Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions Ivan Nemet, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Zagreb, Croatia
Intro <ul><li>First historical description of anaphylaxis is from  2640  year B.C. – the story about a sudden death of a P...
Ana phylactic r ea ction <ul><li>an a G r eek “up, back, against” </li></ul><ul><li>phylaxis   greek “guarding, protection...
Ana phylactoid  rea ction <ul><li>Ana phylactoid  rea ction   is   a immune response of the individual to a substance, and...
How do the anaphylactic reactions develop? <ul><li>By initial exposure to a substance - antigene or materials. </li></ul><...
Food
 
 
 
 
 
Insect stings
Pollen of some plants
Blood and serumes
Vaccines
Antibiotics
Anaphylactoid reactions- NSAIDS and X-ray contrast substanes
Cellular mechanism <ul><li>Initial exposure to the allergene – production of IgE antibodies </li></ul>Second exposure IgE ...
Symptoms <ul><li>Due to vasodilatation, plasma moves to extracellular space and causes main symptoms in 1-15min (max 2hrs)...
Treatment <ul><li>Stages of anaphylaxis: </li></ul><ul><li>0 Local reaction </li></ul><ul><li>I Minor general reaction </l...
Treatment <ul><li>General measurments </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring life signs(consciousness , breathing, pulse) </li></ul>...
Drugs?
Medications <ul><li>Adrenaline </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchodilatators </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 2 ant...
Adrenaline / epinephrine <ul><li>Durg no.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates alfa and beta adrenergic receptors -> alfa – vazoc...
Prophylaxis <ul><li>Evidention of allergic reactions </li></ul><ul><li>After i.v. application of antibiotics – monitor the...
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Anaphylactic reactions

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Anaphylactic reactions

  1. 1. Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions Ivan Nemet, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Zagreb, Croatia
  2. 2. Intro <ul><li>First historical description of anaphylaxis is from 2640 year B.C. – the story about a sudden death of a Pharaon after a bee sting </li></ul><ul><li>The term anaphylaxis is first used in the year 1902 by Portier and Richard to describe a unexpected effect that occured during the immunizaton of dogs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ana phylactic r ea ction <ul><li>an a G r eek “up, back, against” </li></ul><ul><li>phylaxis greek “guarding, protection” </li></ul><ul><li>Ana phylactic rea ction is a direct , systematic, severe, IgE or IgG antibody al lergic rea ction to a substance – antigene, to which an idividual has been previously exposed. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ana phylactoid rea ction <ul><li>Ana phylactoid rea ction is a immune response of the individual to a substance, and the reaction has the same symptoms as Anaphylactic reaction. It is caused by n on -antigen e / antibody related me c han isme after a FI R ST c onta ct with the allergene. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How do the anaphylactic reactions develop? <ul><li>By initial exposure to a substance - antigene or materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common allergens? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Food
  7. 12. Insect stings
  8. 13. Pollen of some plants
  9. 14. Blood and serumes
  10. 15. Vaccines
  11. 16. Antibiotics
  12. 17. Anaphylactoid reactions- NSAIDS and X-ray contrast substanes
  13. 18. Cellular mechanism <ul><li>Initial exposure to the allergene – production of IgE antibodies </li></ul>Second exposure IgE antibodies Precipitation IgE on the surface of mast cells Release of histamin, bradykinin... Contraction of muscles and vasodilatation Symptoms
  14. 19. Symptoms <ul><li>Due to vasodilatation, plasma moves to extracellular space and causes main symptoms in 1-15min (max 2hrs): </li></ul><ul><li>Rash, angioedema, flushing, irritation, urticaria, cough, sneezing, bronchospasm, tears </li></ul><ul><li>Rare: obnoxia, stomach pain, shock, convulsions, loss of consciousness </li></ul>
  15. 20. Treatment <ul><li>Stages of anaphylaxis: </li></ul><ul><li>0 Local reaction </li></ul><ul><li>I Minor general reaction </li></ul><ul><li>II General reaction </li></ul><ul><li>III Severe general reaction </li></ul><ul><li>IV Loss of life signs </li></ul>
  16. 21. Treatment <ul><li>General measurments </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring life signs(consciousness , breathing, pulse) </li></ul><ul><li>Stop the exposure to the allergen </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate the volume loss </li></ul>
  17. 22. Drugs?
  18. 23. Medications <ul><li>Adrenaline </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchodilatators </li></ul><ul><li>Beta 2 antagonists </li></ul><ul><li>Aminofiline </li></ul><ul><li>Corticosteroids </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon </li></ul>
  19. 24. Adrenaline / epinephrine <ul><li>Durg no.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates alfa and beta adrenergic receptors -> alfa – vazoconstriction -> beta – stimulates heart contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Application – parenteraly or as inhalant </li></ul><ul><li>subcutaneus – slower apsorption intramuscular – affects faster </li></ul>
  20. 25. Prophylaxis <ul><li>Evidention of allergic reactions </li></ul><ul><li>After i.v. application of antibiotics – monitor the pacient </li></ul><ul><li>Skin test before application of serume </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid contact with substance that causes anaphylaxis </li></ul>
  21. 26. Thank you for your time

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