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RICE BASED FARMINGSYSTEMS IN KERALA  N.K.Sasidharan and K.G.Padmakumar  Kerala Agricultural University  Regional Agricultu...
Decline in Area and Production of Rice inKerala  Year      Area (lakh ha)   Production    Productivity (kg/ha)            ...
RICE IN KERALA   Small farm size – less      Enhance productivity    than 0.1 ha                  by 50%   Mostly singl...
FARMING SYSTEMAPPROACH   Round the year utilization of rice fields   Integrating compatible components   Other crops  ...
KERALA                         HIGH RANGE                         PALAKKAD PLAINS                         CHITTOOR BLACK S...
Rice production systems ofKerala Rice ecosystems        Area in ha (91-92)   Percentage to totalKuttanad                  ...
HIGH RANGE RICE SYSTEM   Extent :   27000 ha   Location: 800 – 1500 m above    MSL   Seasons:    Nancha (main) (May/Jun...
HIGH RANGE RICE SYSTEM   Situated at Elevations more than    800 m in the Wynadu plateau and    Vattavada   Extent 27500...
High range - Rice based systems
LATERITE MIDLAND AND MALAYORAM   Extent      : 3.7 lakh ha (1992)   Seasons     : Virippu, Mundakan                  Pun...
Mid land and Malayoram – Rice seasons Cropping pattern             : Rice - Rice First crop (Virippu)         : April/Ma...
IRRIGATED RICE       ECOSYSTEM Palakkad plains Periyar valley commands Chittoor black soils Irrigation ensured during ...
IRRIGATED RICE SYSTEM   Palakkad plains and chittur black soils   Irrigated by water from Bharathapuzha   Extent       ...
Irrigated rice ecosystem –Palakkad plains   Malampuzha the largest irrigation    scheme   One fifth of irrigation potent...
IRRIGATED RICE ECOSYSTEM                PALAKKAD PLAINS Double crop wetlands First crop (Virippu) : June/July – Sep./Oct...
IRRIGATED RICE ECOSYSTEM –             CHITTOOR BLACK SOILS Extent          : 37000 ha Soils           : Extension of bl...
ONATTUKARA RICE ECOSYSTEM   Extent             : 28000 ha   Crop sequence      : Rice-Rice-    Sesamum   Soil texture  ...
ONATTUKARA RICE ECOSYSTEM   Virippu Season   : April /May - September   Variety          : Short duration - Onam,       ...
Onattukara - First crop at the time of harvest
ONATTUKARA RICE ECOSYSTEM               – II CROP   Season               : Aug./Sept. – Dec./Jan.   Seedling establishme...
OnattukaraSecond crop Nursery
OnattukaraLand preparation for the second crop
Onattukara – A poor second crop
Azolla in OnattukaraNatural way of soil fertility     replenishment
RICE – SESAMUM ROTATIONAL FARMING
Rice cowpea integration
Rice-cucumber rotation
Rice- Banana- Cassava System
KOLE LAND RICE ECOSYSTEM   Location       : Trichur and    Malappuram   Extent         : 13000 ha   Cropping pattern   ...
Kole lands – Pump house
Kole lands with Irrigation Canal
Kole lands with Irrigation         channel
KOLE LANDS   Soil texture     : Sandy loam to    sandy clay   Organic matter : 2.07 – 4.16   Soil reaction : Acidic (pH...
POKKALI RICE ECOSYSTEM Tidal wet lands of Kerala 24000 ha in the coastal area of Ernakulam,  Alappuzha, Trichur and Kann...
POKKALI LANDS
Pokkali fieldsa view during the high saline phase
POKKALI SOILS Basically acidic pH     : 2.8 to 4.5 Saline water inundation from October Salinity: 12 - 24 ds/m during ...
Two phases of Pokkali Agro-EcosystemLow saline phase      High saline phaseJune to November      December to May
Pokkali soils – mounds are necessary for           reclamation of soil
Seeds are packed in country baskets for soaking
Seed baskets ready for soaking
POKKALI RICE ECOSYSTEM Tidal wet lands of Kerala 24000 ha in the coastal area of Ernakulam,  Alappuzha, Trichur and Kann...
