GPS Applications - RF & Protection Devices | Infineon Technologies
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GPS Applications - RF & Protection Devices | Infineon Technologies

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GPS Applications - find here all information about compact and high performance Front-End Module. This presantation will give you a simple overview of the RF System and Protection Devices. Infineon - your partner for semiconductor solutions & automotive applications.

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GPS Applications - RF & Protection Devices | Infineon Technologies GPS Applications - RF & Protection Devices | Infineon Technologies Document Transcript

  • RF and Protection Devices BGM781N11 Application Note AN184 Revision: Rev. 1.2, 2011.12.21 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications
  • Edition 2011.12.21 Published by Infineon Technologies AG 81726 Munich, Germany © 2011 Infineon Technologies AG All Rights Reserved. Legal Disclaimer The information given in this document shall in no event be regarded as a guarantee of conditions or characteristics. With respect to any examples or hints given herein, any typical values stated herein and/or any information regarding the application of the device, Infineon Technologies hereby disclaims any and all warranties and liabilities of any kind, including without limitation, warranties of non-infringement of intellectual property rights of any third party. Information For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices, please contact the nearest Infineon Technologies Office (www.infineon.com). Warnings Due to technical requirements, components may contain dangerous substances. For information on the types in question, please contact the nearest Infineon Technologies Office. Infineon Technologies components may be used in life-support devices or systems only with the express written approval of Infineon Technologies, if a failure of such components can reasonably be expected to cause the failure of that life-support device or system or to affect the safety or effectiveness of that device or system. Life support devices or systems are intended to be implanted in the human body or to support and/or maintain and sustain and/or protect human life. If they fail, it is reasonable to assume that the health of the user or other persons may be endangered.
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.213 / 23 Application Note AN184 Revision History: 2011.12.21 Previous Revision: Rev. 1.1 Page Subjects (major changes since last revision) 4/10/11/12/13/14/ 15/18 Updated Gain, Input Return Loss, Output Return Loss and Reverse Isolation values and curves Trademarks of Infineon Technologies AG A-GOLD™, BlueMoon™, COMNEON™, CONVERGATE™, COSIC™, C166™, CROSSAVE™, CanPAK™, CIPOS™, CoolMOS™, CoolSET™, CONVERPATH™, CORECONTROL™, DAVE™, DUALFALC™, DUSLIC™, EasyPIM™, EconoBRIDGE™, EconoDUAL™, EconoPACK™, EconoPIM™, E-GOLD™, EiceDRIVER™, EUPEC™, ELIC™, EPIC™, FALC™, FCOS™, FLEXISLIC™, GEMINAX™, GOLDMOS™, HITFET™, HybridPACK™, INCA™, ISAC™, ISOFACE™, IsoPACK™, IWORX™, M-GOLD™, MIPAQ™, ModSTACK™, MUSLIC™, my-d™, NovalithIC™, OCTALFALC™, OCTAT™, OmniTune™, OmniVia™, OptiMOS™, OPTIVERSE™, ORIGA™, PROFET™, PRO-SIL™, PrimePACK™, QUADFALC™, RASIC™, ReverSave™, SatRIC™, SCEPTRE™, SCOUT™, S-GOLD™, SensoNor™, SEROCCO™, SICOFI™, SIEGET™, SINDRION™, SLIC™, SMARTi™, SmartLEWIS™, SMINT™, SOCRATES™, TEMPFET™, thinQ!™, TrueNTRY™, TriCore™, TRENCHSTOP™, VINAX™, VINETIC™, VIONTIC™, WildPass™, X-GOLD™, XMM™, X-PMU™, XPOSYS™, XWAY™. Other Trademarks AMBA™, ARM™, MULTI-ICE™, PRIMECELL™, REALVIEW™, THUMB™ of ARM Limited, UK. AUTOSAR™ is licensed by AUTOSAR development partnership. Bluetooth™ of Bluetooth SIG Inc. CAT-iq™ of DECT Forum. COLOSSUS™, FirstGPS™ of Trimble Navigation Ltd. EMV™ of EMVCo, LLC (Visa Holdings Inc.). EPCOS™ of Epcos AG. FLEXGO™ of Microsoft Corporation. FlexRay™ is licensed by FlexRay Consortium. HYPERTERMINAL™ of Hilgraeve Incorporated. IEC™ of Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. IrDA™ of Infrared Data Association Corporation. ISO™ of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION. MATLAB™ of MathWorks, Inc. MAXIM™ of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. MICROTEC™, NUCLEUS™ of Mentor Graphics Corporation. Mifare™ of NXP. MIPI™ of MIPI Alliance, Inc. MIPS™ of MIPS Technologies, Inc., USA. muRata™ of MURATA MANUFACTURING CO. OmniVision™ of OmniVision Technologies, Inc. Openwave™ Openwave Systems Inc. RED HAT™ Red Hat, Inc. RFMD™ RF Micro Devices, Inc. SIRIUS™ of Sirius Sattelite Radio Inc. SOLARIS™ of Sun Microsystems, Inc. SPANSION™ of Spansion LLC Ltd. Symbian™ of Symbian Software Limited. TAIYO YUDEN™ of Taiyo Yuden Co. TEAKLITE™ of CEVA, Inc. TEKTRONIX™ of Tektronix Inc. TOKO™ of TOKO KABUSHIKI KAISHA TA. UNIX™ of X/Open Company Limited. VERILOG™, PALLADIUM™ of Cadence Design Systems, Inc. VLYNQ™ of Texas Instruments Incorporated. VXWORKS™, WIND RIVER™ of WIND RIVER SYSTEMS, INC. ZETEX™ of Diodes Zetex Limited. Last Trademarks Update 2009-10-19
