy Audit
      • Business Mission.
      • Marketing Objectives & Goals.
      • Strategy.
    • Components Of Marketing Audit
      • Part III. Marketing Organization Audit
      • Formal Structure.
      • Functional Efficiency.
      • Interface Efficiency .
    • Components Of Marketing Audit
      • Part IV. Marketing System Audit
      • Marketing Information System.
      • Marketing Planning System.
      • Marketing Control System.
      • New-Product Development System.
    • Components Of Marketing Audit
      • Part V. Marketing Productivity Audit
      • Profitability Analysis.
      • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.
    • Components Of Marketing Audit
      • Part VI. Marketing Function Audit
      • Products.
      • Distribution.
      • Price.
      • Advertising, Sales, Promotion, Publicity & Direct Marketing.
      • Sales Force.