POKKALI LANDS
Pokkali fieldsa view during the high saline phase
POKKALI SOILS Basically acidic pH     : 2.8 to 4.5 Saline water inundation from October Salinity: 12 - 24 ds/m during ...
Two phases of Pokkali Agro-EcosystemLow saline phase      High saline phaseJune to November      December to May
Pokkali soils – mounds are necessary for           reclamation of soil
Seeds are packed in country baskets for soaking
Seed baskets ready for soaking
Damage due to floods – a regular  occurrence in Pokkali fields
Pokkali rice on mound tops ready for dismantling
Spreading operation in progress
Luxuriant growth of the Pokkali rice
Harvesting in knee deep water
PRAWN CULTURE   Prawn during saline phase   Traditional practice - prawn filtration   Prawn seeds are attracted & reare...
Income from prawn yields compensates    the losses from rice cultivation
Fish species found suitable •   Cyprinus carpio •   Oreochromis mossambicus •   Tricogaster pectoralis •   Chana striata •...
Effect of rice fish integration on fish survival and yield                         Survival %                  Fish Yield ...
Oreochromis mossambicus
Economic analysis of rice-fish-prawn integration                             in Pokkali fields             Expendit       ...
Pokkali model   Rice during low saline phase   Rice-fish simultaneously   Prawn culture/prawn filtration rotationallyNo wa...
RICE-FISH /PRAWN    INTEGRATED FARMINGSustainable, Economic, Eco-friendly
KUTTANAD RICE ECOSYSTEMo Deltaic formation of four river systemso Location :     1 – 2.5 m below MSLo Extent         :    ...
KUTTANAD
KUTTANAD SOILS KARAPADAMS - 33,000 ha KAYAL LANDS - 13,000 ha KARI SOILS    - 9,000 ha
KARAPPADOM SOILS   River borne alluvial soils   Extent            : 33000 ha   Texture           : Silty clay   Soil r...
KAYAL LANDS   Reclaimed beds of Vembanad   Extent        : 13000 ha   Texture       : Silty clay   Soil reaction : Sli...
KARI LANDS   Extent : 9000ha   Colour : Deep black charcoal   Heavy in texture, poorly aerated and ill-    drained   P...
An overview of Kuttanad rice fields
Pump house – an integral part of puncha lands
Low head axial flow pump (Petti & para)
Aquatic biomass – a source of organic manure
Wet broadcastingensures uniform plant population
Uneven land leveling results patchy stand of seedlings
A uniform crop stand at    seedling stage
RICE FIELDS IN KUTTANAD   Under utilised   Mostly single cropped   Fallow period > 6 months   Returns <25000/ acre   ...
Farming system models       developed at RARS,       Kumarakom In two decadesDevelopment of models at station level• Evalu...
Cyprinus – versatile species    Ploughing and harrowing
Grass carp- weed control
Cost of production of paddy - before and after fish integrationSl.     Item                                      Before fi...
GIANT FRESH WATER PRAWNPrawn Yield using local wet feeds – 937 kg/haPrawn yield using commercial feeds – 1519 kg/haIn 230 ...
Integrating other components   Coconut, banana, yams and other    crops on the bunds.   Fish   Ducks   Buffaloe
One acre paddy polder canadditionally hold     2000 fish fingerlings     300 broiler ducks     1-2 buffaloes     20 co...
Multi level integration of crops-livestock- fish-duck
Complementary effects•   On land preparation•   Manuring•   Weeding•   Plant protection
Zero tilled rice field after fish harvest ready for plantingFallow period 3 days
Economic benefits   Cost of production rice reduced by    17.6 percent   Increase in yield up to 50%   Multilevel integ...
Ecological benefits•   Reduction in use of agricultural    chemicals•   Improvements in soil conditions•   Recycling of ag...
