GANDHI & the SWADESHI movement---A FEW Questions FOR T.D.C.1ST===SEMESTER(GU)-2011-12. BY INDRANIL SARKAR Associate professor in english Sapatgramcollege, sapatgram,assam NB.It’s my humble endeavour to celebrate the Gandhi jayanti-2011
MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND GANDHI(2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948)THE FATHER OF INDIAN NATION Gandhiji is preeminently the architect of ‘Indian Independence Movement’—a massive battle which he fought with his ‘unique’ weapons of ‘Non Violence, Sathyagr -aha and Swadeshi’. It was a battle against the most powerful political and cultural power of the world. Gandhiji fought bravely and won heroically .He ,taught the Indian Mass to shed fear, practice honesty and always remain loyal to the messages in religious scriptures. He taught the world that India is a great country with immense power and potentiality. He compelled the world to look on India with reverence and not with negligence. He believed in the power of human soul. He embraced martyrdom on the 30th January,1948.
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI When I admire the When I admire the wondersof a sunset or the beauty of the moon , my soul expands in the worship of the Creator---anr the. THE BEST WAY TO FIND YOURSELF IS TO LOSE YOURSELF IN THE SERVICE OF OTHERS.-GANDHIJI
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI ‘The story of my Experiments with Truth’ is the autobiography of M.K.GANDHI originally written in Gujrati. Who is the co-author and translator of the Book in English? A.Mahadev Desai B. Maneka Gandhi C. Mrs.Indira Gandhi D. Sir Atten Borough This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. The photograph is borrowed at per the guidance specified. Sabarmati Ashram, Gandhi's home in Gujarat
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Raj Ghat, Delhi is a memorial to Mahatma Gandhi that marks the spot of his cremation Gandhi's ashes at Aga Khan Palace (Pune, India)
Cover page of 1993 reprint by Beacon Press Q. ‘THE STORY OF MY EXPERIMENTS WITH TRUTH’ is the AUTOBIOGRAPHY of ---------- A.Mrs. Maneka Gandhi B.M.K.Gandhi C.Mrs.Indira Gandhi D.Rajib Gandhi Original Title was-સત્યના પ્રયોગો અથવા આત્મકથા in Gujraati The very
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Q. How many branches of Swadeshi are mentioned in the first paragraph of the essay ‘The Swadeshi Movement’? A. ONE B. Two C. Three D. Five Q.Gandhiji was born on2nd October,1869 at ------------. A. Calcutta B. Itanagar C. Porabandar D.Hardwar
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Q. What was Gandhiji expectation expressed the essay ‘The Swadeshi Movement’? A. Gandhiji expected Indian people to start violence against the English B. Gandhiji urged the Indian people to give-up everything non-Indian. C. Gandhiji discouraged Indian people to use Indigenous things. D. None of the above. Q. Gandhiji worked for and fought against the social evils like------------all through his life. A. Untouchability B. Suppression of women c. Illiteracy D. Superstitution E. All of the above.
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Q. Gandhi ji is called ‘Jatir Janak’ or ‘The Father of Indian Nation. Who gave him this Honorific Title? A. Rabindranath Tagore B. Ballav Bhai Patel C. Motilal Nehru D.Govt. of India officially acknowledged him by this title. Q. Gandhi is often referred to as Mahatma ([məɦaːt̪maː]; Sanskrit: महात्मा mahatmaor "Great Soul," an honorific title. Who glorified him by this term? Rabindranath Tagore. Lala Lajpat Roy Jawaharlal Nehru None of the above.
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Gandhiji with Rabindranath Tagore in 1940
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Q. The term Millennium means ‘One thousand years’. What is its special significance? A. The Christian belief of Jesus’s reign on earth for 1000 years when there will exist peace, prosperity and progress. B. The rule of Islam on earth foe 1000 years. C. Great flood after 1000years of Christianity. D. None of the above. Q.The founder of Buddhism is Gautam Buddha. His father was the king of kapilabastu. Buddha means ‘wise’. Who are called ‘Bouddha’? A. People of Kapilabastu. B. People of Bouddha Gaya. C. Disciples of Buddha. D.None of the above.
