KEYNOTE ADDRESS
Work Shop on Promoting Water Use Efficiency in Urban Water
Sector to Address Climate Change

C.S.RAMASESHA...
HYME ON WATER

The Rain Water
The Water that flows on the surface
The water that is in the dug well
The water that oozes o...
PREAMBLE
India has more than 17 percent of the worlds population, but has
only 4% of worlds renewable water resources with...
Water Availability (Cubic Meter Per
Capita per year)

Per Capita Availability
6000
5000
Water Stress Line (1800 m3)

4000
...
SURFACE WATER RESOURCES
As per present estimate, India receives on average
annual precipitation of about 4000 Billion Cubi...
GROUND WATER
Annual Ground Water Recharge in India - 433 BCM.
Net Annual Ground Water Availability - 399 BCM.
Ground water...
GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT
•
•
•
•
•
•

Over exploited assessment units*
Critical assessment units*
Semi critical assessment...
Growth of Abstraction
Structures
(’000)
12000
10000
8000
7786
Abstruction
structures 6000
(000)
4000 3860
2000
0

8742

94...
OVER EXPLOITATION OF GROUND WATER
IN BANGALORE
Table 2: Greater Bangalore Land Use Statistics
Table-1 Harvestable Rain water Potential From Greater Ban galore City

SL
NO

LAND USE
TYPE

AREA
(SQM)

COEFF

RAINFALL
(...
Ground Water Draft from Various Sectors in Bangalore

Particulars

No of
Wells

Methodology

Quantity of
water extracted
i...
ANNEXURE – I
DECADE WISE ACTUAL POPULATION AND SUPPLIES UPTO 2012
YEAR

POPULATION IN LAKHS

WATER AVAILABLITYIN MLD

REMA...
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PROJECTED POPULATION AND PROJECTED WATER
DEMAND UPTO 2051.

Year

Population
projection
in lakhs by
...
LAKES
Most of the lakes are encroached, filled with sewage and industrial
effluent, garbage and building derbies dumping g...
EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate change is likely to increase the variability of
water resources affecting human health a...
HOW TO ADDRESS EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE

Strategies could, include increasing water storage in its
various forms, namely, ...
URBAN WATER SECTOR

Urban domestic water supplies should preferably be from
conjunctive use of surface and ground water. A...
PRICING OF WATER
Water Regulatory Authority (WRA) should be established in each
State. The Authority, will fix and regulat...
DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT-CONTINUED
Urban water supply and sewage treatment schemes should be
integrated and executed simulta...
Way Forward
Protection of Surface Water Bodies (lakes)


Protection of Groundwater Aquifers



Waste water management (w...
Thank You

30
Water resources in Bangalore_Ramasesha_2013
Water resources in Bangalore_Ramasesha_2013
Water resources in Bangalore_Ramasesha_2013
Water resources in Bangalore_Ramasesha_2013
Water resources in Bangalore_Ramasesha_2013
Water resources in Bangalore_Ramasesha_2013
Water resources in Bangalore_Ramasesha_2013
Water resources in Bangalore_Ramasesha_2013
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Water resources in Bangalore_Ramasesha_2013

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A general overview of the surface, sub-surface and rainwater availability, usage and future demand in Bangalore.

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Water resources in Bangalore_Ramasesha_2013

