Literally Tawheed means "unification" (making something one) or "asserting oneness", and it comes from the Arabic verb (wahhada) which itself means to unite, unify or consolidate .
However, when the term Tawheed is used in reference to Allah (i.e. Tawheedullah ), it means the realizing and maintaining of Allah's unity in all of man's actions which directly or indirectly relate to Him.
It is the belief that Allah is One, without partner in His dominion and His actions ( Ruboobeeyah ), One without similitude in His essence and attributes ( Asmaa wa Sifaat ), and One without rival in His divinity and in worship ( Ulooheeyah/'Ebaadah ).
CATEGORIES OF TAWHEED
Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah (Maintaining the unity of lordship)
Tawheed al –Asmaa was-Sifaat(Maintaining the Unity of Allah’s names and Attributes).
Tawheed al-’Ebaadah (Maintaining The Unity of Worship)
Tawheed ar-Ruboobeeyah (Maintaining the unity of lordship)
This category is based on the fundamental concept that Allah alone caused all things to exist when there was nothing;
He sustains and maintains creation without any need from it or for it; and He is the sole Lord of the universe and its inhabitants without any real challenge to His sovereignty.
In Arabic the word used to describe this creator-sustainer quality is Ruboobeeyah which is derived from the root "Rabb" (Lord).
According to this category, since God is the only real power in existence, it is He who gave all things the power to move and to change.
Evidence from Quran and Sunnah
“ Allah created all things and He Is the agent on which all things depend." 39:62.
"And Allah created you all and whatever you do." 37:96
The Prophet (saws) further elaborated on this concept saying, "Be aware that if the whole of mankind gathered together in order to do something to help you, they would only be able to do something for you which Allah had already written for you. Likewise, if the whole of mankind gathered together to harm you, they would only be able to do something to harm you which Allah had already written to happen to you"
Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (Maintaining Unity of Allah's Names and Attributes).
This category of Tawheed has five main aspects:
For unity of Allah's names and attributes to be maintained in the first aspect.
Allah must be referred to according to how He and His Prophet (saws) have described Him without explaining away His names and attributes by giving them meanings other than their obvious meanings.
The second aspect of Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat involves referring to Allah as He has referred to Himself without giving Him any new names or attributes
In the third aspect of Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat Allah is referred to without giving Him the attributes of His creation. For example, it is claimed in the Bible and Torah that Allah spent the first six days creating the universe then slept on the seventh.For this reason, Jews and Christians take either Saturday or Sunday as a day of rest in which work is looked at as a sin.
The fourth aspect of Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat requires that man not be given the attributes of Allah.
Maintaining the unity of Allah's names also means that Allah's names in the definite form cannot be given to His creation unless preceded by the prefix 'Abd meaning "slave of" or "servant of'.
Tawheed al-'Ebaadah (Maintaining The Unity of Worship)
"If you asked them who created them, they would surely say, Allah (43:87)
"Most of them do not believe in Allah except while joining partners to Him." (12:106)
All forms of worship must be directed only to Allah because He alone deserves worship, and it is He alone who can grant benefit to man as a result of His worship
Furthermore, there is no need for any form of intercessor or intermediary between man and God.
The Meaning of the ‘Kalima’
ilah- one who is worshipped,on account of greatness and power is considered worthy to be worshipped.
La ilaha illallah –There is no ilah other the one great being known by the name Allah.
It means that in the whole of the universe,there is absolutely no being worthy to be worshipped other than Allah.
That is only to him that heads should bow in submission and adoration.
The Effects of Tawheed on Human Life
A believer in this Kalima can never be narrow-minded or shriveled in outlook.
The believer knows that Allah alone is the possessor of all power, and that none besides Him can benefit or harm a person, or provide for his need, or give and take away life, or wield authority or influence.
The belief also generates in man a sense of modesty and humbleness,because he knows that whatever he possesses has been given to him by God.
The believer does not become despondent and broken-hearted under any circumstances.
Faith in Prophets
Category and stand on a stand on a par with each other. If a man confirms and believes in one of them, he must and ought to confirm all .
In Islam it is necessary to have implicit in anyone of the prophet would be a Kafir, though he might profess faith in all the other Prophets.
In this respect all the Messengers of God belong to the same we are not in a position to be definite about a particular person outside the list of prophets named in the Qur'an, whether or not he was a Prophet, for we have not been told anything definite about him. Nor are we permitted to say anything against the holy men of other religions. It is quite possible that some of them might have been God's Prophets.
Differences between Muhammad and other Prophets
The Prophets of the past had come to certain people for certain periods of time, while Muhammad (God's blessings be upon him) has been sent for the whole world and for all times to come.
The teachings of those Prophets have either disappeared altogether from the world, or whatever of them remains is not pure, and is found intermingled with many erroneous and fictitious statements.
It is now incumbent upon each and every human being to have faith in Muhammad (peace be upon him) and follow him alone. To become a true Muslim (a follower of the Prophet's way of life) it is necessary to have complete faith in Muhammad (peace be upon him) and to affirm that:
He is a true Prophet of God;
His teachings are absolutely perfect, free from any defect or error;
He is the Last Prophet of God. After him no Prophet will appear among any people till the Day of Judgment.
Belief in Life after Death
The essential ingredients of this belief, as the life of this world and of all that is in it will come to an end on an appointed day. Everything will be annihilated. That day is called Qayamat, i.e. the Last Day. That all the human beings who had lived in the world since its inception will then be restored to life and will be presented before God on that day. This is called Hashr: Resurrection.
That God shall finally adjudge the reward of every person. He shall weigh everyone's good and bad deeds. And reward him with heaven or hell.