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Gandhiji working in his own charkha
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI What is Khadi? Khadi means handspun and hand-woven cloth. In 1918 Mahatma Gandhi started his movement for Khadi as relief programme for the poor masses living in India's villages. Spinning and weaving was elevated to an ideology for self-reliance and selfgovernment. Every village shall plant and harvest its own raw-materials for yarn, every woman and man shall engage in spinning and every village shall weave whatever is needed for its own use. About four months the farmers have to remain idle due to the rainless dry season. Spinning would thereby supply the readiest occupation; it can easily be learnt. It requires practically no outlay or capital, even an improved spinning wheel can be easily and cheaply made. Gandhi saw it as the end of dependency on foreign materials (symbolizing foreign rule) and thus giving a first lesson or real independence. Source: Gandhian Institute Bombey SarvodayaMandal & Gandhi Research Foundation. For more information visit www.kvic.org.in
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Q. What do we mean by ‘The Swadeshi Movement’? The Swadeshi (Bengali: স্বদেশী, Hindi: स्वदेशी) movement was a part of the Indian independence movement. The Swadeshi Movement began with the partition of Bengal in 1905 and continued up to 1908. It was the most successful of the pre-Gandhian movements. Its chief architects were Aurobindo Ghosh, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai. Originally it was an economic strategy aimed at removing the British Empire from power and improving economic conditions in India by following the principles of swadeshi (self-sufficiency). Strategies of the Swadeshi movement involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic-made products and production techniques. Mahatma Gandhi, described Swadeshi as the soul of Swaraj (self rule). He upheld the principles of Swadeshi in Political as well as Religious life of Indian people in addition to Economic activities of the country.
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI GANDHIJI,THE NON-VIOLENT INDIAN TIGER
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Q. Give the etymology of the term’ Swadeshi”. Ans. The word Swadeshi derives from Sanskrit and is a Sandhi or conjunction of two Sanskrit words. Swa means "self" or "own" and Desh means country, so Swadesh would be "own country", and Swadeshi, the adjectival form, would mean "of one's own country". The Opposite of Swadeshi in Sanskrit is Videshi or "not of one's country". (Taken from wikipedea) Q. Can you cite another term of Independence Movement of such conjugation? Ans. Yes. Another Example of Sandhi or Conjunction in Sanskrit is Swaraj. Swa is Self (related to Latin reflexive root "su-") and Raj is "rule" (related to English "rich", Latin "rex", and German "Reich").This term had far more importance than Swadeshi during the Independence Movement . (Taken from wikipedea)
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Q. What according to Gandhiji is the true Spirit of Swadeshi? Ans. According to Gandhiji SWADESHI is that spirit in us which restricts us to the use and service of our immediate surroundings to the exclusion of the more remote. Thus, as for religion, in order to satisfy the requirements of the definition, one must restrict himself to his ancestral religion. If one finds it defective, he should serve it by purging it of its defects.But in no case adopting some one else’s religion. In the domain of politics, Gandhiji’s view is that one should make use of the indigenous institutions curing them of their proved defects. And in case of economics,he said that one should use only things that are produced by his immediate neighbours and serve those industries by making them efficient and complete where they might be found wanting. It is suggested that such Swadeshi, if reduced to practice, will lead to the millennium.....
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI “ I do not believe that religion has nothing to do with politics’---What did Gandhiji mean to say by this statement? Ans. Gandhiji was a rational thinker. He knew that both Religion and Politics are fundamental human instincts. One is reciprocal to the other. Unless there is co-existence and co-ordination of Religious sentiments and political consciousness ,there is the emergence of a degenerated society. Religious sentiments make people honest and upright. A political leader having no Religious consciousness is worthless and as such incompetent of doing any good to the society as well as the Nation. According to Gandhiji Politics divorced from Religion is like a corpse (i,e a dead body without life).
