Remote Sensing Application in  Agriculture and Forestry               Dr.A.R.R.Menon              Scientist Emeritus  Cent...
The toolsGeomatics1.GIS technology2.Remote Sensing Technology3.GPS Technology
2. Remote Sensing – as a toolfor baseline data gathering …. ?
REMOTE SENSING   IS THE ART AND SCIENCEOF ACQUIRING INFOFRMATION           ABOUTAN OBJECT WITHOUT MAKING   ANY PHYSICAL CO...
Information is gathered by instruments carriedon suitable platforms. The information is used tostudy targets of interest o...
Based on Reflected Energy SourceELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
MULTIDICIPLINARY ACTIVITY DEALING              WITH           INVENTORY    ASSESSMENT OF RSOURCES                &        ...
Characteristic Features- Synoptic Nature- Repetitive Coverage of Large Area- Quantifiable Data Procurement
REGIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM(covering entire spectrum using appropriate sensor)
Spectral reflectance of objects
Multistage Remote Sensing
SatellitesGeostationaryPolar
Satellite Paths and repetitivity
RECORDING SYSTEMSWISKBROOM        PUSHBROOM
Sensor resolution1.   Spatial resolution2.   Spectral resolution3.   Radiometric resolution4.   Temporal resolution
SENSORS IN INDIAN REMOTE SENSING SATELLITES                            LISS II (36.5M)                            LISS III...
Pan image ofMoscow
Basics of Satellite Remote Sensing       3                                   3      1                                    2...
FCC of Shiwalik hills(Liss3 image)
2. GPS technology as a tool for     accuracy evaluation & mapping      Geographical Position Fixing:     -- using high alt...
GPS satellites                   GPS                   satellite                 24 numbers                 6 orbits      ...
Trilateration is a basic geometric principlethat allows you to find one location if youknow its distance from other, alrea...
Trilateration: Receiver must track at least four           satellites to calculate 3-D position3-D position is: Latitude, ...
3. GIS as a tool for analysis & modeling
Agricultural application:The utilization of space-bourn multispectral datafor crop acreage and production estimationstarte...
The     methodology      for acreage  andproduction estimation using Indian RemoteSensing Satellite (IRS1A/1B) has been in...
1. Identification, area estimation andmonitoring:The specific requirement of climate and soilconditions coupled with the s...
2.Crop nutrient deficiency detection:The nutrient deficiency in plants affectsthe color, moisture content and internalstru...
3.Soil mapping
4.Vegetation indices:     The green, red and NIR reflectance could beemployed as variables to estimate the Leaf Area Index...
5.Crop condition assessment:     The physiological changes that occur in aplant due to stress may change the spectralrefle...
6.Phenological studies
7.Spatial signature library:Spatial signature evaluation of thespecies and the reflectance properties ofdifferent species ...
8.Crop yield modeling and production  forecasting:The information on production of crops beforethe harvest is very vital t...
Crop evaluation
9.Pest management:Integrated pest management isan important component of sustainableagriculture.Methodologies need to bepe...
10.Agricultural draught assessment:Draught assessment is yet anotherarea wherein remote sensing datahas been used at opera...
11.Temporal data for irrigation studies
12.Reflectance modeling:Physical reflectance modelsfor crops serve the importantpurpose of understanding thecomplex intera...
In order to obtain a reliable yield prediction,growth of crops has to be modeled bymeans of crop growth models. Cropgrowth...
“The solution”To effectively utilize the informationon crops for improvement of economy,there is a need to develop state/ ...
Forestry Applications
Forests types          of KeralaClassification: mainly based onRainfall ,Temperature, Humidity and Altitude
Forest types of Kerala    1,500 m            High   upwards            altitude                  Shrublands               ...
Wet evergreen forestsStratification                   Aerial view                        1 st                   2 nd      ...
Semi Evergreen Forests
Moist deciduous forest after rains
Grasslands
Shola forests
Subtropical hill forestsC•ommercially inferior to the Evergreen forests. •Found from 1200 to 1900 m•Stands 15-20 m only. •...
• Mangroves: ( + 50 km2) Specialized ecosystems rich in indigenous   flora and fauna. It serves many ecological and biolog...
Myristica swamps• Edaphic facies of EGFs in flat-bottomed•Water-logged valleys at low elevations.•Trees with stilt and bre...
