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Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
Report on automatic door
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Report on automatic door

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  • 1. A PRACTICAL TRAINING REPORT ON AUTOMATIC DOOR WITH VISITOR COUNTER Submitted by: Indira Kundu B.Tech (ECE) V Semester Amity School of Engineering &Technology AMITY UNIVERSITY RAJASTHAN OCT, 2013 1
  • 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Indira Kundu, student of B.Tech. in Electronics and Communication Engineeringhas carried out the work presented in the project of the Training entitled “AUTOMATIC DOOR WITH VISITOR COUNTER” as a part of third year programme of Bachelor of Technology in of B.Tech. in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University Rajasthan, under my supervision. STUDENT Guide (Indira Kundu) (Achyut Sharma) ASET (AUR) Date:22/10/13 2
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It has come out to be a sort of great pleasure and experience for me to work on the project “Automatic Door with Visitor Counter”. I wish to express my indebtedness to those who helped us i.e. the faculty of our Institute Mr. Achyut Sharmaduring the preparation of the manual script of this text. This would not have been made successful without his help and precious suggestions. Finally, I also warmly thank all my colleagues who encouraged us to an extent, which made the project successful. Indira Kundu 3
  • 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS ……………………………5 2. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT-“AUTOMATIC DOOR WITH VISITOR COUNTER…………………………...............................…………...7 3. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION ………………………………………………..8 4. WORKING OF THE PROJECT....…………………………………………...26 5. SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION…………………………………………………27 6. SCHEMATIC…………………………………………………………………...30 7. REFERENCES………………………………………………………………….31 4
  • 5. 1.INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEMS A precise definition of embedded systems is not easy. Simply stated, all computing systems other than general purpose computer (with monitor, keyboard, etc.) are embedded systems. System is a way of working, organizing or performing one or many tasks according to a fixed set of rules, program or plan. In other words, an arrangement in which all units assemble and work together according to a program or plan. An embedded system is a system that has software embedded into hardware, which makes a system dedicated for an application (s) or specific part of an application or product or part of a larger system. It processes a fixed set of pre-programmed instructions to control electromechanical equipment which may be part of an even larger system. A general-purpose definition of embedded systems is that they are devices used to control, monitor or assist the operation of equipment, machinery or plant. “Embedded” reflects the fact that they are an integral part of the system. An embedded system is an engineering artefact involving computation that is subject to physical constraints (reaction constraints and execution constraints) arising through interactions of computational processes with the physical world. Reaction constraints originate from the behavioural requirements & specify deadlines, throughput, and jitter whereas execution constraints originate from the implementation requirements & put bounds on available processor speeds, power, memory and hardware failure rates. The key to embedded systems design is to obtain desired functionality under both kinds of constraints. 1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS: a) Embedded systems are application specific & single functioned; application is known apriori, the programs are executed repeatedly. 5
  • 6. b) Efficiency is of paramount importance for embedded systems. They are optimized for energy, code size, execution time, weight & dimensions, and cost. c) Embedded systems are typically designed to meet real time constraints; a real time system reacts to stimuli from the controlled object/ operator within the time interval dictated by the environment. For real time systems, right answers arriving too late (or even too early) are wrong. d) Embedded systems often interact (sense, manipulate & communicate) with external world through sensors and actuators and hence are typically reactive systems; a reactive system is in continual interaction with the environment and executes at a pace determined by that environment. e) They generally have minimal or no user interface. 1.2 PROCESSORS IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS: Embedded systems contain processing cores. A processor is an important unit in the embedded system hardware. It is the heart of the embedded system. Embedded processors can be broken into two broad categories: a) Ordinary microprocessors (μP) use separate integrated circuits for memory and peripherals. b) Microcontrollers (μC) have many more peripherals on chip, reducing power consumption, size and cost. In contrast to the personal computer market, many different basic CPU architectures are used, since software is custom-developed for an application and is not a commodity product installed by the end user. 6