CONCLUSIONS   In wetlands rice should be the pivotal crop   Multiple cropping of rice as monoculture systems    are not ...
KUTTANAD RICE ECOSYSTEMo Deltaic formation of four river systemso Location :     1 – 2.5 m below MSLo Extent         :    ...
KUTTANAD
KUTTANAD SOILS KARAPADAMS - 33,000 ha KAYAL LANDS - 13,000 ha KARI SOILS    - 9,000 ha
KARAPPADOM SOILS   River borne alluvial soils   Extent            : 33000 ha   Texture           : Silty clay   Soil r...
KAYAL LANDS   Reclaimed beds of Vembanad   Extent        : 13000 ha   Texture       : Silty clay   Soil reaction : Sli...
KARI LANDS   Extent : 9000ha   Colour : Deep black charcoal   Heavy in texture, poorly aerated and ill-    drained   P...
An overview of Kuttanad rice fields
Pump house – an integral part of puncha lands
Low head axial flow pump (Petti & para)
Aquatic biomass – a source of organic manure
Wet broadcastingensures uniform plant population
Uneven land leveling results patchy stand of seedlings
A uniform crop stand at    seedling stage
RICE FIELDS IN KUTTANAD   Under utilised   Mostly single cropped   Fallow period > 6 months   Returns <25000/ acre   ...
Farming system models       developed at RARS,       Kumarakom In two decadesDevelopment of models at station level• Evalu...
Cyprinus – versatile species    Ploughing and harrowing
Grass carp- weed control
Cost of production of paddy - before and after fish integrationSl.     Item                                      Before fi...
GIANT FRESH WATER PRAWNPrawn Yield using local wet feeds – 937 kg/haPrawn yield using commercial feeds – 1519 kg/haIn 230 ...
Integrating other components   Coconut, banana, yams and other    crops on the bunds.   Fish   Ducks   Buffaloe
One acre paddy polder canadditionally hold     2000 fish fingerlings     300 broiler ducks     1-2 buffaloes     20 co...
Multi level integration of crops-livestock- fish-duck
Complementary effects•   On land preparation•   Manuring•   Weeding•   Plant protection
Zero tilled rice field after fish harvest ready for plantingFallow period 3 days
Economic benefits   Cost of production rice reduced by    17.6 percent   Increase in yield up to 50%   Multilevel integ...
Ecological benefits•   Reduction in use of agricultural    chemicals•   Improvements in soil conditions•   Recycling of ag...
CONCLUSIONS   In wetlands rice should be the pivotal crop   Multiple cropping of rice as monoculture systems    are not ...
Rice based farming systems in Kerala_Dr Sasidharan(The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Rice based farming systems in Kerala_Dr Sasidharan(The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Rice based farming systems in Kerala_Dr Sasidharan(The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
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Rice based farming systems in Kerala_Dr Sasidharan(The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012

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This presentation by Dr Sasidharan, Associate Professor, Kerala Agricultural University made at the Kerala Environment Congress, Trivandrum organised by the Centre for Enviroment and Development provides a detailed account of the importance of integration of fish with rice farming