  1. 1. KEYNOTE ADDRESS Work Shop on Promoting Water Use Efficiency in Urban Water Sector to Address Climate Change C.S.RAMASESHA EX. COMMISSIONER(GROUND WATER) EX.MEMBER (CGWB) MINSTRY OF WATER RESOURCES GOVT OF INDIA
  2. 2. HYME ON WATER The Rain Water The Water that flows on the surface The water that is in the dug well The water that oozes out on its own All these are Pure and Bright Protect Preserve and use Judiciously For the survival and well being of All forms of life on earth RIG VEDA.
  3. 3. PREAMBLE India has more than 17 percent of the worlds population, but has only 4% of worlds renewable water resources with 2.6% of worlds land area. There are further limits on utilizable quantities of water owing to uneven distribution over time and space. In addition, there are challenges of frequent floods and droughts in one or the other part of the country. With a growing population and rising needs of a fast developing nation as well as the given indications of the impact of climate change, availability of utilizable water will be under further strain in future with the possibility of deepening water conflicts among different user groups.
  4. 4. Water Availability (Cubic Meter Per Capita per year) Per Capita Availability 6000 5000 Water Stress Line (1800 m3) 4000 Water Scarcity Line (1000 m3) 3000 2000 1000 0 1951 1991 2001 2025 2050 Water Availability (Cubic Meter Per Capita per year)
  5. 5. SURFACE WATER RESOURCES As per present estimate, India receives on average annual precipitation of about 4000 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM), which is its basic water resource. Out of this, after considering the natural evaporationtranspiration, only about 1869 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM) is average annual natural flow through rivers and aquifers. Of this, only about 1123 BCM is utilizable through the present strategies, if large interbasin transfers are not considered.
  6. 6. GROUND WATER Annual Ground Water Recharge in India - 433 BCM. Net Annual Ground Water Availability - 399 BCM. Ground water draft Stage of Ground Water Development = 230.58 BCM. = 58%
  7. 7. GROUND WATER DEVELOPMENT • • • • • • Over exploited assessment units* Critical assessment units* Semi critical assessment units* Safe assessment units* Saline assessment units* Total assessment units* 839 226 550 4078 30 5723 (* Assessment Units :: Blocks; Taluka; Watershed)
  8. 8. Growth of Abstraction Structures (’000) 12000 10000 8000 7786 Abstruction structures 6000 (000) 4000 3860 2000 0 8742 9407 10120 10501 6743 4754 5379 3359 2132 90 3 2.4 33.3 46.2 63.6 67.6 Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar '51 '80 '85 '90 '92 '97 Dug wells Pvt. TW Pub. TW
  9. 9. OVER EXPLOITATION OF GROUND WATER IN BANGALORE
  10. 10. Table 2: Greater Bangalore Land Use Statistics
  11. 11. Table-1 Harvestable Rain water Potential From Greater Ban galore City SL NO LAND USE TYPE AREA (SQM) COEFF RAINFALL (M) RUNOFF (MCM) 1 Built Area 464 0.8 0.97 362.40 2 Vegetation 128 0.4 0.97 49.66 3 Others 208 0.3 0.97 60.52 TOTAL 800.00 472.57 The harvestable runoff potential works out to 473 MCM per year or 1296 MLD Which is equivalent to the water drawn from the River Cauvery.
  12. 12. Ground Water Draft from Various Sectors in Bangalore Particulars No of Wells Methodology Quantity of water extracted in MLD 261 Domestic use 261,573 Non Domestic use 65,393 Survey and assuming 1000lts/day/pe rwell - Irrigation 28,250 KPTCL Agencies 13,235 Concerned Departments Industries 4,400 Parks 413 Survey 15 Com. Establishments 432 Survey 11 Tankers 100 Survey 162 Others Institutes, offices,hotels,hospit als. Etc. 18643 Assuming 5000L/day/tub ewell 95 3,26.966 -- 746 - 156 46 Total Source:Ground water crisis in urban areas By Sri .K.V.Raju & others ISAC, Bangalore
  13. 13. ANNEXURE – I DECADE WISE ACTUAL POPULATION AND SUPPLIES UPTO 2012 YEAR POPULATION IN LAKHS WATER AVAILABLITYIN MLD REMARKS 1891 1.80 0 People depended on Wells, Tanks etc. 1901 1.63 9 Hessarghatta Water Supply Project Commissioned on 7-8-1896. 1911 1.89 9 1921 2.40 9 1931 3.09 13.5 1941 4.11 41 T.G. Halli Scheme Commissioned on 15-03- 1933 to bring 27 MLD 1951 7.86 46 III line from Hessarghatta Commissioned in 1948. 1961 12.07 91 II - 27”line from T.G. Halli Commissioned in 1956 to bring 45 MLD 1971 16.64 165 III- 36” line from TG Halli Commissioned in 1963 to bring 72 MLD. 1981 29.22 300 CWSS 1st stage Commissioned 25-01-1974 to bring 135 MLD. 1991 41.30 435 CWSS 2nd stage Commissioned 1981 to bring 135 MLD 2001 61.70 670 CWSS 3rd stage Commissioned on 1993 to bring 270 MLD 2011 84.99 960 CWSS IV stage,1st phase Commissioned on 17- 05-2002 to bring in 270 MLD. Supply from Cauvery augmented by 100 MLD from 2009 under JnNURM Scheme. Supply from Arkavathi is reduced to 50 MLD due to insufficient inflow in the river. 2012 86.76 1460 II pipe line from Hessarghatta Commissioned in 1924 CWSS IV Stage II Phase Commissioned in November 2012 to bring in 500 MLD.