  • 7. 2.INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT-“AUTOMATIC DOOR WITH VISITOR COUNTER” Automatic doors are doors which open automatically when approached by someone, rather than needing to be opened manually with a door handle or bar. Advantages of automatic door: 1. For people in wheelchairs and other disabled individuals, automatic doors are an immense boon, since conventional doors can be very hard to work with. It may be impossible to open a conventional door while seated in a wheelchair or navigating with crutches. 2. In hospitals and scientific labs, automatic doors can be used to secure an area by ensuring that the doors are shut at all times, while reducing the risk of cross-contamination since people do not need to handle the doors to pass through them. 3. Automatic doors can also be useful in warehouses and other facilities where people frequently have their hands full, contributing to safety and efficiency by making it easier for people to get around. 4. It reduces human labour and prevents the situation of inconvenience. This project is a standalone “Automatic Door with Visitor Counter”. The main aim of the project is to control the opening and closure of the door in a room, count the number of persons inside the room, switch ON the light if anyone is present and switch OFF the light if no one is there. Use of embedded technology makes this closed loop feedback control system efficient and reliable. The system comprises of an IR Transmitter-Receiver pair which is located in front and at the back of the door and outside the room. Initially the light is switched off in the room. Whenever a person tries to enter into the room, the receiver of IR pair identifies the person. The microcontroller identifies this change and starts counting the people entering into the room. The Seven segment displays the number of persons present in the room. 7
  • 8. 3. HARDWARE DESCRIPTION: 3.1 COMPONENTS LIST: 1. Transformer : Step down transformer (220/12) 2. Voltage Regulator : IC 7805 3. Op-amp : LM358 4. Crystal oscillator : 11.0592 MHz 5. LED 6. Resistor : 470 ohm (for LED) , 8.2 K (for power on reset Circuit. ), 10 K (for sensors) , potentiometer(100K) 7. Capacitor : 1000 u f (for Power supply),10 u f ( reset ckt.),33p F( for crystal oscillator) 8. Infra-Red sensors 9. Seven Segment decoder 10. IC-4511 11. IC-L293D 12. Simple D.C. Motor 13. Microcontroller: AT89C51 3.2 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 3.2.1 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER Power supply is a reference to a source of electrical power. A device or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads is called a powersupply unit or PSU. The term is most commonly applied to electrical energy supplies, less often to mechanical ones, and rarely to others. Here in our application we need a 5V and 12V DC power supply for allelectronics involved in the project. This requires step down transformer, rectifier, voltage regulator, and filter circuit for generation of 5V DC power. 8
  • 9. 3.2.2 VOLTAGE REGULATOR IC 7805 This is most common voltage regulator that is still used in embedded designs. LM7805 voltage regulator is a linear regulator made by several manufacturers like Fairchild, or ST Microelectronics. The LM7805 monolithic 3-terminal positive voltage regulator employ internal currentlimiting, thermal shutdown and safe-area compensation, making them essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1.0A output current. They can come in several types of packages. For output current up to 1A there may be two types of packages: TO-220 (vertical) and D-PAK (horizontal). FIG-3.1 7805 PACKAGES (courtesy: Google Images) 3.2.3 OP-AMP An operational amplifier("op-amp") is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage difference between its input terminals. Operational amplifiers are important building blocks for a wide range of electronic circuits. They had their origins in analog computers where they were used in many 9
  • 10. linear, non-linear and frequency-dependent circuits. Their popularity in circuit design largely stems from the fact that characteristics of the final op-amp circuits with negative feedback (such as their gain) are set by external components with little dependence on temperature changes and manufacturing variations in the op-amp itself. Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today, being used in a vast array of consumer, industrial, and scientific devices. Many standard IC op-amps cost only a few cents in moderate production volume; however some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance specifications may cost over $100 US in small quantities. Op-amps may be packaged as components, or used as elements of more complex integrated circuits. The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. Other types of differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op-amp, but with two outputs), the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from three op-amps), the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier, but with tolerance to commonmode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op-amp), and negative feedback amplifier (usually built from one or more op-amps and a resistive feedback network). FIG-3.2 CIRCUIT NOTATION OF OP-AMP (courtesy: www.Engineer’sGarage.com) 10