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  1. 1. RICE BASED FARMINGSYSTEMS IN KERALA N.K.Sasidharan and K.G.Padmakumar Kerala Agricultural University Regional Agricultural Research Station Kumarakom
  2. 2. Decline in Area and Production of Rice inKerala Year Area (lakh ha) Production Productivity (kg/ha) (lakh tons) 1971-72 8.75 13.76 1544 1981-82 8.07 13.06 1660 1991-92 5.41 10.60 1959 2001-02 3.22 7.04 2182 2006-07 2.64 6.42 2435 2007-08 2.29 5.28 2308 2008-09 2.34 5.90 2520 209-10 2.34 5.98 2557 2010-11 2.13 5.28 2452
  3. 3. RICE IN KERALA Small farm size – less  Enhance productivity than 0.1 ha by 50% Mostly single season  Increase income 3-4 Income inadequate for fold livelihood  Increase cropping Only seasonal intensity to 200% engagement  Render rice farming Part time and more organic and absentee farmers environment friendly Fallow period 8  Ensure year round months engagement of land
  4. 4. FARMING SYSTEMAPPROACH Round the year utilization of rice fields Integrating compatible components Other crops Livestock Fishery Duck/Poultry
  5. 5. KERALA HIGH RANGE PALAKKAD PLAINS CHITTOOR BLACK SOILKOLE LANDSPOKKALI LANDSKUTTANAD MIDLANDONATTUKARA LATERITE & MALAYORAM
  6. 6. Rice production systems ofKerala Rice ecosystems Area in ha (91-92) Percentage to totalKuttanad 38119 6.70Onattukara 31031 5.45Pokkali 4994 0.88Laterite Midland 266838 46.89Malayoram 103226 18.14Palakkad plains 60342 10.60Black soil (Chittoor) 37061 6.51High ranges 27500 4.83
  7. 7. HIGH RANGE RICE SYSTEM Extent : 27000 ha Location: 800 – 1500 m above MSL Seasons: Nancha (main) (May/June – Oct./Nov.) Puncha (Dec./Jan. – April/May)
  8. 8. HIGH RANGE RICE SYSTEM Situated at Elevations more than 800 m in the Wynadu plateau and Vattavada Extent 27500 ha Season extents the SW and NE monsoons (July – December) Varieties: Scented Jeerakasala and Gandhaka sala, and Uma, Athira.
  9. 9. High range - Rice based systems
  10. 10. LATERITE MIDLAND AND MALAYORAM Extent : 3.7 lakh ha (1992) Seasons : Virippu, Mundakan Puncha Varieties : Short, medium and Photosensitive
  11. 11. Mid land and Malayoram – Rice seasons Cropping pattern : Rice - Rice First crop (Virippu) : April/May – Sept./Oct. Second crop(Mundakan) : Aug./Sep. – Dec./Jan Yield range : 2860 – 8200 kg/ha Iron and aluminium toxicity limits crop production
  12. 12. IRRIGATED RICE ECOSYSTEM Palakkad plains Periyar valley commands Chittoor black soils Irrigation ensured during the fag end of Mundakan and whole of Puncha
  13. 13. IRRIGATED RICE SYSTEM Palakkad plains and chittur black soils Irrigated by water from Bharathapuzha Extent : 97500 ha Season : Virippu, Mundakan Varieties : HYV Known as second rice bowl of Kerala.
  14. 14. Irrigated rice ecosystem –Palakkad plains Malampuzha the largest irrigation scheme One fifth of irrigation potential of Kerala Valayar, Mangalam, Pothundi, Gayathry and Chittoorpuzha are others Extent : 60000 ha
  15. 15. IRRIGATED RICE ECOSYSTEM PALAKKAD PLAINS Double crop wetlands First crop (Virippu) : June/July – Sep./Oct. Second crop (Mundakan) : Oct./Nov. – Jan./Feb. HYV coverage more than 60% Short & Medium duration varieties for I crop Medium & Long duration varieties for II crop
  16. 16. IRRIGATED RICE ECOSYSTEM – CHITTOOR BLACK SOILS Extent : 37000 ha Soils : Extension of black cotton soils Soil reaction : Neutral to alkaline (7 - 8.3) Texture : Sandy loam – Sandy clay loam Fertility : Medium – High in available N&P, low in KYield : 4500 – 9000 kg/ha