Those who emerge successful in this judgment will go to paradise and the doors of eternal bliss will be opened upon them; those who are condemned and deserve punishment will be sent to Hell-the abode of fire and torture.
The Need of this Belief
A man who has in view the success or failure of this world alone will be concerned with the benefits and harms that accrue to him in this life only.
But a man who believes in the next world as well and has a firm conviction of the final consequences of his acts would look upon all world look upon all worldly gains and losses as temporary and transitory.
The conclusion is that belief in life after death is the greatest deciding factor in the life of a man. Its acceptance or rejection determines the very course of his life and behavior.
The Need of this Belief
To be a Muslim is a very great thing; the fact is that one cannot even become a good man without this belief, for the denial of the Day of Judgment degrades man from humanity to a place even lower than that of the lowest of animals .
For Islam Measures and values everything from the viewpoint of its everlasting consequence; while such a person always has in view only the immediate and earthly outcome. Now, you can understand why a man cannot be a Muslim without belief in the Day of Judgment.
Life After Death : A Rational Vindication
A section of the people says that there is nothing left of man after death, and that after this life-ending event, there is no other life.
Another section of the people maintains that man, in order to bear the consequences of his deeds, is repeatedly regenerated in this very world.This viewpoint is found in some Eastern religions .
There is a third viewpoint which calls for belief in the Day of Judgment, the Resurrection, man's presence in the Divine Court, and the administration of reward and punishment. This is the common belief of all the Prophets.
WORLD COMING TO AN END
God will destroy and annihilate the universe, and in its place will evolve another higher and far superior cosmos.
Scientists agree that one day the sun will become cold and will give up all its energy, the stars will collide with one another, and the whole system of the universe will be upset and destroyed.
If evolution is true in the case of the constituents of this universe, why it may not be true for the whole of it.
DEFENSE OF ISLAM
Though the defense of Islam is not a fundamental tenet but its need and importance have been repeatedly emphasized in the Qur'an and the Hadith.
It is in essence a test of our sincerity and truthfulness as believers in Islam.
Although the defense of Islam is not a fundamental tenet but its need and importance have been repeatedly emphasized in the Qur'an and the Hadith.
Jihad ( ǧihād جهاد ) is an Islamic term , from the Arabic root ǧhd ("to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle"), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause.
Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Allah hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). (Qur'an 4:95)
[Narrated by Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Musnad 4:114].
A man asked [the Prophet]: "...and what is Jihad?" He replied: "You fight against the disbelievers when you meet them (on the battlefield)." He asked again: "What kind of Jihad is the highest?" He [peace be upon him] replied: "The person who is killed whilst spilling the last of his blood."
And fight them on until there is no more tumult and oppression, and there prevail Justice and Faith in Allah. [The Holy Quran, 2:193]
"So obey not the rejecters of faith, but strive ( jahidhum ) against them by it (the Qur'an) with a great endeavor." 25:52
Also from hadiths it is evident that Allah rewards his slaves if he fights for the sake of Allah.
The Prophet said, "The person who participates in (Holy battles) in Allah's cause and nothing compels him to do so except belief in Allah and His Apostles, will be recompensed by Allah either with a reward, or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to Paradise (if he is killed in the battle as a martyr). Had I not found it difficult for my followers, then I would not remain behind any sariya going for jihad and I would have loved to be martyred in Allah's cause and then made alive, and then martyred and then made alive, and then again martyred in His cause."
The Prophet was asked, "Which is the best deed?" He said, "To believe in Allah and His Apostle." He was then asked, "Which is the next (in goodness)?" He said, "To participate in jihad in Allah's Cause." He was then asked, "Which is the next?" He said, "To perform Hajj-Mabrur. “
Allah's Apostle said, "A pious slave gets a double reward." Abu Huraira added: By Him in Whose Hands my soul is but for jihad (i.e. holy battles), Hajj, and my duty to serve my mother, I would have loved to die as a slave.
Also Allah has said in surah nafil "O you who believe, when you meet an enemy, be firm, and remember Allah much, that you may be successful. And obey Allah and His Apostle. And fall with no disputes, lest ye falter and your strength fail; but be steadfast! For Allah is with those who patiently persevere. Be not as those who came forth from their dwellings boastfully. And to be seen of men and debar (men) from the way of Allah. And Allah encompasses what they do" (8. 45-46).
Traditional Islamic doctrine divided the world into two parts: the Dar al-Islam (land of Islam), and the Dar al-Harb (land of war). The former were the Muslim territories, governed by Islam as a political movement , while the latter were the non-Muslim territories of the world.
The concept of warfare in Islam is of two distinct types: defensive Jihad , which is defense of the Dar al-Islam , and offensive Jihad which is the military conquests of the Dar al-Harb by Islam as a political movement (hence the term, "land of war.")
In the West, "jihad" is generally translated as "holy war", a usage the media has popularized. According to Islamic teachings, it is unholy to instigate or start war; however, some wars are inevitable and justifiable.
If we translate the words "holy war" back into Arabic we find " harbun muqaddasatun ", or for "the holy war", " al-harbu al-muqaddasatu ". However, the Arabic words for "war" are " harb " or " qital ", which are found in the Qur'an and Hadith.
Jihad is regarded as the best thing, one can offer voluntarily. It is superior to nonobligatory prayers, fasting, Zakat, Umra and Hajj as mentioned in the Qur'an and the Ahadith of the Prophet(pbuh).. For an individual Muslim, Jihad includes all acts of worship and all aspects of belief- thus bringing him greatest reward and vast blessings; and for the Muslim nation, Jihad provides all kinds of successes in respect of prosperity and dignity, victory and glory-thus bringing magnificence and splendor