  • 11. In this project since we require to use two IR sensors hence we are using LM358 IC. The LM358 consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. FIG 3.3 PIN DIAGRAM OF LM358 (Courtesy: Google Images) 3.2.3 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits designed around them became known as "crystal oscillators." 11
  • 12. FIG 3.4(a) IMAGE OF CRYSTAL FIG 3.4(b) SYMBOL OF OSCILLATOR OSCILLATOR(Courtesy: Google Images) 3.2.5 LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it. The light is not particularly bright, but in most LEDs it is monochromatic, occurring at a single wavelength. The output from an LED can range from red (at a wavelength of approximately 700 nanometers) to blueviolet (about 400 nanometers). Some LEDs emit infrared (IR) energy (830 nanometers or longer); such a device is known as an infrared-emitting diode (IRED). An LED or IRED consists of two elements of processed material called P-type semiconductors and N-type semiconductors. These two elements are placed in direct contact, forming a region called the P-N junction. 3.2.6 RESISTOR A resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor. All other factors being equal, in a direct-current (DC) circuit, the current through a resistor is inversely proportional to its resistance, and directly proportional to the voltage across it. This is the wellknown 12
  • 13. Ohm's Law. In alternating-current (AC) circuits, this rule also applies as long as the resistor does not contain inductance or capacitance. 3.2.7 CAPACITOR A capacitor is a tool consisting of two conductive plates, each of which hosts an opposite charge. These plates are separated by a dielectric or other form of insulator, which helps them maintain an electric charge. FIG-3.5(a) ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR An electrolytic capacitor is a capacitor that uses an electrolyte (an ionic conducting liquid) as one of its plates to achieve a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. The large capacitance of electrolytic capacitors makes them particularly suitable for passing or bypassing low-frequency signals and storing large amounts of energy. They are widely used in power supplies and for decoupling unwanted AC components from DC power connections. FIG- 3.5(b) UNPOLARISED / CERAMIC CAPACITORS 13
  • 14. A non-polarized capacitor is a type of capacitor that has no implicit polarity-it can be connected either way in a circuit. Ceramic capacitors are non-polarized. 3.2.8 INFRA RED SENSORS FIG- 3.6: RECEIVER AND TRANSMITTER OF IR SENSORS An infrared sensor is an electronic device that emits and/or detects infrared radiation in order to sense some aspect of its surroundings. IR sensors can measure the heat of an object, as well as detect motion.By using an LED which produces light at the same wavelength as what the sensor is looking for, one can look at the intensity of the received light. When an object is close to the sensor, the light from the LED bounces off the object and into the light sensor. This results in a large jump in the intensity, which we already know can be detected using a threshold. 14
  • 15. Since the sensor works by looking for reflected light, it is possible to have a sensor that can return the value of the reflected light. This type of sensor can then be used to measure how "bright" the object is. This is useful for tasks like line tracking. 3.2.8 SEVEN SEGMENT DISPLAY A seven segment display is the most basic electronic display device that can display digits from 0-9. They find wide application in devices that display numeric information like digital clocks, radio, microwave ovens, electronic meters etc. The most common configuration has an array of eight LEDs arranged in a special pattern to display these digits. They are laid out as a squared-off figure „8‟. Every LED is assigned a name from 'a' to 'h' and is identified by its name. Seven LEDs 'a' to 'g' are used to display the numerals while eighth LED 'h' is used to display the dot/decimal. 15
  • 16. FIG- 3.7 SEVEN SEGMENT DISPLAY (Courtesy:www.Engineer’Garage.com) A seven segment is generally available in ten pin package. While eight pins correspond to the eight LEDs, the remaining two pins (at middle) are common and internally shorted. These segments come in two configurations, namely, Common cathode (CC) and Common anode (CA). In CC configuration, the negative terminals of all LEDs are connected to the common pins. The common is connected to ground and a particular LED glows when its corresponding pin is given high. In CA arrangement, the common pin is given a high logic and the LED pins are given low to display a number. 3.2.10 IC-4511 The 4511 is a BCD to 7-segment decoder driver. Its function is to convert the logic states at the outputs of a BCD into signals which will drive a 7-segment display. The display shows the decimal numbers 0-9 and is easily understood. The 4511 is designed to drive a common cathode display and won't work with a common anode display. In normal operation, the lamp test and ripple blanking inputs are connected HIGH, and the enable (store) input is connected LOW. When the 4511 is set up correctly, the outputs follow this truth table: 16
  • 17. BCDinputs segmentoutputs Display D C B A a b c d e f g 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 TABLE 3.1: RELATION BETWEEN BCD INPUTS AND SEGMENT OUTPUTS 17