  17. 17. ONATTUKARA RICE ECOSYSTEM Extent : 28000 ha Crop sequence : Rice-Rice- Sesamum Soil texture : Sandy Soil reaction : Acidic Fertility status : Low in N, medium in available P
  18. 18. ONATTUKARA RICE ECOSYSTEM Virippu Season : April /May - September Variety : Short duration - Onam, Bhagya, Mattathriveni, Jyothi Seeding : By dibbling Weeding : Hoeing Yield : 1000-1200 kg/ha
  19. 19. Onattukara - First crop at the time of harvest
  20. 20. ONATTUKARA RICE ECOSYSTEM – II CROP Season : Aug./Sept. – Dec./Jan. Seedling establishment. : Transplanting Variety : Ptb –20, Ptb-4, UR-19, Sagara Fertilizer dose : 40:20:20 Application of P and K essential Organic manure addition essential Weeding : Hand weeding Yield : 1500- 2000 kg/ha
  21. 21. OnattukaraSecond crop Nursery
  22. 22. OnattukaraLand preparation for the second crop
  23. 23. Onattukara – A poor second crop
  24. 24. Azolla in OnattukaraNatural way of soil fertility replenishment
  25. 25. RICE – SESAMUM ROTATIONAL FARMING
  26. 26. Rice cowpea integration
  27. 27. Rice-cucumber rotation
  28. 28. Rice- Banana- Cassava System
  29. 29. KOLE LAND RICE ECOSYSTEM Location : Trichur and Malappuram Extent : 13000 ha Cropping pattern : Rice – Rice (35%) Rice –Fallow (65%) Season : Jan.–May (Puncha) Aug.- Dec. (Mundakan)
  30. 30. Kole lands – Pump house
  31. 31. Kole lands with Irrigation Canal
  32. 32. Kole lands with Irrigation channel
  33. 33. KOLE LANDS Soil texture : Sandy loam to sandy clay Organic matter : 2.07 – 4.16 Soil reaction : Acidic (pH 2.6 – 6.3) EC : 0.16 –15ds/m Yield : 4500-7500 kg/ ha.
  34. 34. POKKALI RICE ECOSYSTEM Tidal wet lands of Kerala 24000 ha in the coastal area of Ernakulam, Alappuzha, Trichur and Kannur districts Tidal inundation & consequent salinity Rice & Prawn are rotationally grown Considered as sustainable system
  35. 35. POKKALI LANDS
  36. 36. Pokkali fieldsa view during the high saline phase
  37. 37. POKKALI SOILS Basically acidic pH : 2.8 to 4.5 Saline water inundation from October Salinity: 12 - 24 ds/m during summer Reclamation required for rice cultivation
  38. 38. Two phases of Pokkali Agro-EcosystemLow saline phase High saline phaseJune to November December to May
  39. 39. Pokkali soils – mounds are necessary for reclamation of soil
  40. 40. Seeds are packed in country baskets for soaking
  41. 41. Seed baskets ready for soaking
  42. 42. POKKALI RICE ECOSYSTEM Tidal wet lands of Kerala 24000 ha in the coastal area of Ernakulam, Alappuzha, Trichur and Kannur districts Tidal inundation & consequent salinity Rice & Prawn are rotationally grown Considered as sustainable system
  43. 43. POKKALI LANDS
  44. 44. Pokkali fieldsa view during the high saline phase
  45. 45. POKKALI SOILS Basically acidic pH : 2.8 to 4.5 Saline water inundation from October Salinity: 12 - 24 ds/m during summer Reclamation required for rice cultivation
  46. 46. Two phases of Pokkali Agro-EcosystemLow saline phase High saline phaseJune to November December to May
  47. 47. Pokkali soils – mounds are necessary for reclamation of soil
  48. 48. Seeds are packed in country baskets for soaking
  49. 49. Seed baskets ready for soaking
  50. 50. Damage due to floods – a regular occurrence in Pokkali fields