  14. 14. STATEMENT SHOWING THE PROJECTED POPULATION AND PROJECTED WATER DEMAND UPTO 2051. Year Population projection in lakhs by Expert Committee Water Demand in MLD Water Demand in TMC Present supply in MLD Short fall in Demand for the projected Population MLD Remarks TMC 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2011 84.99 1683 21.72 960 723 9.33 2021 128.67 2548 32.88 1460 1088 14.04 2031 190.47 3771 48.66 1460 2311 29.82 2041 255.97 5068 65.39 1460 3608 46.55 2051 312.03 6178 79.71 1460 4718 60.88
  15. 15. LAKES Most of the lakes are encroached, filled with sewage and industrial effluent, garbage and building derbies dumping ground . The lakes have lost its use and causing environmental problems like flooding, ground water pollution, health hazards etc. Sewage flow should be diverted from storm water drains and lakes. Storm water drains to be redesigned to receive the rain water to lakes. Lakes to be rejuvenated after removing encroachment STP should be installed to replenish lakes Water quality monitoring of ground water and lake water should be carried out
  16. 16. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE Climate change is likely to increase the variability of water resources affecting human health and livelihoods. Therefore, special impetus should be given towards mitigation at micro level by enhancing the capabilities of community to adopt climate resilient technological options. Climate change may also increase the sea levels. This may lead to salinity intrusion in ground water aquifers / surface waters and increased coastal inundation in coastal regions, adversely impacting habitations, agriculture and industry in such regions.
  17. 17. HOW TO ADDRESS EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE Strategies could, include increasing water storage in its various forms, namely, soil moisture, ponds, ground water, small and large reservoirs, which provides a mechanism for dealing with increased variability because of climate change. Strategies could also include better demand management, particularly, cropping patterns and improved water application methods, such as land leveling and/or drip / sprinkler irrigation as they enhance the water use efficiency. Similarly, industrial processes should be made more water efficient.
  18. 18. URBAN WATER SECTOR Urban domestic water supplies should preferably be from conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Also, reuse of urban water effluents from kitchens and bathrooms, after primary treatment, in flush toilets should be encouraged. Urban domestic water systems need to collect and publish water accounts and water audit reports indicating leakages and pilferages, which should be reduced taking into due consideration social issues. In urban and industrial areas, rainwater harvesting should be encouraged to increase availability of utilizable water. Implementation of rainwater harvesting should include scientific monitoring of parameters like hydrogeology, groundwater contamination, pollution .
  19. 19. PRICING OF WATER Water Regulatory Authority (WRA) should be established in each State. The Authority, will fix and regulate the water tariff system and charges. Such tariff will be periodically reviewed.As a rule be determined on volumetric basis. Recycle and reuse of water, after treatment to specified standards, should also be incentivized through a properly planned tariff system. Free/ under-pricing of electricity leads to wasteful use of both electricity and water. This needs to be reversed.
  20. 20. DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT-CONTINUED Urban water supply and sewage treatment schemes should be integrated and executed simultaneously. Water supply bills should include sewerage charges. Industries should have an obligation to return treated effluent to a specified standard back to the hydrologic system. Subsidies and incentives should be implemented to encourage recovery of industrial pollutants and recycling / reuse, which are otherwise capital intensive
  21. 21. Way Forward Protection of Surface Water Bodies (lakes)  Protection of Groundwater Aquifers  Waste water management (water treatment and dual quality supply, Reduce, Reuse and Recycle)  Rain water harvesting (both at local and catchment scale)  Use of modern techniques (Water safety plans and different tools) Integrated Urban Water Management is needed 27
  22. 22. Thank You 30

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