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    eLearning eLearning Document Transcript

    • Literature Review on how we break social barriers to higher education through e-Learning? BACKGROUND I think there are positive and negative things with this digital revolution. Positive is this whole concept of networking minds: before, we were not able to truly have, for an extended period of time, a dialog between people in other countries. Through interdisciplinary work we can create new knowledge, which will far surpass what we can create individually. We can identify and solve world problems like water, poverty, wars; as we are doing now. But there are so many things can do with using digital technology. One is the social barriers that affect to do higher education access. So this will be the challenge, to make this access equitable, if we really want to make paramount use of these digital technologies. The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into the strategies that have been used, or need to be used, in order to overcome social barriers to higher education via online learning. To this effect the paper focuses upon processes of the engagement of different groups within higher education. And mainly discuss how gender barrier affect to higher education and can we overcome these social barrier via eLearning. We can get gender difference, money, social class, cultural difference, believes, education background, location as example of social barriers. 1
    • LITERATURE This entire literature survey done using Google Search. So the search was limited to articles with information added since 1990.The search was also limited to the English language. And the search entries were social barriers to higher education, gender and eLearning, class barriers and higher education, overcoming barriers to learning etc. FINDINGS 1. May, Susan, (1994) Women's experiences as distance learners: Access and technology /JDE 1 Gender barriers to access to education 2 Women and distance education 3 Women and ICT URL: http://cade.athabascau.ca/vol9.1/may.html May, Susan, (1994) Women's experiences as distance learners: Access and technology Abstract: Utilizing qualitative research methodology and a feminist framework, the author examined women's distance learning experiences. She interviewed nine women from a variety of educational backgrounds and circumstances who had studied a women's studies course by home study or teleconferencing from Athabasca University during 1990 and 1991. Distance education for the women interviewed succeeded in extending educational opportunities to them and in dismantling significant barriers that have historically restricted women's access to learning opportunities. Although they praised distance education, the women interviewed unanimously agreed that distance study quot;isn't for everyonequot; and that it is a significantly different experience for female learners than it is for male learners. These women were grateful that communication technologies, despite their imperfections, allowed them to study from their own homes, at times most convenient 2
    • for their personal schedules. She concluded that further research is warranted and offer recommendations to improve women's distance study experiences, particularly in women's studies courses. (Source: Journal of Distance Education, Publication Details: Canadian Association for Distance Education, 1994, 9(1) ISSN: 0830-0445) 2. Morris, Lynne Clemmons, (1996) Facilitating participation of rural women in distance education through use of gender-friendly interactive technologies. (HSRE) 1 Socio-economic issues - Education for poor/rural people 2 Gender barriers to access to education 3 Women and ICT URL: www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=EJ559972 - 20k Morris, Lynne Clemmons, (1996) Facilitating participation of rural women in distance education through use of gender-friendly interactive technologies. Abstract: Distance education has potential to overcome barriers to rural women's participation but must consider women's attitudes toward technology and ways of knowing. Strategies are outlined for developing gender-friendly models of distance education. quot;Value-addedquot; distance education requires rethinking traditional instructional settings and techniques. (SAS) (ERIC#: EJ559972) (Source: Human Services in the Rural Environment, 19(4), Spring 1996, p. 23-27; ISSN: 0193-9009) 3. Azli, Nazirah Ahmad; Idrus, Rozhan Mohammed; Atan, Hanafi; Jaafar, Ibrahim; Rahman, Zuraidah Abdul; Latiff, Zainal Abd; Guan, Saw Kim and Awang, Mohd Nain, (2000) The Educational Transition Characteristics of Female Distance Learners at the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia /MJDE 1 Gender barriers to access to education 2 Women and distance education 3
    • URL: http://www.freewebs.com/mjdisted/Compilation-2-2-2000-MJDE-%20Abstracts.pdf (Abstract only) Azli, Nazirah Ahmad; Idrus, Rozhan Mohammed; Atan, Hanafi; Jaafar, Ibrahim; Rahman, Zuraidah Abdul; Latiff, Zainal Abd; Guan, Saw Kim and Awang, Mohd Nain, (2000) The Educational transition characteristics of female distance learners at the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia Abstract: This article reports on the educational transition experienced by female distance learners as a result of enrolling in a distance education programme. The focus of this study is on the aspects of family/parenting, sibling, spouse and social obligation. This study is of great consequence as the learners are engaged in a whole new mode of learning, resulting in a new learning style and learner lifestyle. The results show that female students experience changes in their perceptions of themselves when they become distance learners. The findings would be an insight to the problems female distance learners might face when they enrol in distance learning programmes. (Source: Malaysian Journal of Distance Education, Penang, Malaysia: School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2(2), December 2000, ISSN: 1511 6433) 4. Anderson, David M. and Haddad, Carol J. (2005) Gender, voice, and learning in online course environments. (JALN) 1 Online learning/E-learning 2 Gender learning and support URL: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v9n1/pdf/v9n1_anderson.pdf Anderson, David M. and Haddad, Carol J. (2005) Gender, voice, and learning in online course environments. Abstract: A self-selected sample of 109 online students at a mid-western regional university was surveyed and asked to compare expression of voice, control over learning, and perceived deep learning outcomes in face-to-face versus online course environments. The researchers found that females perceived that a deeper learning took place in online than in face-to-face courses; 4
