Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
  • Save
Pharmacy in croatia - A short overview
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Pharmacy in croatia - A short overview

  • 4,723 views
Published

PharmaCon2007 Conference Dubrovnik Croatia

PharmaCon2007 Conference Dubrovnik Croatia

Published in Health & Medicine , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • After you got all the information on Fioricet, another point on your agenda should be the price for it. http://www.fioricetsupply.com resolves this problem. Now you can make the decision to buy.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
4,723
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. FACTS ABOUT CROATIA
    • 4,400,000 inhabitants
    • area 56,600 km²
    • GDP: 7,706 €
    • state and private ownership
    • negotiations for EU membership opened 10/2005
  • 3. HISTORICAL FACTS
    • 1240 - pharmacy separated from medicine (beginning of pharmacy as independent profession, Edict of Frederick II)
    • first pharmacies in Croatia
    • - Trogir, 1271
    • - Dubrovnik, Split, 1282
    • - Zadar, 1289
    • - Dubrovnik, 1317 ( Franciscan monastery of Little Brethren ;
    • uninterrupted operation from its opening to the present day)
    • - Dubrovnik, 1420 (charity home pharmacy Domus Christi , turned to hospital pharmacy in 1540)
  • 4. GENERAL ECONOMIC SITUATION IN HEALTH CARE
    • total health expenditure ≈ 8.0% of GDP
    • budget of the National Institute for Health Insurance within the state budget ≈ 15%
    • average spending on health care per capita ≈ 550 €
    • average spending on medicines per capita ≈ 150 €
  • 5. HEALTH CARE INSURANCE
    • National Institute for Health Insurance (NIHI) - state owned
    • basic insurance: 15.5% of each employee's salary
    • extra private insurance – not yet relevant
    • medicines on the basic positive list – free of charge
    • medicines on the additional list – patient's co-payment
  • 6. REGULATION
    • Revised acts
    • Health Care Act, 2003
    • Health Insurance Act, 2004
    • New acts, 2003
    • Medicines and Medical Devices Act
    • Pharmacy Act
    • Medical Practice Act
    • Dental Practice Act
    • Medical Biochemistry Act ( laboratory practice )
    • Nursing Practice Act
  • 7. REGULATION
    • Medicines and Medical Devices Act, 2003
    • defines the demands on medicines, medical devices, and homeopathic products
    • defines the domain of the Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices (founded 10/ 2003 )
  • 8. REGULATION
    • Pharmacy Act (first in recent history, 7/2003 ) in accordance with the European model
    • defines pharmaceutical activities community and hospital pharmacy, galenic laboratory and quality control laboratory
    • defines pharmaceutical profession rights and obligation s of pharmacists and pharmacy technicians
    • defines the domain of the Chamber of Pharmacists
  • 9. PHARMACY NETWORK
    • geographic criteria for the network
    • in cities >500,000 inh. min. distance = 200 m
    • 100,000-500,000 inh. min. distance = 300 m
    • <100,000 inh. min. distance = 500 m
    • demographic criteria for the network
    • 1 pharmacy per 3,000 NIHI insurants, every subsequent pharmacy per 5000 insurants
    • Ownership: Single pharmacy – only pharmacist s
    • Pharmacy institution – all legal or
    • physical person s (2 or more pharmacies)
  • 10. PHARMACY STAFFING AND OPERATING
    • minimal staff required: 1 pharmacist per shift
    • ½ pharmacy technician
    • licence: obligatory for pharmacist
    • issued by the Croatian Chamber of Pharmacists
    • (2002 - first renewal cycle)
    • POM dispensing : only by pharmacist
    • OTC dispensing : by pharmacist and pharmacy technician
  • 11. PHARMACY NETWORK
    • 2300 pharmacists in health care system
    • (2180 in community ,120 in hospital pharmacies)
    • 978 community pharmacies
    • 23% state owned
    • 63% private
    • 14% under private lease
    • 2/3 in pharmacy chains
    • 2020 inhabitants / pharmacist
    • 2.2 pharmacists / pharmacy
    • pharmacy network almost filled up
    • 52 hospital pharmacies
  • 12. PHARMACIES IN CROATIA 1991-2007
  • 13. SUPPLY OF MEDICINES
    • 3700 registered medicines
    • 620 generics in different dosage form s and packages
    • 180 OTC medicines
    • dispensing of registered medicines:
    • medicines - only in pharmacies
    • some OTC - also in drugstores (under special
    • permission of the Ministry of Health)
    • dispensing of non-registered medicines:
    • import based on individual prescription allowed
    • ~20 drug wholesalers
  • 14.
    • price s of reimbursed medicines: determined by the Ministry of Health and NIHI
    • tax: 0% for reimbursed medicines
    • 22% for non-reimbursed medicines
    • for reimbursed medicines - service fee (determined by NIHI; recalculated to 6-7% margin)
    • for non-reimbursed medicines - margin up to 35% (digressive principle)
    SUPPLY OF MEDICINES
  • 15. REIMBURSEMENT SYSTEM
    • National Institute for Health Insurance reimburses the pharmacy for medicine costs + service fee
    • Average reimbursement time is 250-280 days
    • patient co-payment for medicines on list B (additional list of NIHI)
  • 16.
    • Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb – the only faculty in Croatia Since academic year 2004/05 – new five-year curriculum (adapted to the Bologna process) Graduate pharmacists –about 130 each year Specialisations in community and clinical pharmacy – under preparation.
    PHARMACY EDUCATION
  • 17. PHARMACY EDUCATION
    • since 1996 – licence for independent work of pharmacists is obligatory (issued by the Chamber of Pharmacists)
    FACULTY DIPLOMA (4Y) 1 YEAR TRAINEESHIP STATE EXAM LICENCE VALID 6 YEARS LICENCE RENEWAL
  • 18. COMPULSORY CONTINUING EDUCATION
    • Every 6 years – licence renewal
    • by collecting at least 30 points through following professional continuing education programs or
    • by passing an exam at the Chamber of Pharmacists
    • professional continuing education is organised mainly by
    • - CROATIAN PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY
    • - FACULTY OF PHARMACY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
  • 19. CONTINUING EDUCATION
    • Collecting points
    • active or passive participation in:
    • - congresses, symposia, seminars, conferences
    • - training courses
    • - annual professional meetings
    • - lectures
    • - scientific or professional publications - reporting medicine side effects , etc.
    • Points are assigned by the Commission for continuing
    • education set up by the Chamber of Pharmacists .
  • 20.
    • in case of insufficient number of points
    • - Taking an exam is required (Chamber's commission)
    • (exceptions: pregnancy, longer illness…)
    • Exam consists of written and oral part s
    • (subjects: pharmacotherapy, galenic and
    • extemporaneous preparations, POM and OTC
    • dispensing, legislation)
    • 2002 was the first term for licence renewal ; only a few pharmacists had to take the exam
    CONTINUING EDUCATION
  • 21. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    • Main difficulties:
    • New pharmacy curriculum still in process of harmonisation
    • Incompleteness of legislative framework
    • Different pharmacy ownership – lack of unity
    • Concentration of pharmacies in cities, lack in rural area
    • Legislative framework not in line with competences of pharmacists
    • Delayed reimbursement by NIHI
    • Low service fee for dispensing medicines
    • Lack of partnership with MH and NIHI
    • Lack of monitoring and inspection
  • 22.
    • T H A N K Y O U !