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.214 / 23 1 BGM781N11 GPS Front-End Module for High Performance Integrated Solution Features  Front-End Module for GPS including Pre-filter, LNA and Post-filter  High gain: 17.9dB  Low noise figure: 1.7dB  High selectivity: over 80dBc  Only two external parts  Power-off function  Supply voltage: 1.5V to 3.6V  RF output internally matched to 50Ω  8kV contact discharge ESD protection at input Application Global positioning systems (GPS) BGM781N11 Topview 1.1 Introduction Global Positioning System or GPS receiver, as we know, works on the reception of location based information from satellite signals. However, the power levels of the satellite signals received, can be lower than -130 dBm. This poses a challenge on the sensitivity of the GPS receiver. Along with this, the ever growing disturbing or jamming signals in the adjacent cellular bands makes the design of the receiver front-end even more difficult. The rapidly growing market for GPS systems is driving the design of advanced and high-performance GPS receivers. A simple overview of the RF system in a mobile phone or other handheld devices is shown in Figure 1. GPS receivers for mobile or handheld applications are always under the threat of high power cellular signals. Due to the coexistence of GPS and Cellular services, there is a strong coupling of the DCS/PCS and Cellular signals to the GPS receiver. The performance of a standard integrated GPS receiver chip cannot meet the specifications required for the present systems. An external RF front-end is essential to achieve this required performance. The most important prerequisites for the front-end of a GPS receiver are low noise figure and sufficient amplification of the desired signal together with high attenuation of the jamming signals.
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.215 / 23 Figure 1 RF System Overview: Mobile Phone
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.216 / 23 1.2 Systems overview of a GPS receiver Several configurations can be adopted for a GPS receiver chain. In all configurations, as mentioned earlier, a RF front-end like BGM781N11 is placed between the antenna and the GPS receiver chip. Mobile/portable devices as well personal navigation devices request decreasing form factor used by the implementation of the GPS function in the devices. BGM781N11 supports the designers to minimize the area in the front-end area used with all the. Such a configuration is shown in Figure 2. The BGM781N11 can also be used for the active antenna module as shown in Figure 3. Figure 2 Compact GPS system with fully integrated GPS FEM BGM781N11 for mobile/portable and personal navigation devices. Figure 3 Active antenna module using GPS FE Module. ESD Diod e BPF BPF GPS Receiver IC Embedded ANT LNA BGM781N11
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.217 / 23 1.3 What is inside the BGM781N11? The Infineon BGM781N11 is a GPS receiver Front-end module comprising of pre-Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filter, LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) and post-SAW filter as shown in Figure 4. Traditionally, in the GPS receiver design, the three devices have been used as three individual components. With their integration into one single device, the BGM781N11 brings the designer the advantages of small PCB area, low cost, faster and simpler design cycles and lower part count. Figure 4 Inside the BGM781N11 1.3.1 Pre-SAW filter The strong cellular signals can drive the LNA of the receiver into saturation. This is because the LNA is optimized for GPS reception and hence the power handling capability is relatively low compared to the high power mobile signals. To avoid this, a pre-filter is needed to filter out these out-of-band disturbances. The filter however should not contribute considerable losses to the system, since it is the first device after the antenna in the receiver chain, which will impact the noise figure of the receiver system significantly. A Surface Acoustic Wave pre-filter is used in this module, which can strongly attenuate these parasitic effects of cellular phones. The SAW filter used for the BGM781N11 introduces an insertion loss of only 1.0 dB in the passband. It has a high input power capability and delivers high out-of-band rejection of about 34 dB in the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz cellular bands and +47 dBm Input IP3 with f1=1713 MHz and f2=1851 MHz.