  • 18. FIG- 3.8 PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7511 (Courtesy:www.positronindia.in) 3.2.11 L293D The Device is a monolithic integrated high voltage, high current four channel driver designed to accept standard DTL or TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays solenoides, DC and stepper motors) and switching power transistors. To simplify use as two bridges each pair of channels it is equipped with an enable input. A separate supply input is provided for the logic, allowing operation at a lower voltage and internal clamp diodes are included.This device is suitable for use in switching applications at frequencies up to 5kHz.The L293D is assembled in a 16 lead plastic package which has 4 center pins connected together and used for heatsinking. Main features of this IC are: 600mA output current capability per channel. 1.2A peak output current(non-repetitive) per channel Enable facility. 18
  • 19. Over-Temperature protection Logical “0” input voltage up to 1.5 V(high noise immunity) Internal Clamp Diodes FIG 3.9:PIN DIAGRAM OF L293D (Courtesy: Google Images) It works on the concept of H-bridge. H-bridge is a circuit which allows the voltage to be flown in either direction. As you know voltage need to change its direction for being able to rotate the motor in clockwise or anticlockwise direction, Hence Hbridge IC are ideal for driving a DC motor. In a single l293d chip there two h-Bridge circuit inside the IC which can rotate two dc motor independently. Due its size it is very much used in robotic application for controlling DC motors. There are two Enable pins on l293d. Pin 1 and pin 9, for being able to drive the motor, the pin 1 and 9 need to be high. For driving the motor with left H-bridge we need to enable pin 1 to high. And for right H-Bridge we need to make the pin 9 to high. If anyone of the either pin1 or pin9 goes low then the motor in the 19
  • 20. corresponding section will suspend working. It‟s like a switch. FIG-3.10: H-BRIDGE DIAGRAM 3.2.12 SIMPLE DC MOTOR A DC motor is a mechanically commutated electric motor powered from direct current (DC). The stator is stationary in space by definition and therefore the current in the rotor is switched by thecommutator to also be stationary in space. This is how the relative angle between the stator and rotor magnetic flux is maintained near 90 degrees, which generates the maximum torque. DC motors have a rotating armature winding (winding in which a voltage is induced) but non-rotating armature magnetic field and a static field winding (winding that produce the main magnetic flux) or permanent magnet. Different connections of the 20
  • 21. field and armature winding provide different inherent speed/torque regulation characteristics. This DC works on the principal, when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a torque and has a tendency to move. This is known as motoring action. If the direction of electric current in the wire is reversed, the direction of rotation also reverses. When magnetic field and electric field interact they produce a mechanical force, and based on that the working principle of dc motor established. FIG-3.10: FLEMING’S LEFT HAND RULE (Courtesy:Wikipedia) The direction of rotation of a this motor is given by Fleming‟s left hand rule, which states that if the index finger, middle finger and thumb of your left hand are extended mutually perpendicular to each other and if the index finger represents the direction of magnetic field, middle finger indicates the direction of electric current, then the thumb represents the direction in which force is experienced by the shaft of the dc motor. In this project we will use a motor of low rpm because we just require it to represent an opening or closing of door. 3.2.13 MICROCONTROLLER-AT89C51 FEATURES: 21
  • 22. • 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory – Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz • 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Two 16-bit Timer/Counters • Six Interrupt Sources • Programmable Serial Channel DESCRIPTION: The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The deviceis manufactured using Atmel‟s high-density nonvolatile memory technology. The on-chip flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventionalnonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flashon a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which providesa highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. 22
  • 23. FIG-3.11: PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89C51 (Courtesy: Google Images) PIN DESCRIPTION: PIN 9: PIN 9 is the reset pin which is used reset the microcontroller‟s internal registers and ports upon starting up. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. PINS 18 & 19: The 8051 has a built-in oscillator amplifier hence we need to only connect a crystal at these pins to provide clock pulses to the circuit. PIN 40 and 20: Pins 40 and 20 are VCC and ground respectively. The 8051 chip needs +5V 500mA to function properly, although there are lower powered versions like the Atmel 2051 which is a scaled down version of the 8051 which runs on +3V. 23
