Work Shop on Promoting Water Use Efficiency in Urban Water
Sector to Address Climate Change
EX. COMMISSIONER(GROUND WATER)
MINSTRY OF WATER RESOURCES
GOVT OF INDIA
HYME ON WATER
The Rain Water
The Water that flows on the surface
The water that is in the dug well
The water that oozes out on its own
All these are Pure and Bright
Protect Preserve and use Judiciously
For the survival and well being of
All forms of life on earth
India has more than 17 percent of the worlds population, but has
only 4% of worlds renewable water resources with 2.6% of worlds
There are further limits on utilizable quantities of water owing to
uneven distribution over time and space. In addition, there are
challenges of frequent floods and droughts in one or the other part
of the country.
With a growing population and rising needs of a fast developing
nation as well as the given indications of the impact of climate
change, availability of utilizable water will be under further strain
in future with the possibility of deepening water conflicts among
different user groups.
Water Availability (Cubic Meter Per
Capita per year)
Per Capita Availability
Water Stress Line (1800 m3)
Water Scarcity Line (1000 m3)
Water Availability (Cubic Meter Per Capita per year)
SURFACE WATER RESOURCES
As per present estimate, India receives on average
annual precipitation of about 4000 Billion Cubic
Meter (BCM), which is its basic water resource. Out
of this, after considering the natural evaporationtranspiration, only about 1869 Billion Cubic Meter
(BCM) is average annual natural flow through rivers
and aquifers. Of this, only about 1123 BCM is
utilizable through the present strategies, if large interbasin transfers are not considered.
Annual Ground Water Recharge in India - 433 BCM.
Net Annual Ground Water Availability - 399 BCM.
Ground water draft
Stage of Ground Water Development
= 230.58 BCM.
GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT
Over exploited assessment units*
Critical assessment units*
Semi critical assessment units*
Safe assessment units*
Saline assessment units*
Total assessment units*
(* Assessment Units :: Blocks; Taluka; Watershed)
Growth of Abstraction
2.4 33.3 46.2 63.6 67.6
Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar
Table 2: Greater Bangalore Land Use Statistics
Table-1 Harvestable Rain water Potential From Greater Ban galore City
The harvestable runoff potential works out to 473 MCM per year or 1296 MLD
Which is equivalent to the water drawn from the River Cauvery.
Ground Water Draft from Various Sectors in Bangalore
Non Domestic use
Source:Ground water crisis in urban areas By Sri .K.V.Raju & others ISAC, Bangalore
ANNEXURE – I
DECADE WISE ACTUAL POPULATION AND SUPPLIES UPTO 2012
POPULATION IN LAKHS
WATER AVAILABLITYIN MLD
People depended on Wells, Tanks etc.
Hessarghatta Water Supply Project Commissioned on 7-8-1896.
T.G. Halli Scheme Commissioned on 15-03- 1933 to bring
III line from Hessarghatta Commissioned in 1948.
II - 27”line from T.G. Halli Commissioned in 1956 to bring
III- 36” line from TG Halli Commissioned in 1963 to bring
CWSS 1st stage Commissioned 25-01-1974 to bring 135 MLD.
CWSS 2nd stage Commissioned 1981 to bring 135 MLD
CWSS 3rd stage Commissioned on 1993 to bring 270 MLD
CWSS IV stage,1st phase Commissioned on 17- 05-2002 to
bring in 270 MLD. Supply from Cauvery augmented by 100
MLD from 2009 under JnNURM Scheme. Supply from
Arkavathi is reduced to 50 MLD due to insufficient inflow in
II pipe line from Hessarghatta Commissioned in 1924
CWSS IV Stage II Phase Commissioned in November 2012 to
bring in 500 MLD.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PROJECTED POPULATION AND PROJECTED WATER
DEMAND UPTO 2051.
in lakhs by
Short fall in
Demand for the
Most of the lakes are encroached, filled with sewage and industrial
effluent, garbage and building derbies dumping ground . The lakes have
lost its use and causing environmental problems like flooding, ground
water pollution, health hazards etc.
Sewage flow should be diverted from storm water drains and lakes.
Storm water drains to be redesigned to receive the rain water to lakes.
Lakes to be rejuvenated after removing encroachment
STP should be installed to replenish lakes
Water quality monitoring of ground water and lake water should be
EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change is likely to increase the variability of
water resources affecting human health and livelihoods.
Therefore, special impetus should be given towards
mitigation at micro level by enhancing the capabilities
of community to adopt climate resilient technological
Climate change may also increase the sea levels. This
may lead to salinity intrusion in ground water aquifers /
surface waters and increased coastal inundation in
coastal regions, adversely impacting habitations,
agriculture and industry in such regions.
HOW TO ADDRESS EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
Strategies could, include increasing water storage in its
various forms, namely, soil moisture, ponds, ground water,
small and large reservoirs, which provides a mechanism for
dealing with increased variability because of climate change.
Strategies could also include better demand management,
particularly, cropping patterns and improved water application
methods, such as land leveling and/or drip / sprinkler irrigation
as they enhance the water use efficiency.
Similarly, industrial processes should be made more water
URBAN WATER SECTOR
Urban domestic water supplies should preferably be from
conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Also, reuse of urban
water effluents from kitchens and bathrooms, after primary treatment,
in flush toilets should be encouraged.
Urban domestic water systems need to collect and publish water
accounts and water audit reports indicating leakages and pilferages,
which should be reduced taking into due consideration social issues.
In urban and industrial areas, rainwater harvesting should be
encouraged to increase availability of utilizable water.
Implementation of rainwater harvesting should include scientific
monitoring of parameters like hydrogeology, groundwater
contamination, pollution .
PRICING OF WATER
Water Regulatory Authority (WRA) should be established in each
State. The Authority, will fix and regulate the water tariff system and
charges. Such tariff will be periodically reviewed.As a rule be
determined on volumetric basis.
Recycle and reuse of water, after treatment to specified standards,
should also be incentivized through a properly planned tariff system.
Free/ under-pricing of electricity leads to wasteful use of both
electricity and water. This needs to be reversed.
DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT-CONTINUED
Urban water supply and sewage treatment schemes should be
integrated and executed simultaneously. Water supply bills should
include sewerage charges.
Industries should have an obligation to return treated effluent to a
specified standard back to the hydrologic system.
Subsidies and incentives should be implemented to encourage
recovery of industrial pollutants and recycling / reuse, which are
otherwise capital intensive
Protection of Surface Water Bodies (lakes)
Protection of Groundwater Aquifers
Waste water management (water treatment and dual quality
supply, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle)
Rain water harvesting (both at local and catchment scale)
Use of modern techniques (Water safety plans and different
Integrated Urban Water Management is needed