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.218 / 23 1.3.2 Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) The LNA follows the pre-SAW filter in BGM781N11. The well-known Infineon device BGA715L7 is used for the LNA. After suppressing the unwanted signals with the pre-SAW filter, the in-band signal needs to be amplified in order to meet the sensitivity required to acquire GPS signals, which otherwise cannot be met with the integrated LNA of the GPS receiver. The LNA used provides 20 dB gain and 0.6 dB noise figure, which defines more or less the noise figure of the complete receiver chain succeeding it. The LNA is based upon Infineon Technologies’ B7HFM 70 GHz fT Silicon-Germanium (SiGe:C) technology, allowing for a cost-effective solution with excellent performance at low current consumption. The LNA features integrated on/off function that enables low power consumption and increased stand-by time for GPS handsets. It includes active biasing and also has a transfer characteristic with out-of-band rejection to a certain extent. 1.3.3 Post-SAW filter With the present trend of designing state of the art GPS receivers, which are expected to work error free, a further out-of-band rejection is required after the LNA to prevent the later stages from interfering signals. A second filter is thus necessary to achieve these levels of rejection. In the present module, again a SAW filter is used to serve this purpose. Compared to the pre-filter, the attenuation in the cellular bands is stronger in the post-filter at the cost of a small degradation in the insertion loss. The post filter inserts only a low loss of 1.5 dB and we achieve a further attenuation of the stop-band of more than 40 dB. 1.3.4 Pin Assignment of BGM781N11 Table 1 shows the pin definition and their function of BGM781N11. Table 1 Pin Definition and Function Pin No. Symbol Function 1 BG2 (optional) Postfilter Ground 2 PON Power On/Off 3 VCC Power Supply 4 n.c. Not Used 5 RFIN RF Input 6 BG1 Pre-Filter Ground 7 BO1 Pre-Filter Output 8 AI LNA Input 9 BIAS BIAS 10 RFOUT RF Output 11 GND Package Middle Islands Ground
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.219 / 23 1.4 Application Schematic The BGM781N11 is internally matched at the output to 50 Ohm. The LNA bias circuitry is also integrated on chip. Therefore, only two external components are required in the application. The application schematic is shown in Figure 5 and the function of the external passives is listed in Table 2. Figure 5 Application circuit of the BGM781N11 RFin is the input of the pre-filter. The output of the pre-filter is connected to the LNA input via the inductor L1 for a better noise matching. Inductor L2 is a RF choke for biasing the LNA. The output of the LNA is connected internally to the post-SAW filter. One capacitor of 20pF is integrated on the Vcc pin to ground pin on the LNA chip. Therefore no external capacitor is required on the Vcc pin. A capacitor C1 can be optionally used for the filtering of DC voltages. Table 2 Bill of Materials Symbol Value Unit Size Manufacturer Comment N1 BGM781N11 TSNP11-2 Infineon GPS Front-End Module C1 1.0 µF 0402 various Supply Filtering (optional) L1 3.6 nH 0402 muRata LQG15HS series, matching L2 33 nH 0402 muRata LQG15HS series, biasing
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2110 / 23 2 Measurement Results Measurement results of the BGM781N11 are presented in this section. The measurements are performed on the Infineon application board at room temperature. The performances of the BGM781N11 are here provided for the voltage of 1.8V (Table 3) and 2.8V (Table 4). The data exclude PCB and SMA connector losses, unless otherwise mentioned. Table 3 Summary of Measurement Results 1) TA = 25 °C, VCC = 1.8 V, VPON,ON = 1.8 V, VPON,OFF = 0 V 1) Parameter Symbol Value Unit Note/Test Condition Frequency Freq 1.575 GHz DC Voltage