Developed
countries
Growth
status

Immigrants in
developed countries

Developing
countries

Normal/tall
Fat

Normal/short
...
The Maya in Mérida, Mexico
Intergenerational effects
Nutritional status
based on growth data
Height-for-age

Stunting (chronic malnutrition)

Weight-for-age

Underweight

Weig...
Saturday, January 11, 2014
Anthropometric classification: physical growth & nutritional status
(Adapted from Frisancho, 2008; www.cdc.gov/growthchart...
Children

Mothers

WHO CDC

IOTF

p-value

WHO

CDC

p-value

Stunting

15.5

31.0

N/A

<0.001

55.2

81.0

<0.001

Under...
Cut-off points selection
Body composition, energy expenditure
and physical activity
• Lean mass (muscle): strongest
predictor of energy expenditure...
Developed
countries
Growth
status

Immigrants in
developed countries

Maya in
Merida

Normal/tall
Fat

Normal/short
Fatter...
Three-generation study 2012
Grandmothers

Mothers

Children

p

Stunting

88.75%

68.75%

7.50%

0.001

Underweight

2.50%...
Thank you
Growing short and fat: The Maya from Mexico are now a dual-burden group
Growing short and fat: The Maya from Mexico are now a dual-burden group
Growing short and fat: The Maya from Mexico are now a dual-burden group
Growing short and fat: The Maya from Mexico are now a dual-burden group
Growing short and fat: The Maya from Mexico are now a dual-burden group
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Growing short and fat: The Maya from Mexico are now a dual-burden group

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Nutritional dual-burden among the Maya of Mexico. Implications for health. Intergenerational effects. Mechanisms of the dual-burden

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Transcript of "Growing short and fat: The Maya from Mexico are now a dual-burden group"

  1. 1. Growing short and fat: The Maya from Mexico are now a dual-burden group Dr Inês Varela-Silva Centre for Global Health and Human Development Loughborough University, UK M.I.O.Varela-Silva@lboro.ac.uk Twitter: @inesvarelasilva (with F Dickinson, H Wilson, H Azcorra, PL Griffiths and B Bogin)
  2. 2. Developed countries Growth status Immigrants in developed countries Developing countries Normal/tall Fat Normal/short Fatter Stunted Fat Micronutrients and dietary fat Excessive intake of vitamins? Excessive caloric comsumption Common factors EE / P. Act levels Very low Probably low Not known Metabolic pathways High fat oxidation & low carb oxidation Probably reduced fat oxidation Energy conserving mechanisms Discordant information Positive growth Interof mothers & generational grandmothers: and early positive lasting life effects effect on current generation (Probably)...Negative growth of mothers & grandmothers: negative lasting effect on current generation
  3. 3. The Maya in Mérida, Mexico
  4. 4. Intergenerational effects
  5. 5. Nutritional status based on growth data Height-for-age Stunting (chronic malnutrition) Weight-for-age Underweight Weight-for-height Wasting (acute malnutrition) BMI-for-age Overweight Obesity
  6. 6. Saturday, January 11, 2014
  7. 7. Anthropometric classification: physical growth & nutritional status (Adapted from Frisancho, 2008; www.cdc.gov/growthcharts , www.who.org) Indices Categories Height-for-age Weight-for-age Weight-forheight BMI-for-age < 5.0 percentile Z< -1.650 Stunting Underweight Wasting Low 5.0-15 percentile -1.645 <Z< -1.040 Below the mean Below the mean Below the mean Below the mean 15.1-85 percentile -1.036 <Z< +1.030 Healthy range Healthy range Healthy range Healthy range 85.1-95 percentile +1.036 <Z< +1.640 Above the mean Above the mean Above the mean Overweight 95.1-100 percentile Z> +1.645 Tall Excessive Heavy for height Obese Saturday, January 11, 2014 (not reliable)
  8. 8. Children Mothers WHO CDC IOTF p-value WHO CDC p-value Stunting 15.5 31.0 N/A <0.001 55.2 81.0 <0.001 Underweight 1.7 5.2 6.9 Ns 0.0 N/A Overweight 8.6 12.1 17.2 <0.001 51.7 N/A Obesity 0.0 15.5 10.3 <0.001 39.7 N/A
  9. 9. Cut-off points selection
  10. 10. Body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity • Lean mass (muscle): strongest predictor of energy expenditure • The shorter the stature, the lower the levels of activity energy expenditure • Girls and stunted children: lowest level of physical activity However • Children: overall highly active, above the guidelines Inactivity doesn’t seem to explain the high levels of OW/OB Wilson et al (2012)
  11. 11. Developed countries Growth status Immigrants in developed countries Maya in Merida Normal/tall Fat Normal/short Fatter Dual-burden Micronutrients and vitamins Excessive intake of dietary fat Excessive Unknown – needs testing caloric comsumption Common factors EE / P. Act levels Very low Probably low, but needs testing High Metabolic pathways High fat oxidation & low carb oxidation Probably reduced fat oxidation, but needs testing Not known (Probably)...Negative growth of mothers & grandmothers: negative lasting effect on current generation Negative growth of mothers, negative effect on children. Positive growth Interof mothers & generational grandmothers: and early positive lasting life effects effect on children Grandmothers being tested
  12. 12. Three-generation study 2012 Grandmothers Mothers Children p Stunting 88.75% 68.75% 7.50% 0.001 Underweight 2.50% 0.0% 0.0% N/A Overweight 28.75% 42.50% 26.25% 0.061 Obesity 63.75% 42.50% 7.50% 0.001 OW/OB 92.50% 85.0% 33.75% 0.001 NDB* 81.25% 58.75% 0.0% 0.001 * Nutritional individual dual-burden (stunting+ OW/OB)
  13. 13. Thank you

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