On Restoration Literature


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  • N.B The above photograph is taken from the official website of Seton Hill University. The complete address is furnished below for further study: Compiled by Denise Pullen, Terry Brino-Dean, Ph.D., and the Seton Hill University Box Office Staff Edited by Denise Pullen, Associate Professor of Theatre Prepared by the Seton Hill University Theatre and Dance Program in conjunction with the production: November 12th – 20th, 2010 the official website of
  • On Restoration Literature

    1. 1. John Dryden An assigned class :-‘Restoration literature’ for B. A[major] Gauhati University. 4/17/2012 3:48:10 PM By Indranil Sarkar Associate professor in english Assam/india 1 4/17/2012
    2. 2. King Charles I was beheaded by the so called Parliamentarians led by Oliver Cromwell in 1649. Cromwell regime, whatsoever, made the English people disgusted and as such Charles II, the son of Charles I was brought back to the throne in 1660.This is called ‘Restoration of Monarchy’ in British History.s * King Charles II, the monarch who restored his father’s monarchy. {1660-1685} * [source: Wikipedia] * NB. The resource is free to all users. 2 4/17/2012
    3. 3. 1.What is meant by ‘Restoration’ inBritish history?•Ans. Historically, the period in between 1660 and 1700 is called the Restoration period. The term ‘Restoration’ refers to the restoration of the Crown by King Charles II, the son of Charles I. King Charles I was beheaded by the so called parliamentarians under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell in1649.But, the Cromwell regime made the British people disgusted and Charles II was crowned to the throne in 1660. This re- establishment of British Monarchy is called ‘Restoration’ . The restoration period in English literature is counted from 1660 to 1700, although King Charles I died in 1685. The Restoration age was quite opposite to Cromwell regime. Charles II was a man of progressive thoughts. His French upbringing generated a rational mind in him. He reopened the ‘Theatres’ which were closed by Cromwell supposing to be the breeding place of immorality. Under the patronage of Charles I, who himself was a man of flamboyant nature, the English started imitating the French culture. Royal Society was established to encourage 3 Natural Sciences. 4/17/2012
    4. 4. Q. What are the special features of ‘Restoration Comedies’?Ans. Restoration literature tossed between the two extremes, for it encompassed both Paradise Lostand the Earl of Rochesters Sodom; the high-spirited sexual comedy of The Country Wife and themoral wisdom of The Pilgrims Progress. Unprecedented intellectual and creativity activities cast theirindelible imprint on English soil at this time. Lockes Treatises of Government, the inception of theRoyal Society, the experiments and holy meditations of Robert Boyle, the hysterical attacks ontheatres from Jeremy Collier, and the pioneering of literary criticism from John Dryden and JohnDennis had seen light during this period. News became a commodity and the essay emerged as aperiodical and literary art form. Textual criticism and commercial entrepreneurship like stock marketgot their birth under the patronage of Charles II. Picture of Charles II [Below] King Charles II 4 4/17/2012
    5. 5. Q . How did the restoration affect literature? Or, Q. What are some of the new ii. yahoo an styles of writing during the Restoration time period in England Ans. Many new literary devices or techniques like novel, biography, travelogue, history and short story were developed or practiced by the litterateurs during this time. Pamphlets---both political and literary, overcrowded the literary horizon of Restoration England. Poets like John Dryden produced some immortal poems indeed; Refit. .http://wapedia.mobi/en/Restoration_liter but, the main thing that to be mentioned with regards were the …n bawdy or immoral comedies of the time which were called ‘comedies of Manners’. George Etherege, Thomas Shadwell, William Wycherley, John Vanbrugh, William Congreve, and George Farquhar were the notable authors who exceled in this genre and played the role of social reformers through their minute observation and rational outlook. John Dryden, representative poet and writer of precise, exact and simple prose. 5 4/17/2012
    6. 6. Refinement meets burlesque in William Wycherley, The Country Restoration comedy. In this Wife: "O Lord, Ill have some scene from George Ethereges china too. Good Master Horner, Love in a Tub, musicians and dont think to give other people china, and me none. Come inwell-bred ladies surround a man with me too."who is wearing a tub because he has lost his trousers Love in a Tab William Wycherley In 1675 6 4/17/2012
    7. 7. British Royalty:Queen Elizabeth I (left)James I (middle)Charles I (right)7 4/17/2012
    8. 8. Oliver Cromwell (left)King Charles II (right) 8 4/17/2012
    9. 9. Elizabeth Barry, thetragic actress of Restoration 9 4/17/2012
    10. 10. William & Queen Mary [left] Debtor’s prison [right] 10 4/17/2012
    11. 11. Restoration Playhouse11 4/17/2012
    12. 12. Q. What is a she-tragedy? The term She-Tragedy was coined by Nicholas Rowe in 1714 in order to furnish a clear nomenclature to his tragedy ‘The Fair Penitent’ against the general trend of tragedies of the time. This short time (nearly 50 years) voyage of a special type of English tragedy is memorable for various reasons. These tragedies focused the unjust sufferings of virtuous and innocent women of the time. Thomas Otway’s ‘The Orphan’ (1680), John Bank’s Virtues Betrayed or Anna Bullen (1682), Thomas Southerners ‘The Fatal Marriage(1694) and Nicholas Rowe’s The Fair Penitent (1703) and Lady Jane Grey (1715) are the most prominent tragedies of this genre. She-Tragedies were a reaction against the Heroic tragedies of Restoration period. The heroes of heroic tragedies were aggressive, powerful and dominating. These heroes were self- centered and having no compassion for the people in general and women in particular. Gradually, there took place a shift of focus from heroic to pathetic sentiments. The mentioned writers tried to focus the opposite side of the society .Their attempt in this regard, got success with the help of a number of tragic heroines, especially Elizabeth Barry. RESTORATIONStage performances 12 4/17/2012
    13. 13. The SOCIETY Where adjectives became impotent to portray the immorality and profaneness! 13 4/17/2012
    14. 14. The great satiristsi. Alexander Pope ii. Dr. Samuel Johnson iii. John Dryden 14 4/17/2012
    15. 15. 1.The great journalists joseph Addison &Richard Steele2. The Spectator---first published in July6,1828. 15 4/17/2012
    16. 16. Thomas SpratFront cover of Thomas Sprat’s History of the Royal society. [1667] 16 4/17/2012
    17. 17. Dr. Samuel JohnsonDr. Johnson wrote the first dictionary of English language[1755] 17 4/17/2012
    18. 18. Aphra Benn, the firstprofessional female English novelist Oxford Playhouse production of ‘The Way of the World’[2004] 18 4/17/2012
    19. 19. References & Courtesies:-i. History of English literature by Dr.S.C. Mundra & Dr. J.N.Mundra ii.www.enotes.comPictures & documents are collectedfrom Wikipedia, the free onlineencyclopedia permitted to be usedby all for non-profit academicpurposes. Earl of Rochester, the Restoration Rake 19 4/17/2012