Vcc 1.8 V DC Current ICC;ON 3.25 mA ON-Mode ICC;OFF < 0.1 uA OFF-Mode Power On Control Current IPON;ON 5 uA ON-Mode, measured on VPON pin IPON;OFF << 0.1 uA OFF-Mode In-Band Parameters @1575.42 MHz Gain 2) G 17.9 dB Noise Figure 2) NF 1.7 dB Zs=50Ohm Input Return Loss RLin 17 dB Output Return Loss RLout 14 dB Reverse Isolation 1/|S12|² 41 dB Input P1dB IP1dB -14.2 dBm @1575.42MHz Input IP3 IIP3 -5.5 dBm f1 = 1575.42 MHz, f2 = f1 +/- 1 MHz Pin1=-30dBm; Pin2=-30dBm Stability k >1 -- Unconditionally stable Stopband Parameters Rejection 900MHz3) Rej900M 92 dBc f = 806 MHz - 928 MHz Rejection 1800MHz3) Rej1800M 80 dBc f = 1710 MHz - 1980 MHz Rejection 2400MHz3) Rej2400M 73 dBc f = 2400 MHz - 2500 MHz Input P1dB IP1dB900M 22 dBm @900MHz Input P1dB IP1dB1800 25 dBm @1710MHz Input IP3 IIP3QC +47 dBm f1=1713MHz, f2=1851MHz Pin1=+10dBm; Pin2=+10dBm 1) Measured on BGM781N11 application board including PCB losses (unless noted otherwise) 2) PCB and connector losses subtracted, verified on AQL base 3) Rejection is defined as following: [Gain at 1575.42 MHz] – [Attenuation@stopband frequency]
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2111 / 23 Table 4 Summary of Measurement Results 1) TA = 25 °C, VCC = 2.8 V, VPON,ON = 2.8 V, VPON,OFF = 0 V 1) Parameter Symbol Value Unit Note/Test Condition Frequency Freq 1.575 GHz DC Voltage Vcc 2.8 V DC Current ICC;ON 3.35 mA ON-Mode ICC;OFF < 0.1 uA OFF-Mode Gain Switch Control Current IPON;ON 11 uA ON-Mode IPON;OFF << 0.1 uA OFF-Mode In-Band Parameters @1575.42 MHz Gain 2) G 17.9 dB Noise Figure 2) NF 1.7 dB Zs=50Ohm Input Return Loss RLin 15 dB Output Return Loss RLout 14 dB Reverse Isolation 1/|S12|² 41 dB Input P1dB IP1dB -10.5 dBm @1575.42MHz Input IP3 IIP3 -5.0 dBm f1 = 1575.42 MHz, f2 = f1 +/- 1 MHz Pin1=-30dBm; Pin2=-30dBm Stability k >1 -- Unconditionally stable Stopband Parameters Rejection 900MHz3) Rej900M 92 dBc f = 806 MHz - 928 MHz Rejection 1800MHz3) Rej1800M 80 dBc f = 1710 MHz - 1980 MHz Rejection 2400MHz3) Rej2400M 73 dBc f = 2400 MHz - 2500 MHz Input P1dB IP1dB900M 23 dBm @900MHz Input P1dB IP1dB1800 28 dBm @1710MHz Input IP3 IIP3QC +48 dBm f1=1713MHz, f2=1851MHz Pin1=+10dBm; Pin2=+10dBm 1) Measured on BGM781N11 application board including PCB losses (unless noted otherwise) 2) PCB and connector losses subtracted. 3) Rejection is defined as following: [Gain at 1575.42 MHz] – [Attenuation@stopband frequency]
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2112 / 23 2.1 BGM781N11 characteristics The Graphs presented on this section show measured characteristics of the BGM781N11. The Gain brought by the LNA BGM781N11 at GPS frequency +/-10 MHz is displayed on Figure 6. The noise figure measured in the +/-10 MHz band with the center frequency of 1575MHz is shown in Figure 7. The out-of-band attenuation observed in Figure 8 can suppress the jammer signals generated by mobile phones by 89dBc below the desired GPS signal. Thus, the BGM781N11 integrated solution is not perturbated by other signals which could degrade the received GPS signal information. The Figure 9, 10 and 11 shows that the circuit is well matched at the GPS frequency with a minimum of 14dB return loss. The BGM781N11 is unconditionally stable (please see Figure 12 and 13). The change of voltage from 1.8V to 2.8V has no impact on the noise figure since the current stays constant. Regarding the characteristics of linearity, the curves of measurement for the input compression point at 1dB are measured at 1.8V and 2.8V. Using a higher voltage brings a better 1dB compression point. In the same manner of the compression point, the 3 rd Intercept point will also increase when using a higher voltage (see Figure 14 and 15). Figure 16 and 17 show the insertion gain and noise figure over the temperature. Gain variation over the temperature range from -40°C to +85°C is 3.5dB and the variation of noise figure is 1.2dB.