    • expression of voice appears to contribute to this outcome. This effect did not occur for male students. They also found that support from the instructor/professor and, to a lesser extent, control over one's learning each had positive relationships with perceived deep learning in both course environments. Concern for the feelings of other students did not have a negative impact on voice as was originally hypothesized. (Source: Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks; Sloan Consortium, 9(1), March 2005, ISSN: 1092-8235) 5. Burge, Elizabeth, (1990) Women as learners: Issues for visual and virtual classrooms (CJSAE) 1 Online learning/E-learning 2 Women and ICT URL: http://cade.athabascau.ca/vol9.1/may.html Burge, Elizabeth, (1990) Women as learners: Issues for visual and virtual classrooms Abstract: Utilizing qualitative research methodology and a feminist framework, the author examined women's distance learning experiences. She interviewed nine women from a variety of educational backgrounds and circumstances who had studied a women's studies course by home study or teleconferencing from Athabasca University during 1990 and 1991. Distance education for the women interviewed succeeded in extending educational opportunities to them and in dismantling significant barriers that have historically restricted women's access to learning opportunities. Although they praised distance education, the women interviewed unanimously agreed that distance study quot;isn't for everyonequot; and that it is a significantly different experience for female learners than it is for male learners. These women were grateful that communication technologies, despite their imperfections, allowed them to study from their own homes, at times most convenient for their personal schedules. The author concludes that further research is warranted and offer 5
    • recommendations to improve women's distance study experiences, particularly in women's studies courses. (Source: The Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education (CJSAE) (la Revue canadienne pour l'étude de l'éducation des adultes), Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education, 1990, 4 (2), p.1-24 ISSN: 0835-4944) 6. Hopkins, Annis H. (1996) Women's studies on television? It's time for distance learning. (NWSAJ) 1 Gender barriers to access to education 2 Women and distance education URL: http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=LvJHMqtpHqqp5Bsh87V3j552XN5cf H5P2BpvF9qnyqHghZgdrfGQ!2003409385?docId=96536500 Hopkins, Annis H. (1996) Women's studies on television? It's time for distance learning. Abstract: The paper discusses issues related to distance learning for women's studies in America. It explores the methods used in programs; current courses; and obstacles faced by women students pursuing studies through distance education. (Source: National Women's Studies Association; Johns Hopkins University Press, NWSA Journal, 8(2), Summer 1996, p.91-106; Print ISSN: 1040-0656 and E-ISSN: 1527-1889) 7. Jenkins, Janet, (1995) Producing gender sensitive learning materials: A handbook for educators /COL18 1 Gender disparities in course materials URL: www.col.org/colweb/site/pid/3324 - 52k 6
    • www.col.org/colweb/site/pid/3312 - 187k - Jenkins, Janet, (1995) Producing gender sensitive learning materials: A handbook for educators Abstract-1: This unique resource book is designed to be used by those developing distance learning materials to assist in identifying gender bias concerns and improving capacity for addressing them. Discussion and case studies cover not only course materials, but also the manner in which educational issues are approached. For example, course calendars and brochures are examined to find ways in which opportunities for education and training can be quot;advertisedquot; so that it is clear that women are encouraged to take part. The handbook can be used for self-study purposes, as a policy guide for administrators, or as a resource for workshops in course writing and instructional design. (86 pages) Abstract-2: This handbook is an attempt to highlight concerns relating to gender sensitivity, and to suggest ways of circumventing them during the development of learning materials. It provides many examples depicting gender sensitivity, not only in learning materials, but in the manner in which educational issues are approached from a gender neutral perspective. It looks at course calendars and brochures and finds ways in which opportunities for education and training can be quot;advertisedquot; to all, so that it is clear women are encouraged to take part. It also examines the hurdles that some women must overcome, particularly when embarking on study as mature students or when living in so-called quot;developingquot; countries. (Source: Vancouver: The Commonwealth of Learning, December 1995, 86p., ISBN: 1-895369-50-9) CONCLUTION 7
    • FURTHER RESEARCH Most significantly, the cognitive and meta-cognitive (learning) content of on-line seminar contributions by men and women was found to be similar, but their social and interactive behaviour was significantly different. In particular, it was found that within a formal on-line learning environment men sent (on average) more messages than women; they wrote messages which were twice as long as those sent my women; and made more socio-emotional contributions than women. Women, however, were found to contribute more 'interactive' messages than men. After considering these facts I hope it is good thing to have research on online learning “How tools affect to gender equity”. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I must thank to prof. Lani for the help to select this topic and Dr.K.P.Hewagama who put all the strength to put us in correct track and finally to Miss.Nisha who gave immense support as always. REFERENCES http://www.uoc.edu/portal/english/la_universitat/sala_de_premsa/entrevistes/2008/lani_gunawarde na.html http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Ahooja-Patel_Women.pdf http://www.tgslc.org/pdf/StudiesonBarriers.pdf http://www.ucc.ie/publications/heeu/Minority/taylor.htm#FOOTNOTE_6 http://www.dmiblog.com/archives/2007/10/barriers_to_higher_education_1.html http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119072977/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 http://www.sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghreview.html 8