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI “ My patriotism is both inclusive and exclusive”----what is the meaning? Ans.Mahatma Gandhi was a patriot per excellence. His patriotism emerged from his deep love and regards for his motherland. By the aforesaid statement he wanted to clarify his stand in this regard. His patriotism was exclusive in the sense that in all humility he confined his attention to the land of his birth, his motherland(India).At the same time it was inclusive, too.This is because his service was not a competitive or antagonistic nature.To him, “Sic,utere tuo ut alienum non laedas” was not just a legal maxim but a great doctrine of Life.He believed it to be the real key to the proper use of Ahimsa.
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Q.’I hate legislative interference in any department of life’ Gandhiji uttered the sentence. Now, the question is on what context he made the above statement and what did he want to focus? Ans. The statement occurs in the essay “The Swadeshi Movement”. Gandhiji made this statement while talking about the concept of ‘Free Trade”. Gandhiji believed that the British Govt. should impose taxes on the commodities which were imported to India in a massive scale from other countries including England. In reference he pointed out the case of Natal which protected its Sugar by imposing taxes on sugar coming from Mauritius. He felt that the British Govt. had committed a serious offence in the name of ‘Free Trade’. As a result of this the indigenous Indian products and handmade commodities had to leave the market for foreign commodities. This hampered the economy of India in a serious manner while made the British richer. So he opined that the British Govt. should not use legislative powers in this regard as well as any other department of life
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Gandhi smriti , the house where Gandhiji lived in the last 4 months of his life has now become a monument(New-Delhi) Mahatma Gandhi on a 1969 postage stamp of the USSR.
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI The Dandi March : A simple act of making saltshakes the British Empire
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI ‘Gandhi—a film’ Biography of 'Mahatma Gandhi' , the lawyer who became the famed leader of the Indian revolts against the British rule through his philosophy of non-violent protest. Director: Richard Attenborough Writer: John Briley Stars: Ben Kingsley, John Gielgud and Candice Bergen
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Gandhi in ASCII ArtASCII Art , also known as Typewriter Art is Pictures drawn using only the keyboard. Mahatma Gandhi in a Rangoli DesignRangoli is a traditional art form ofIndia doneby drawing dots
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI “The latter in their tern seem to have rendered unto Caesar what was Caesar’s and for the rest have done much as they have liked”—Who is the speaker ? In what context he commented as such? Who was Caesar? Who was referred to by the term ‘Latter’? What did the speaker mean to say by this statement? Ans. Mahatma Gandhi, the father of Indian nation is the speaker. While speaking about the role and activities of the officers both English and Indian under the British Govt., Gandhiji uttered the quoted sentence. Julius Ceasar was the dictator of Rome.He became the dictator in 100A.D. His reign saw the highest form of prosperity in Rome. He was assassinated by his senators and friends for false charge of Tyranny. During his reign, people asked him whom they would offer their tokens of Reverence---to God or to .In reply Caesar told that God’s portion should be offered to God, Caesar’s portion should be offered to Caesar. By the term ‘Latter’, Gandhiji referred to the whimsical and ever slavish officers both Indian and English of the British Govt. in India. Here, Gandhiji highlights the apathetic attitude of the British officers towards the Indian Mass people. They collected revenues and paid the share of the Govt.(i,eCaesar)but for the second part which was due to God(i,e Mass People)they did as they liked .They were never interested to offer the legitimate share of the God properly.
