Case study: The Maya

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This is a presentation I use for several of my modules.

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  • Barry Bogin
  • Barry Bogin
  • Yolanda Vaquez
  • Barry Bogin
  • Rudy Giron
  • Rudy Giron
  • Barry Bogin
  • Case study: The Maya

    1. 1. Who are the Maya? • One of the largest ethnic groups of Guatemala, Mexico and Belize • Long history of social, economic, and political repression
    2. 2. The Maya Creation Story
    3. 3. Xmucane Divine Grandmother to the Gods
    4. 4. People of the Corn: The Milpa
    5. 5. El Dorado
    6. 6. The Milpa: People of the Corn
    7. 7. Maya Priest with Cacao
    8. 8. Representation of a cacao plant
    9. 9. Civil War in Guatemala,19601996, forced many to migrate. From the late 1970s the Maya migrated in greatest numbers to Mexico and then the United States
    10. 10. Rigoberta Menchu Tum (Peace Nobel Prize 1992) Maya, genocide survival
    11. 11. Los Angeles Indiantown Guatemala
    12. 12. The Maya in Mérida, Mexico
    13. 13. Los Mayas del Norte: Biocultural aspects of health status of Guatemala Maya children living in the United States. Barry Bogin & Maria Inês Varela-Silva Loughborough University B.A.Bogin@lboro.ac.uk Patricia K. Smith University of Michigan-Dearborn James Loucky Western Washington University
    14. 14. Maya in Disneyland: Growth and Health of the Children of Immigrants to the United States Samples boys and girls, 6-12 years old measured in Los Angeles, CA and Indiantown, Fl Site visits in 1992 (N=213) and 1999-2000 (N=431) Compared with Maya in Guatemala 1998 (N=1353) and the NHANES reference data
    15. 15. Los Angeles, California Indiantown, Florida
    16. 16. Mean height of Maya samples and mean height of NHANES reference data 155 150 145 Height (cm) 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 mean diff. = 10.24 cm 105 100 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Age (years) Age (years) Maya-Guat Maya-USA1992 Maya-USA2000 NHANES NHANES
    17. 17. Mean sitting height ratio (SHR) of Maya samples and mean SHR of NHANES reference data 58 Sitting Height Ratio 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 mean diff. In leg length = 7.02 cm 50 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Age (years) Maya-Guat Maya-USA2000 SHR= [(sitting height/height)*100] NHANES
    18. 18. Mean body mass index (BMI) of Maya samples and mean BMI of NHANES reference data 24 Body Mass Index 22 20 18 16 14 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Age (years) Maya-Guat Maya-USA1992 Maya-USA2000 BMI= [weight (kg)/stature2 (m)] NHANES
    19. 19. Prevalence of Stunting, Overweight, and Obesity: Indiantown 2000 Stunted Overweight Obese n Maya 11.5% 48.6% 25.3% 296 Mexican 3.8 35.0 28.0 157 Haitian 7.7 30.8 23.1 13 Euro. Amer. 0.0 24.5 18.4 49 African Amer. 0.7 31.7 25.9 139 Others 0.0 41.7 38.9 36 TOTAL 6.1 39.7 33.5 690 The rate of stunting for Guatemala overall is 44 percent, but for Maya children the rate is 58 percent. United States national average of overweight is 13% in this age group.
    20. 20. Obesogenic environments
    21. 21. The Maya of Indiantown Photos from 1992 - 2008
    22. 22. Indiantown Demographics • Major Employers Via Tropical.....................450 Florida Power & light......153 Cogeneration Plant……...70 Indiantown Group.............47 Bay State Milling..............36 Tampa Farm Service.......35 First Bank of Indiantown..26 • Population 1990 ........ 8,300 1995 ........ 9,700 1997 ……10,679 2000 ……15,530
    23. 23. Indiantown – 150th Street, near Hope Rural School
    24. 24. Hope Rural School – Arts & Crafts
    25. 25. Restaurant #1& Food Shop #1
    26. 26. Food store #2
    27. 27. Restaurant #2 & Food Shop #3
    28. 28. Restaurant #3 & Food Shop #4
    29. 29. Food Shops #4 & #5
    30. 30. Health Center #1
    31. 31. Health Center #1
    32. 32. Food Shops #6
    33. 33. Pharmacy #1 - Restaurants #4 & #5
    34. 34. Restaurants #4 & #5
    35. 35. Food Shop #7 & Restaurant #6 13 places to buy food, mostly junk food
    36. 36. The Juice Plant
    37. 37. Orange Groves
    38. 38. The Guatemala Maya Center, Lake Worth, Florida
    39. 39. The Guatemala Maya Center, Lake Worth, Florida
    40. 40. Junk Food at Lake Worth Imported from Guatemala and Mexico
    41. 41. After School Program, Guatemala Maya Center
    42. 42. After School Program, Guatemala Maya Center
    43. 43. House in Maya Neighborhood
    44. 44. Biocultural model of some relationships affecting child health in immigrant families Socioeconomic status - occupation - earnings - education Assimilation path - melting pot - bicultural - avoidance Lifestyle - diet - physical activity Parental investment - health care - education - “happiness” Child health outcomes - growth
    45. 45. La familia maya
    46. 46. Biocultural changes in the Maya Family Guatemala Los Angeles
    47. 47. The next step in our research – Intergenerational, nutritional, behavioural risks for child obesity Mother’s nutritional status during childhood lower limb Mother’s actual nutritional status BMI Child’s overweight/ obesity level Child’s fat-to-carbohydrate oxidation ratio Respiratory quotient Child’s physical activity Accelerometry Child’s nutrition Healthy Eating Index Family rural/urban gradient (4 sites) Family migratory status (Did mother migrate?) Early determinants of child’s health (Good beginnings index)
    48. 48. Maya in D is y nd nela : Growth and Health of the Children of Immigrants to the United States
    49. 49. Maya Project Mission: RTI Research Training Keep a steady stream of research projects aiming to improve the Continue and improve training sessions and health and living conditions of the Maya programmes so that PD of local scholars is guaranteed Community engagement Implement on-site facilities and educational programmes that will directly benefit the Maya communities
    50. 50. Maya Project Mission: Impact Other cultural events Seminars Art exhibitions Dissemination of results
    51. 51. SCHOOL CHILDREN LEARN ABOUT HEALTH AND NUTRITION WITH THE MAYA PROJECT mayaproject.org.uk @MayaProjectUK
    52. 52. HANDLING CORN
    53. 53. HOW DOES THAT TORTILLA FEEL?
    54. 54. YES, THE MASKS HAVE HORNS
    55. 55. AND THIS IS A COMAL WITH EXAMPLES OF MAYA FOOD
    56. 56. SHARING FOOD…LEARNING ABOUT IT
    57. 57. SPANISH RICE, BEANS, AND CORN…HUMM…!
    58. 58. NOW, LET’S START DRAWING ABOUT IT

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