  51. 51. Pokkali rice on mound tops ready for dismantling
  52. 52. Spreading operation in progress
  53. 53. Luxuriant growth of the Pokkali rice
  54. 54. Harvesting in knee deep water
  55. 55. PRAWN CULTURE Prawn during saline phase Traditional practice - prawn filtration Prawn seeds are attracted & reared Prawn yield 300-1000kg/ha
  56. 56. Income from prawn yields compensates the losses from rice cultivation
  57. 57. Fish species found suitable • Cyprinus carpio • Oreochromis mossambicus • Tricogaster pectoralis • Chana striata • Clarius batrachus
  58. 58. Effect of rice fish integration on fish survival and yield Survival % Fish Yield kg/ ha Fish treatments 1999 2000 Pooled 1999 2000 PooledWithout fish ---- ---- --- --- --- ---Male tilapia 36.2 38.1 37.6 209.1 224.2 216.7Etroplus-1999 0.0 16.0 8.0 0.0 25.4 12.7Rohu-2000CD (0.05) 2.5 3.2 3.8 18.2 19.3 21.8
  59. 59. Oreochromis mossambicus
  60. 60. Economic analysis of rice-fish-prawn integration in Pokkali fields Expendit GrossFarming Yield Net returns B:C ure returnssystem (kg/ha) ( Rs.) ratio (Rs/ha) (Rs)Rice 11450 3488 22672 11222 1.98alone 3488 (R)Rice-fish 17700 31346 13646 1.77 216 (F) 3488 (R)Rice–fish 46700 216(F) 95090 48390 2.03-prawn 425(P) Rice @ Rs. 6500/ ton Fish @ Rs. 40/kg Prawn @ Rs. 150/ kg
  61. 61. Pokkali model Rice during low saline phase Rice-fish simultaneously Prawn culture/prawn filtration rotationallyNo way interfere with seasonal rhythmComponents well mingleAccretion rather than depletion in soil fertilityEcologically soundEnvironment friendlySocially acceptable
  62. 62. RICE-FISH /PRAWN INTEGRATED FARMINGSustainable, Economic, Eco-friendly
  63. 63. KUTTANAD RICE ECOSYSTEMo Deltaic formation of four river systemso Location : 1 – 2.5 m below MSLo Extent : 56000 hao Seasons : Main crop - Puncha (Oct./Nov. - Jan./Feb.) Additional Crop (June/July - Sept./Oct.)
  64. 64. KUTTANAD
  65. 65. KUTTANAD SOILS KARAPADAMS - 33,000 ha KAYAL LANDS - 13,000 ha KARI SOILS - 9,000 ha
  66. 66. KARAPPADOM SOILS River borne alluvial soils Extent : 33000 ha Texture : Silty clay Soil reaction : Moderately acidic high salt content, and a fair amount of decomposing organic matter Salinity hazard Fertility : Available P and K low
  67. 67. KAYAL LANDS Reclaimed beds of Vembanad Extent : 13000 ha Texture : Silty clay Soil reaction : Slightly acidic to neutral Salinity : Salinity affected Fertility : Low in available nitrogen and phosphorous but comparatively rich in potassium
  68. 68. KARI LANDS Extent : 9000ha Colour : Deep black charcoal Heavy in texture, poorly aerated and ill- drained Pieces of wood seen embedded in the subsoil Soil cracks during summer Soils are affected by severe acidity (pH 3- 4.5) Periodic saline water inundation Toxic accumulation of Fe & Al
  69. 69. An overview of Kuttanad rice fields
  70. 70. Pump house – an integral part of puncha lands
  71. 71. Low head axial flow pump (Petti & para)
  72. 72. Aquatic biomass – a source of organic manure
  73. 73. Wet broadcastingensures uniform plant population
  74. 74. Uneven land leveling results patchy stand of seedlings
  75. 75. A uniform crop stand at seedling stage
  76. 76. RICE FIELDS IN KUTTANAD Under utilised Mostly single cropped Fallow period > 6 months Returns <25000/ acre Considerable scope of improvement by Farming system approach.