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2113 / 23 1550 1555 1560 1565 1570 1575 1580 1585 1590 1595 1600 Frequency (MHz) Insertion Power Gain 0 5 10 15 20 1575.42 MHz 17.9 dB Figure 6 Wideband Insertion Power Gain Inband of the BGM781N11 Figure 7 Noise figure of BGM781N11 over +/-10MHz band measured at room temperature
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2114 / 23 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Frequency (MHz) Transducer Insertion Gain Wideband -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 1813 MHz -59.9 dB 2450 MHz -52.1 dB1980 MHz -56.6 dB 1710 MHz -64.6 dB 900 MHz -71.3 dB 1575 MHz 17.9 dB Figure 8 Wideband Insertion Power Gain incl. out-of-band attenuation of the BGM781N11 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 Frequency (MHz) Input Matching -20 -15 -10 -5 0 1575.42 MHz -15.31 dB Figure 9 Input Matching of the BGM781N11
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2115 / 23 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 Frequency (MHz) Output Matching -40 -30 -20 -10 0 1575.42 MHz -14.42 dB Figure 10 Output Matching of the BGM781N11 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 Frequency (MHz) Reverse Isolation -55 -45 -35 1575.42 MHz -40.83 dB Figure 11 Reverse Isolation of the BGM781N11
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2116 / 23 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Frequency (MHz) Stability K Factor 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 12 Stability K-Factor of the BGM781N11 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Frequency (MHz) Stability Mu factor 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mu2 factor Mu1 factor Figure 13 Stability Mu Factor of the BGM781N11
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2117 / 23 Figure 14 Output 3 rd Intermodulation measurement at 1.8V of the BGM781N11 Figure 15 Output 3 rd Intermodulation measurement at 2.8V of the BGM781N11
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2118 / 23 1550 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600 Frequency (MHz) B63_S21 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 1575 MHz 19.74 dB 1575 MHz 16.01 dB 1575 MHz 17.43 dB 1575 MHz 17.91 dB 1575 MHz 18.66 dB DB(|S(2,1)|) B63_m40deg DB(|S(2,1)|) B63_p00deg DB(|S(2,1)|) B63_p25deg DB(|S(2,1)|) B63_p40deg DB(|S(2,1)|) B63_p85deg +40°C +85°C +25°C 0°C -40°C -40 °C 0 °C +25 °C +40 °C +85 °C Gain over Temperature Gaino(dB) Figure 16 Inband Insertion Power Gain at 1.8V and 2.8V of the BGM781N11 over temperature Figure 17 Noise figure at 1.8V and 2.8V of the BGM781N11 over temperature
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2119 / 23 2.2 Pre- and Post-Filter Characteristics of BGM781N11 Figure 18 and 19 show the broadband characteristics of the pre- and post-filters in BGM781N11. The pre-filter in BGM781N11 shows an attenuation of 34dB in the 800/900MHz frequency band and of 40dB in the 1800/1900 MHz band. At 2.4GHz, attenuation of more than 59dB is realized. The post-filter in BGM781N11 shows an attenuation of 51dB in the 800/900MHz frequency band and of 32dB in the 1800/1900 MHz band. At 2.4GHz, attenuation of more than 45dB is realized. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Frequency (GHz) S21_BGM781_Pre_filter -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 S21(dB) 0.85 GHz -34.22 dB 1.8 GHz -40.85 dB 2.4 GHz -58.98 dB 1.575 GHz -1.131 dB Figure 18 Pre-filter characteristics of the BGM781N11 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Frequency (GHz) S21_BGM781_Post_Filter -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 S21(dB) 1.8 GHz -41.89 dB 2.4 GHz -35.42 dB 0.85 GHz -51.61 dB DB(|S(2,1)|) Ref04_3_cal7_probe_20090504 Figure 19 Post-filter characteristics of the BGM781N11
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2120 / 23 3 Evaluation Board and Layout Information Figure 20 Photo picture of the BGM781N11 application board Figure 21 Populated application board of BGM781N11
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2121 / 23 Figure 22 PCB Layer Information
  • Application Note AN184 Compact and High Performance Front-End Module for GPS Applications Application Note AN184, Rev. 1.2 2011.12.2122 / 23 Authors: Anthony Thomas, Application Enigineer of Business Unit “RF and Protection Devices” Dr. Chih-I Lin, Senior Staff Engineer of Technical Marketing of Business Unit “RF and Protection Devices”
  • w w w . i n f i n e o n . c o m Published by Infineon Technologies AG AN184