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Q. How many times Gandhiji was nominated for ‘Nobel Prize’ for Peace? Ans. Seven Times. Q. Who called Gandhiji ‘a half naked Fakir? Ans. Sir Winston Churchill, the British P.M Q. “-----Swadeshi is to revert to Barbarism”----Explain. The critics of Gandhian concept of ‘Swadeshi’ feared that it would lead the country to Barbarism in stead of doing any good. But Gandhiji believed that swadeshi was the only doctrine consistent with the law of humility and love. He refuted the doubts of the objectors and told that if everybody serves his family without hurting the interest of others, then his concept would act properly and lead to the all round prosperity of the Nation as a whole. ***** Q. How did Gandhiji die and when? Ans. Gandhiji was killed by a religious fanatic named Nathuram Godshe on the 30th January, 1948 while he was in a religious meeting. ****
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI What was Gandhiji’s view on Hinduism? Ans.Regarding Hinduism Gandhiji had highest reverence. He developed his religious understanding after going through almost all the leading religions of the world and particularly on the basis of the messages in the Geeta. He said, ‘My Hinduism is not sectarian. It includes all that I know to be best in Islam, Christianity, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism. I approach politics, as everything else, in a religious spirit. Truth is my religion and ahimsa is the only way of its realization. I have rejected once and for all the doctrine of the sword. My position is and has been clear. I am proud of being a Hindu, but I have never gone to anybody as a Hindu to secure Hindu-Muslim unity. My Hinduism demands no pacts. I am no politician in the accepted sense’. He added, ‘If I notice some faults in my religion, I would try to correct it, but in no case there is any question of adopting any other”. He further said, “one should always bear in mind what Tulsidas has said on this: "Good and bad, all men are the creation of god. The man of god picks up the good and discards the bad like the proverbial swan which is able to drink the milk and leave behind water, when a mixture of water and milk is placed before it."
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Q. What did Gandhiji say about Kumbhamela at Hardwar? Ans. Kumbhamela at Hardwar is a great religious gathering of the Hindues. Millions of people assemble here in this mela on the eve of Makar-sankranti. It is the biggest mela of its kind. The pilgrims from remotest part of India gather here for performing the Holy-Bath. But everything is managed by the organizers in a very scientific manner. As a result of the use of proper organizing-ethics no chaos or mismanagement take place and the pious hindus can satisfy their religious thirst properly. In order to prove that the wrong charge of ‘lac of organizing capabilities of the Hindues’,Gandhiji referred to This Mela.It is a certainly a pointer to the ‘Organizing capabilities’ of the Hindues. Q. What was Gandhiji’s view on the conversion activities of the Missionaries in India? Ans. Gandhiji did not support the conversion of Indigenous Hindues to Christianity by the Missionaries. According to him the Indian people in most cases adopted Christianity not because of their earnest religious desire, but because of getting a little economic benefit. The appeal of the Missionaries had not gone to the heart but to the stomach. He felt that the message of Jesus of Nazarath,the son of God and embodiment of peace was not properly understood by the Missionaries and as such they were hanker after converting Indian poverty-stricken Hindues to Christianity. Conversion always leaves an unavoidable sore behind. So, the converted man can not be a true devotee.
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Wite notes on the following :- 1.Lord Carzon-Lord Carzon was the Viceroy of India from 2.Jagadish Chandra Bose-Jagadishch. Bose(1885-1937),the son of a Deputy Magistrate Bhagawan Chandra Bose was one of the greatest scientists of India. He invented Wireless Telegraphy before Marconi. He also discovered that the plants have life.His research work on plant physiology contributed a lot in the future branches like micro-biology, etc. He was a man of innovative ideas. 3.Ramayana-The Ramayana is a great Indian epic. It was composed in Sankrit by MaharshiValmiki.T he things ,places and weapons narrated in the epic shows the great cultural heritage of ancient India. 4.Mahabharata-The Mahabharata is one of the two great epics in India. It was written in Sanskrit by Krishna DaipayanVyas. Here the great Lord Krishna plays His various roles and the Pandavas became victorious in the battle of Kurukshetra.
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Gandhiji on his last walk for his prayer on 30-1-1948
GANDHIJI &SWADESHI Acknowledgements : Credits & References:- 1.A Companion to B.A English Prose 1stSemister Edited by FatehaH.Barbaruah 2.www.Wikipedea.org 3.www.Gandhi foundation of non-violence 4.http//.desicolours.com/wp-c Etc. (NB. All the photographs are taken from Internet free data base permitted to be used by any man for academic purposes.)