  77. 77. Farming system models developed at RARS, Kumarakom In two decadesDevelopment of models at station level• Evaluation of the models• Validation at farm level• Transformation from simultaneous to rotational• Lateral diffusion to farmers fieldsORU NELLUM ORU MEENUM
  78. 78. Cyprinus – versatile species Ploughing and harrowing
  79. 79. Grass carp- weed control
  80. 80. Cost of production of paddy - before and after fish integrationSl. Item Before fish After FishNo 1995 (Puncha) 1996(Virippu) 1996(Puncha) 1997(Virippu). Cost(Rs) Cost(Rs) Cost(Rs) Cost(Rs) Material Labou Materi Labou Material Labou Mate Labour r al r r rial1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10Area of trial plot in acres 5.50 5.50 5.50 3.00 EXPENSES1 a. Land preparation 0 1483 0 2238 0 634 0 486 b. Bunding 0 472 0 575 0 606 0 7902 Seed and sowing 808 101 842 108 876 108 1021 1153 Weeding 76 3198 76 3631 0 1460 0 30134 Plant protection 381 270 393 324 232 229 66 1035 Manuring/liming 2008 298 2376 342 2200 319 2581 5106 Other Inputs 346 894 371 1050 393 1062 0 14657 Harvesting 0 427 0 674 0 685 0 642 TOTAL 3619 7143 4058 8942 3701 5103 3668 7124 INCOME Qtls (Rs) Qtls (Rs) Qtls (Rs) Qtls (Rs)1 Paddy 19 8967 28 14812 34 17144 35 179382 Straw 0 371 0 449 0 225 0 309 TOTAL 19 9338 28 15261 34 17369 35 18247 PROFIT (-)1405 2289 8599 7490
  81. 81. GIANT FRESH WATER PRAWNPrawn Yield using local wet feeds – 937 kg/haPrawn yield using commercial feeds – 1519 kg/haIn 230 daysIndicated the prospects of rice prawn integration
  82. 82. Integrating other components Coconut, banana, yams and other crops on the bunds. Fish Ducks Buffaloe
  83. 83. One acre paddy polder canadditionally hold  2000 fish fingerlings  300 broiler ducks  1-2 buffaloes  20 coconut palms on the bund  40 banana plants  20-40 yams/cassava  Single line fodder of 80m length.
  84. 84. Multi level integration of crops-livestock- fish-duck
  85. 85. Complementary effects• On land preparation• Manuring• Weeding• Plant protection
  86. 86. Zero tilled rice field after fish harvest ready for plantingFallow period 3 days
  87. 87. Economic benefits Cost of production rice reduced by 17.6 percent Increase in yield up to 50% Multilevel integration increased the returns 3-4 fold.
  88. 88. Ecological benefits• Reduction in use of agricultural chemicals• Improvements in soil conditions• Recycling of agricultural wastes• Perceptible improvement in soil biological properties.
  89. 89. CONCLUSIONS In wetlands rice should be the pivotal crop Multiple cropping of rice as monoculture systems are not sustainable. Use of increased external inputs year after year erode the biodiversity base and upset ecological balance. Shift to biodiversity based multi commodity enterprises suited to local agro ecological conditions can perform better. Such systems can significantly reduce high energy inputs and cost of production. Farming system approach is capable of reducing carbon emission and sequestering of carbon in soils and plants
  90. 90. KUTTANAD RICE ECOSYSTEMo Deltaic formation of four river systemso Location : 1 – 2.5 m below MSLo Extent : 56000 hao Seasons : Main crop - Puncha (Oct./Nov. - Jan./Feb.) Additional Crop (June/July - Sept./Oct.)
  91. 91. KUTTANAD
  92. 92. KUTTANAD SOILS KARAPADAMS - 33,000 ha KAYAL LANDS - 13,000 ha KARI SOILS - 9,000 ha
  93. 93. KARAPPADOM SOILS River borne alluvial soils Extent : 33000 ha Texture : Silty clay Soil reaction : Moderately acidic high salt content, and a fair amount of decomposing organic matter Salinity hazard Fertility : Available P and K low
  94. 94. KAYAL LANDS Reclaimed beds of Vembanad Extent : 13000 ha Texture : Silty clay Soil reaction : Slightly acidic to neutral Salinity : Salinity affected Fertility : Low in available nitrogen and phosphorous but comparatively rich in potassium
  95. 95. KARI LANDS Extent : 9000ha Colour : Deep black charcoal Heavy in texture, poorly aerated and ill- drained Pieces of wood seen embedded in the subsoil Soil cracks during summer Soils are affected by severe acidity (pH 3- 4.5) Periodic saline water inundation Toxic accumulation of Fe & Al
  96. 96. An overview of Kuttanad rice fields
  97. 97. Pump house – an integral part of puncha lands
  98. 98. Low head axial flow pump (Petti & para)
  99. 99. Aquatic biomass – a source of organic manure
  100. 100. Wet broadcastingensures uniform plant population
  101. 101. Uneven land leveling results patchy stand of seedlings
  102. 102. A uniform crop stand at seedling stage
  103. 103. RICE FIELDS IN KUTTANAD Under utilised Mostly single cropped Fallow period > 6 months Returns <25000/ acre Considerable scope of improvement by Farming system approach.