  • 24. PINS 29, 30 & 31: As described in the features of the 8051, this chip contains a builtin flash memory. In order to program this we need to supply a voltage of +12V at pin 31. If external memory is connected then PIN 31, also called EA/VPP, should be connected to ground to indicate the presence of external memory. PIN 30 is called ALE (address latch enable), which is used when multiple memory chips are connected to the controller and only one of them needs to be selected.PIN 29 is called PSEN. This is "program store enable". In order to use the external memory it is required to provide the low voltage (0) on both PSEN and EA pins. There are 4 8-bit ports: P0, P1, P2 and P3. PORT P1 (Pins 1 to 8): Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pullups. PORT P2 (pins 21 to 28): Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pullups. Port 2 can also be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no external memory is present, but if external memory access is required then Port 2 will act as an address bus in conjunction with PORT P0 to access external memory. Port 2 acts as A8-A15. PORT P3 (pins 10-17): Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. 24
  • 25. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below: P3.0- RXD (serial input port) P3.1 -TXD (serial output port) P3.2 - INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3.3 - INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3.4 -T0 (timer 0 external input) P3.5 - T1 (timer 1 external input) P3.6 - WR (external data memory write strobe) P3.7 - RD (external data memory read strobe) PORT P0 (pins 32 to 39): Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. PORT P0 can be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no external memory is present, but if external memory access is required then PORT P0 acts as a multiplexed address and data bus that can be used to access external memory in conjunction with PORT P2. P0 acts as AD0-AD7. 25
  • 26. 4.WORKING OF THE PROJECT: The microcontroller unit continuously checks for the arrival of any person from outside by using the Op-Amp based sensors located at door. As soon as the value at the sensor port becomes “1” or high, the DC motor (here, it represents the door rotates first clockwise (opening of the door) and remains in the same state for few seconds so that the person may enter the room and then it rotates anticlockwise (closing of the door). After this the value of the seven segment display is incremented by 1. Similarly, if a person inside wants to go out, then the Op-Amp based IR sensors detects that a person is standing in front of the door, inside the room. The value at the inside sensor port goes high, the DC motor then first rotates clockwise (opening of the door) and remains in the same state for few seconds so that the person may leave the room and then it rotates anticlockwise (closing of the door).After this the value of the seven segment is decremented by 1. The value of the seven segment display at any instant corresponds to the number of persons inside the room. It acts as a counter here. 26
  • 27. 5.SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION 5.1 C CODE #include<regx51.h> void motor(int,int,unsigned int); unsigned int i; int x; void delay(unsigned int d) { for(i=0;i<d;i++); } void main() { while(1) { if(P1_0==1 && P1_1==0) { motor(1,0,50000); motor(1,1,60000); motor(0,1,50000); motor(1,1,60000); 27
  • 28. if(x<99) { x++; } P3=x; delay(60000); delay(60000); } else if(P1_0==1 && P1_1==0) { motor(1,0,50000); motor(1,1,60000); motor(0,1,50000); motor(1,1,60000); if(x>0) { x--; } P3=x; delay(60000); 28
  • 29. delay(60000); } } } void motor(int a, int b,unsigned int c) { P2_0=a; P2_1=b; delay(c); } 5.2 SOFTWARE USED: Keil μVision4 Software used for writing the code and generating the hex file. Programmers of all levels can use them to get the most out of the embedded microcontroller architectures that are supported. Tools developed by Keil endorse the most popular microcontrollers and are distributed in several packages and configurations, dependent on the architecture. 29
  • 30. 6. SCHEMATIC: +5V +12V U1 19 18 9 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 XTAL1 XTAL2 RST PSEN ALE EA P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 P0.0/AD0 P0.1/AD1 P0.2/AD2 P0.3/AD3 P0.4/AD4 P0.5/AD5 P0.6/AD6 P0.7/AD7 P2.0/A8 P2.1/A9 P2.2/A10 P2.3/A11 P2.4/A12 P2.5/A13 P2.6/A14 P2.7/A15 P3.0/RXD P3.1/TXD P3.2/INT0 P3.3/INT1 P3.4/T0 P3.5/T1 P3.6/WR P3.7/RD 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 16 2 7 1 9 10 15 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 IN1 IN2 EN1 EN2 IN3 IN4 8 VSS VS OUT1 OUT2 GND OUT3 GND OUT4 U2 3 6 11 14 L293D U3 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 7 1 2 6 3 4 5 AT89C51 A B C D LT BI LE/STB QA QB QC QD QE QF QG 13 12 11 10 9 15 14 4511 +5V U4 7 1 2 6 3 4 5 A B C D LT BI LE/STB 4511 +5V (Courtesy: Proteus ISIS Professional Software) 30 QA QB QC QD QE QF QG 13 12 11 10 9 15 14
  • 31. 7. REFERENCES [1].www.avrfreaks.com,Microntrollers [2]. septiembre-2001. [11]www.atmel.com [3]. The 8051 MicrocontrollerandEmbedded Systems Using AssemblyandC ByMuhammad Ali Mazidi,JaniceGillispie Mazidi &Rolin D.McKinlay [4]. AtmelCorp.Makers of the AVRmicrocontroller www.atmel.com [6]. www.electronic projects.com [7]. www.howstuffworks.com [8]. Electrikindia. [9]. EMBEDDED SYSTEM BY RAJ KAMAL [10].www.Engineer‟sGarage.com [11].www.positronindia.in 31

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