Riparian forests• Edaphic formations of the dry deciduous forests• Distributed along the river courses• Stands 30-32 m, co...
Bamboo and cane brakes                          Bamboo brakes                          • Important raw materials for cotta...
Forest plantations: 1701 km2 (18.1%)       Teak       Eucalypts       Tea, etc.
Plantation Species          Gmelina       Teak                 Albizia              Grevillea               AcaciaEucalypt...
Satellite Image ofKerala (IRS    1D)
EXTENT OF FOREST        • Total geographic area of          Kerala - 38863 sq.km        • Forest area in the state-       ...
Forest Biodiversity Biodiversity conservationIdentification of Priority area for    conservation is required  Solution: Bi...
Remote Sensing Technologyin biodiversity measure at landscape level  gives a perspective horizontal view    and helps in d...
Impact of FragmentationNatural Landscape                                        Artificial Landscape      Intact          ...
Loss of Corridors      Impact of Forest Edges  Transitional Stage
Fragmentatio  n Map of   Kerala
BiologicalRichness map  of Kerala
Remote sensing forms a valuable toolin mapping and monitoring of biodiversityand provides valuable information toquantify ...
Forest degradation in KeralaStatus:45% 0f Evergreen forests are degraded78% of Moist deciduous forests are degraded64% of ...
Degradation assessment
The rapid depletion of forests made itessential to know the rate and trend of thisdegradation so that timely measures coul...
CHANGE DETECTION STUDIESDATA USEDLANDSAT 5 TM FCC OF 1973, 1975 AND 1983TECHNIQUESVISUAL INTERPREATIONSTUDY AREAIDUKKI REG...
LANDSAT 5 TM FCC OF IDUKKI REGION1973                            1975
CHANGE DETECTION STUDY OF IDUKKI AND            SURROUNDINGS1973        1975        1983
CHANGE DETECTION: IDUKKI REGION                        (AREA IN KM2)Year      Dense         Sparse           Agriculture  ...
CHANGE DETECTION: IDUKKI                    Overall Changes               Period 1973 – 1983Dense Vegetation              ...
Vegetation Mapping of Sanctuaries
Digital Terrain Models
Mangrove ecosystem study
Digital Mapping of Forests
VEGETATION DENSITY MAPPING DATA USEDIRS 1B FCC (1:50,000)B&W AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS (1:15,000)STUDY AREAIDUKKIPOOYAMKUTTYOUTPU...
Forest Fire Disaster
Forest Fire AssessmentBEFORE                   AFTER                             Burn scars
Active Fire Detection   Based on active fire detection                        algorithm (pixel brightness status)         ...
Rajive Gandhi Nat. Park, Nagarhole, Karnataka    Burnt area – IRS P6 LISS3, 9th Mar.2004
9. FOREST RESOURCE  EVALUVATION AND SURVEYA. CHECKING OF REED RESOURCESOF KERALADATA USED 1:15,000 B&WPHOTOGRAPHSOUTPUT RE...
BAMBOO RESOURCE ESTIMATIONDATA USEDIRS 1C LISS 3 CCTTECHNIQUESDIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING COUPLED WITH AERIAL PHOTOINTERPRETA...
Supervised classificationIn this method, computer is made tostudy the characteristics of distinctobjects. Based on this, t...
Bamboo Resource Estimation
12.Mapping and quantitative assessment of geographic distributionand the population status of plant resources of Western G...
Sub-division of Grids
Laying of plots                  Uniform Density Area Selection
Laying of plots                  Transect Studies
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012
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Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012

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This presentation by Dr A R R Menon, Emeritus scientist, CED on Remote Sensing applications in agriculture and forestry was made at at the Kerala Environment Congress, Trivandrum organised by the Centre for Environment and Development

Published in: Environment

Remote sensing application in agriculture & forestry_Dr Menon A R R (The Kerala Environment Congress)_2012

  1. 1. Remote Sensing Application in Agriculture and Forestry Dr.A.R.R.Menon Scientist Emeritus Centre for Environment and Development Thiruvananthapuram arrmenon@gmail.com
  2. 2. The toolsGeomatics1.GIS technology2.Remote Sensing Technology3.GPS Technology
  3. 3. 2. Remote Sensing – as a toolfor baseline data gathering …. ?