  104. 104. Farming system models developed at RARS, Kumarakom In two decadesDevelopment of models at station level• Evaluation of the models• Validation at farm level• Transformation from simultaneous to rotational• Lateral diffusion to farmers fieldsORU NELLUM ORU MEENUM
  105. 105. Cyprinus – versatile species Ploughing and harrowing
  106. 106. Grass carp- weed control
  107. 107. Cost of production of paddy - before and after fish integrationSl. Item Before fish After FishNo 1995 (Puncha) 1996(Virippu) 1996(Puncha) 1997(Virippu). Cost(Rs) Cost(Rs) Cost(Rs) Cost(Rs) Material Labou Materi Labou Material Labou Mate Labour r al r r rial1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10Area of trial plot in acres 5.50 5.50 5.50 3.00 EXPENSES1 a. Land preparation 0 1483 0 2238 0 634 0 486 b. Bunding 0 472 0 575 0 606 0 7902 Seed and sowing 808 101 842 108 876 108 1021 1153 Weeding 76 3198 76 3631 0 1460 0 30134 Plant protection 381 270 393 324 232 229 66 1035 Manuring/liming 2008 298 2376 342 2200 319 2581 5106 Other Inputs 346 894 371 1050 393 1062 0 14657 Harvesting 0 427 0 674 0 685 0 642 TOTAL 3619 7143 4058 8942 3701 5103 3668 7124 INCOME Qtls (Rs) Qtls (Rs) Qtls (Rs) Qtls (Rs)1 Paddy 19 8967 28 14812 34 17144 35 179382 Straw 0 371 0 449 0 225 0 309 TOTAL 19 9338 28 15261 34 17369 35 18247 PROFIT (-)1405 2289 8599 7490
  108. 108. GIANT FRESH WATER PRAWNPrawn Yield using local wet feeds – 937 kg/haPrawn yield using commercial feeds – 1519 kg/haIn 230 daysIndicated the prospects of rice prawn integration
  109. 109. Integrating other components Coconut, banana, yams and other crops on the bunds. Fish Ducks Buffaloe
  110. 110. One acre paddy polder canadditionally hold  2000 fish fingerlings  300 broiler ducks  1-2 buffaloes  20 coconut palms on the bund  40 banana plants  20-40 yams/cassava  Single line fodder of 80m length.
  111. 111. Multi level integration of crops-livestock- fish-duck
  112. 112. Complementary effects• On land preparation• Manuring• Weeding• Plant protection
  113. 113. Zero tilled rice field after fish harvest ready for plantingFallow period 3 days
  114. 114. Economic benefits Cost of production rice reduced by 17.6 percent Increase in yield up to 50% Multilevel integration increased the returns 3-4 fold.
  115. 115. Ecological benefits• Reduction in use of agricultural chemicals• Improvements in soil conditions• Recycling of agricultural wastes• Perceptible improvement in soil biological properties.
  116. 116. CONCLUSIONS In wetlands rice should be the pivotal crop Multiple cropping of rice as monoculture systems are not sustainable. Use of increased external inputs year after year erode the biodiversity base and upset ecological balance. Shift to biodiversity based multi commodity enterprises suited to local agro ecological conditions can perform better. Such systems can significantly reduce high energy inputs and cost of production. Farming system approach is capable of reducing carbon emission and sequestering of carbon in soils and plants
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