MBA- MIS Security, Ethical & Societal challenges of IT


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Security, Ethical & Societal challenges of IT

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MBA- MIS Security, Ethical & Societal challenges of IT

  1. 1. Security, Ethical & Societal challenges of IT The use of IT in business has had major impact on society, & thus raises ethical issues in the areas of crime, privacy, individuality, e’yment, health & working conditions E’yment Privacy Crime Working condition Individuality Health
  2. 2. <ul><li>Business Ethics; </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with the numerous ethical questions that </li></ul><ul><li>managers must confront as part of their daily business </li></ul><ul><li>decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property rights, customer, & e’yee privacy etc </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Ethics; </li></ul><ul><li>This ethical dimensions deals specifically with the ethics of </li></ul><ul><li>the use of only form of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>It outlines 4 principles of technology; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimized Risk </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Computer Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Computer crime is growing threat to society caused by the </li></ul><ul><li>criminal or irresponsible action of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The unauthorized use, access, modification & destruction of </li></ul><ul><li>H/W, S/W data or network resources </li></ul><ul><li>1.Hacking </li></ul><ul><li>2.Cyber theft </li></ul><ul><li>3.Unauthorised use at work </li></ul><ul><li>4. S/W piracy </li></ul><ul><li>5. Piracy of intellectual property </li></ul><ul><li>PRIVACY ISSUES; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy on the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer matching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><li> a. E’yment </li></ul><ul><li> b. Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>c. Individual </li></ul><ul><li> d. Health & society </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cyber terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ergonomics </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Computer Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Computer crime is growing threat to society caused by the </li></ul><ul><li>criminal or irresponsible action of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>The unauthorized use, access, modification & destruction of </li></ul><ul><li>H/W, S/W data or network resources </li></ul><ul><li>1.Hacking </li></ul><ul><li>2.Cyber theft </li></ul><ul><li>3.Unauthorised use at work </li></ul><ul><li>4. S/W piracy </li></ul><ul><li>5. Piracy of intellectual property </li></ul><ul><li>PRIVACY ISSUES; </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy on the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Computer matching </li></ul><ul><li>Other challenges </li></ul><ul><li>a. E’yment </li></ul><ul><li>b. Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>c. Computer monitoring </li></ul>
  5. 5. Computer Crime Computer crime is growing threat to society caused by the criminal or irresponsible action of individuals Definition The unauthorized use, access, modification & destruction of H/W, S/W data or network resources 1.Hacking 2.Cyber theft 3.Unauthorised use at work
  6. 6. ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Computer, electronics, comm., & audio video technology have converged Closely to produce a new style of operating business. The dynamic business environment of today's is full of challenges & opportunities. The dependency on the information, as driving energy source. In today's business, the demand is a paperless operation, a wireless comm. as a result of fully transparent & automated at all centers in an integrated & co-ordinated manner taking care of the business, actions & decision making. AMS--- Attendance mgt systems DMS --- Document mgt systems CMS ---- Comm. Mgt systems SMS ---- Security mgt systems EDI ---- Electronic data interchange E-commerce ERP --- Enterprise resource planning
  7. 7. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING <ul><li>ERP is a cross functional enterprise systems driven by an integrated </li></ul><ul><li>suite of S/W modules that supports the basic internal business process </li></ul><ul><li>of a company. </li></ul><ul><li>ERP provides a support systems in the transaction processing, updating, </li></ul><ul><li>& reporting across the functions. ERP is a package encompassing all major </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of the business. </li></ul><ul><li>ERP packages build information base & provide knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>business function mgt. The ERP is the main system, interfaced (or) assisted </li></ul><ul><li>by the other systems in the org. These systems provide the DB to the ERP. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic features of ERP; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Separation of the program code & the data areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Command language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Screen based flow control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Common service functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Traction flow control & help functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Word processing, text editing & action message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Diagnostic functions </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. BUSINESS SYSTEMS <ul><li>Business forecasting for products, groups, markets </li></ul><ul><li>Target fixing & allocation by the key parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Business planning in terms of the resource to execute </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy formulation & implementation </li></ul><ul><li>MIS for strategy monitoring & control </li></ul><ul><li>DSS for resource planning </li></ul>
  9. 9. BENEFITS OF THE ERP <ul><li>Better mgt of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Business operation transparency b/w business partners </li></ul><ul><li>The process become faster due to work group technology </li></ul><ul><li>The ERP scope enlarged through the internet/intranet access </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the client/server, the application of object technology & use of the front end tools, the process changes can be easily carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>The ERP design is proactive, it make mgt alert at a no. of points like demanding the decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>ERP still remain a valid solution with the expansion of business as it is a scalable architecture. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ERP SELECTION <ul><li>The market offers a no. of ERP packages, the buyers has a </li></ul><ul><li>choice to make. Each product has its own USP & differs in a no. </li></ul><ul><li>of ways in content, scope, in case of implementation etc. The </li></ul><ul><li>selection can be made on 3 dimensions. It as follows; </li></ul><ul><li>1. Vendor Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Technology Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>3. ERP solution Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor Evaluation; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business strength of the vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product share in total business of the vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future plans of the vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market reach & resource strength of the vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to execute the ERP solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective plan of the ERP improvement with technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business philosophy of the vendor </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION <ul><li>Client server architecture & its implementation 2 tier or 3tire </li></ul><ul><li>Object orientation in development & methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Interface mechanism: data transfer, real time access </li></ul><ul><li>Support system technology like bar coding, EDI, imaging, comm., network </li></ul><ul><li>H/W – S/W configuration mgt </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system & its levels of usage in the system </li></ul><ul><li>Use of case tool, screen generators, report writers, screen printers & batch processor </li></ul><ul><li>Handling of client/server data & application logic </li></ul>
