MANAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOURAL PROCESSES MODULE 1 Management theory and practice – definition of management – nature, purpose and functions – management: science or art – systems approach to operational management – the functions of managers – systems model of management – factors responsible for increasing significance of management – managerial roles – Fredrick Taylor and scientific management – Fayol: father of administrative management theory – the emergence of behavioral sciences – the Hawthorne studies – recent contributions to management thought – Peter Drucker – social responsibility of managers
Meaning and Definition Of Management
It is very difficult to give a precise definition of the term “Management” because of its scope and functions. Many experts have made significant contribution in this regard .
Economists view management as ‘a factor of production ; ‘Sociologists see it as ‘a class or group of persons’ ; the practitioners of management treat it as a ‘process’.
Few well Known definitions
1 .“ Management is the art of getting things done through others”.
-Mary Parker Follett
2 .”Management is a distinct process consisting of activities of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to accomplish stated objectives with the use of human beings and other resource”–
G. R. Terry and S.G. Franklin
“Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups, accomplish efficiently selected aims”
- Harold Koontz and Heinz Weihrich
“The conduct of affairs of a business moving towards its objective through a continuous process of improvement and optimization of resources Via the essential management functions”
- Henri Fayol .
It is now clear from the definitions of management that
Management is a continuous process.
Many different inter related activities are performed.
Managers are to achieve the stated goals.
The aim of managing is to create a surplus i.e. to be effective and efficient.
Nature OR Characteristics of Management
Management is a Group activity.
Management is goal oriented.
Management is a factor of production.
Management is universal in character.
Management is required at all levels of orgn.
Management is a distinct process.
Management is a social process.
Management is a system of authority.
Management is a dynamic function.
Management is intangible.
Management is a profession.
Management is an art as well as science.
Functions of Management
P - Planning
O - Organising
S - Staffing
D - Directing
C - Controlling
C –Coordinating, L-Leading,
Cannot be ignored
Management - Art or Science
As an ART
Systematized body of Knowledge.
Cause and effect relationship
Validity and predictability
When a young marketer met his untimely end, he was informed that he had a choice about where he would spend his eternity: Heaven or Hell. He was allowed to visit both places, and then make his decision afterwards.
I'll see Heaven first," said the salesman, and an angel led him through the gates on a private tour. Inside it was very peaceful and serene, and all the people there were playing harps and eating grapes. It looked very nice, but the salesman was not about to make a decision that could very well condemn him to so sedate an eternity.
"Can I see Hell now?" he asked. The angel pointed him to the elevator, and he went down to the Basement where he was greeted by one of Satan's loyal followers. For the next half hour, the salesman was led through a tour of what appeared to be the best night clubs he'd ever seen. People were partying loudly, and having a, if you'll pardon the expression, Hell of a time.
When the tour ended, he was sent back up where the angel asked him if he had reached a final decision. "Yes, I have," he replied., "As great as Heaven looks and all, I have to admit that Hell was more of my kind of place. I've decided to spend my eternity down there."
The salesman was sent to hell, where he was immediately thrown into a cave and was chained to a wall, and he was subjected to various tortures., "When I came down here for the tour," he yelled with anger and pain, "I was shown a whole bunch of bars and parties and other great stuff! What happened?!"
The devil replied,
"Oh, that! That was just the management presentation"
One Last For The Day
A retailer was dismayed when a competitor selling the same type of product opened next-door to him, displaying a large sign proclaiming, "Best Deals".
Not long after he was horrified to find yet another competitor move in next-door, on the other side if his store. It's large sign was even more disturbing-, "Lowest Prices".
After his initial panic, and concern that he would be driven out of business, he looked for a way to turn the situation to his marketing advantage. Finally, an idea came to him. Next day, he proudly unveiled a new and huge sign over his front door. It read,