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Anaphylactic reactions
 

Anaphylactic reactions

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Presentation held on pharmacology seminars

Presentation held on pharmacology seminars

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    Anaphylactic reactions Anaphylactic reactions Presentation Transcript

    • Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions Ivan Nemet, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Zagreb, Croatia
    • Intro
      • First historical description of anaphylaxis is from 2640 year B.C. – the story about a sudden death of a Pharaon after a bee sting
      • The term anaphylaxis is first used in the year 1902 by Portier and Richard to describe a unexpected effect that occured during the immunizaton of dogs
    • Ana phylactic r ea ction
      • an a G r eek “up, back, against”
      • phylaxis greek “guarding, protection”
      • Ana phylactic rea ction is a direct , systematic, severe, IgE or IgG antibody al lergic rea ction to a substance – antigene, to which an idividual has been previously exposed.
    • Ana phylactoid rea ction
      • Ana phylactoid rea ction is a immune response of the individual to a substance, and the reaction has the same symptoms as Anaphylactic reaction. It is caused by n on -antigen e / antibody related me c han isme after a FI R ST c onta ct with the allergene.
    • How do the anaphylactic reactions develop?
      • By initial exposure to a substance - antigene or materials.
      • Most common allergens?
    • Food
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Insect stings
    • Pollen of some plants
    • Blood and serumes
    • Vaccines
    • Antibiotics
    • Anaphylactoid reactions- NSAIDS and X-ray contrast substanes
    • Cellular mechanism
      • Initial exposure to the allergene – production of IgE antibodies
      Second exposure IgE antibodies Precipitation IgE on the surface of mast cells Release of histamin, bradykinin... Contraction of muscles and vasodilatation Symptoms
    • Symptoms
      • Due to vasodilatation, plasma moves to extracellular space and causes main symptoms in 1-15min (max 2hrs):
      • Rash, angioedema, flushing, irritation, urticaria, cough, sneezing, bronchospasm, tears
      • Rare: obnoxia, stomach pain, shock, convulsions, loss of consciousness
    • Treatment
      • Stages of anaphylaxis:
      • 0 Local reaction
      • I Minor general reaction
      • II General reaction
      • III Severe general reaction
      • IV Loss of life signs
    • Treatment
      • General measurments
      • Monitoring life signs(consciousness , breathing, pulse)
      • Stop the exposure to the allergen
      • Compensate the volume loss
    • Drugs?
    • Medications
      • Adrenaline
      • Dopamine
      • Bronchodilatators
      • Beta 2 antagonists
      • Aminofiline
      • Corticosteroids
      • Glucagon
    • Adrenaline / epinephrine
      • Durg no.1
      • Stimulates alfa and beta adrenergic receptors -> alfa – vazoconstriction -> beta – stimulates heart contraction
      • Application – parenteraly or as inhalant
      • subcutaneus – slower apsorption intramuscular – affects faster
    • Prophylaxis
      • Evidention of allergic reactions
      • After i.v. application of antibiotics – monitor the pacient
      • Skin test before application of serume
      • Avoid contact with substance that causes anaphylaxis
    • Thank you for your time