  12. 12. ERP Solution Evaluation <ul><li>ERP fit for the business of the org in terms of the functions, features & processes </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of deviation from the standard ERP product </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use: easy to learn, implement & train </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible design & ability to migrate to the ERP environment </li></ul><ul><li>Rating on performance, response & integration </li></ul><ul><li>product quality in terms of security, reliability, & precision in results </li></ul><ul><li>Solution architecture & technology </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation for system handling & administration </li></ul>
  13. 13. ERP Solution Structure DM Analysis Functions Implementation App. Logic Processing logic Data logic DB Communication Object oriented Client/server Network Business Operations Technology
  14. 14. ERP Implementation <ul><li>The ERP implementation, generally follow the waterfall mode </li></ul><ul><li>approach. Once a firm orders is received, the implementation </li></ul><ul><li>begins with kick-off meeting b/w the vendor & the org. </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Requirement definition & description [RDD] </li></ul><ul><li> 2. Implementation steps </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement definition & description; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially, the study has been carried out by the vendor & </li></ul></ul><ul><li>project in-charge of org </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Then, user are contacted for their requirement specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ERP is designed as a standard [changes & modification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>as per the requirement of the business] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As soon as the new RDD is prepared, the process designs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>starts implementing the changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The changes are required in the process of design coding, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>testing etc come in to picture for execution </li></ul>
  15. 15. Implementation Steps <ul><li>A user meeting is arranged to explain the ERP & process of implementation </li></ul><ul><li>The RDD is explained for understanding & approval </li></ul><ul><li>The solution on the recommended platform is loaded & user have demonstration for understanding </li></ul><ul><li>The users are trained to run the solution & resolve the difficulties in operations of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Standard reports like check lists, ledger etc are taken to confirm the integrity of the ERP solution </li></ul><ul><li>The system performance is checked in terms of speed, response etc </li></ul><ul><li>The ERP solution & H/W is tuned for improving the performance of the solution </li></ul>
  16. 16. EMS and MIS <ul><ul><li>Qualitative change in the MIS design, due to the complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>of the business operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mgt focus is shifting from the function to the process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[ the mgt requires the information support] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The emphasis on the automation of process with a strong </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MIS now required to maximize the process of productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>& performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DM support is required for the process optimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERP solution is an integrated solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ERP takes care of data integrity & consistency across the </li></ul></ul><ul><li>org which may have multiple locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The convictional MIS design is more embedded in the ERP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It provide all routine reports at any time for the middle mgt of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the org </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Supply Chain Mgt <ul><li>SCM; </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating mgt & IT to optimize information & product flows among </li></ul><ul><li>the processes & business partners within a supply chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply Chain; </li></ul><ul><li>The network of business processes & inter-relationships among </li></ul><ul><li>business that are needed to build, sell, & deliver a product to its final </li></ul><ul><li>customer. </li></ul><ul><li>A successful SCM strategy is base on accurate order processing, </li></ul><ul><li>just-in-time Inventory mgt, & timely order fulfillment. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of SCM; </li></ul><ul><li>To create a fast, efficient, & low-cost network of business relationships, </li></ul><ul><li>to get a company’s products from concept of market. Supply chain processes </li></ul><ul><li>should add value to the products (or) services a company produces, a </li></ul><ul><li>supply chain called a value chain . </li></ul><ul><li>Objective of SCM; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase efficiency & improve supply chain cycle times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel networks among business partners </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. SCM life cycle; commit schedule make deliver Main Goal of SCM; Business Value Goals Rapid demand fulfillment Collaborative supply chain Planning & execution Customer Value Goals Give customer what they want When & how they want it At the lowest cost Inter-enterprise Co-ordination of Mgt & business processes Responsiveness & Accountability To customers Effective Distribution & Channel partnership
  19. 19. Customer Relationship Mgt [CRM] <ul><li>CRM; </li></ul><ul><li>Across-functional e-business application that integrates & automates </li></ul><ul><li>many customer serving processes in sales, direct-marketing, </li></ul><ul><li>accounting & order mgt & customer service & support, retain </li></ul><ul><li>loyal customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of CRM; </li></ul><ul><li>To understand & anticipate the needs of current & potential customers </li></ul><ul><li>to increase retention & loyalty while optimizing the way that products </li></ul><ul><li>& services are sold. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to Organization; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase customer retention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced operating costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to meet customer demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automate & integrate the function of marketing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data about customer contact of a company CRM system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Customer life cycle; Acquire Enhance Retain Application of CRM; Prospects Or customers Fax E-mai l Web Telephone Marketing & Fulfillment Customer service & support Retention & Loyalty programs Contact & A/C mgt Sales