  4. 4. REMOTE SENSING IS THE ART AND SCIENCEOF ACQUIRING INFOFRMATION ABOUTAN OBJECT WITHOUT MAKING ANY PHYSICAL CONTACT
  5. 5. Information is gathered by instruments carriedon suitable platforms. The information is used tostudy targets of interest on the Earth’s surface Platform: Satellite Instrument: Scanner Target: Land-Water
  6. 6. Based on Reflected Energy SourceELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
  7. 7. MULTIDICIPLINARY ACTIVITY DEALING WITH INVENTORY ASSESSMENT OF RSOURCES & MONITORING(basic requirements for evaluation)
  8. 8. Characteristic Features- Synoptic Nature- Repetitive Coverage of Large Area- Quantifiable Data Procurement
  9. 9. REGIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM(covering entire spectrum using appropriate sensor)
  10. 10. Spectral reflectance of objects
  11. 11. Multistage Remote Sensing
  12. 12. SatellitesGeostationaryPolar
  13. 13. Satellite Paths and repetitivity
  14. 14. RECORDING SYSTEMSWISKBROOM PUSHBROOM
  15. 15. Sensor resolution1. Spatial resolution2. Spectral resolution3. Radiometric resolution4. Temporal resolution
  16. 16. SENSORS IN INDIAN REMOTE SENSING SATELLITES LISS II (36.5M) LISS III (23.5M) PAN (5.8M) WiFS (188.3M) Sensor Resolution - ? Spatial, spectral, radiometric, temporal
  17. 17. Pan image ofMoscow
  18. 18. Basics of Satellite Remote Sensing 3 3 1 2 2 1T C Composite (Normal) F C Composite
  19. 19. FCC of Shiwalik hills(Liss3 image)
  20. 20. 2. GPS technology as a tool for accuracy evaluation & mapping Geographical Position Fixing: -- using high altitude satellites GPS satellites– using the principles of Trilateration
  21. 21. GPS satellites GPS satellite 24 numbers 6 orbits 22,200km altitude
  22. 22. Trilateration is a basic geometric principlethat allows you to find one location if youknow its distance from other, alreadyknown locations.
  23. 23. Trilateration: Receiver must track at least four satellites to calculate 3-D position3-D position is: Latitude, Longitude and AltitudeGPS receiver must “solve” for X,Y,Z and TimeIf GPS unit is only tracking 3SV, 2-D position willbe computed (XY).
  24. 24. 3. GIS as a tool for analysis & modeling
  25. 25. Agricultural application:The utilization of space-bourn multispectral datafor crop acreage and production estimationstarted in seventies with the launching of theLarge Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE)jointly by NASA, USDA and NOAA (NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration) in1974.In India the satellite remote sensing is mainlyused for the crop acreage and productionestimation of agricultural crops.
  26. 26. The methodology for acreage andproduction estimation using Indian RemoteSensing Satellite (IRS1A/1B) has been inoperation for major crops, namely, wheat,paddy, sorghum, soybean, groundnut andcotton in the monocropped areas (SpaceApplication Centre, 1990).In 1970 ISRO carried out a very interesting andpromising experiment for IARI, in detectingcoconut root wilt disease in Kerala before itwas visible on ground.
  27. 27. 1. Identification, area estimation andmonitoring:The specific requirement of climate and soilconditions coupled with the specializedmanagement practices make the distribution ofplantation crops rather more localized in comparisonto other agricultural crops.The identification, estimation of growing stock,analysis of distribution and monitoring at regularintervals are major aspects in plantation crops.
  28. 28. 2.Crop nutrient deficiency detection:The nutrient deficiency in plants affectsthe color, moisture content and internalstructures of the leaves and as a resulttheir reflecting power changes.
  29. 29. 3.Soil mapping
  30. 30. 4.Vegetation indices: The green, red and NIR reflectance could beemployed as variables to estimate the Leaf Area Index(LAI).Many investigations have been conducted to assess cropcharacteristics, such as biomass, and LAI, by means ofcombinations of reflectance or digital pixel values invarious spectral bands.Such a combination of reflectance values, the vegetationindex, also serves to correct for undesirable influences ofvarying soil reflectance or atmosphere circumstances onthe result.
  31. 31. 5.Crop condition assessment: The physiological changes that occur in aplant due to stress may change the spectralreflectance/ emittance characteristics resultingin the detection of stress amenable to remotesensing techniques. Crop monitoring at regularintervals during the crop growth cycle is essentialto take appropriate measures and to assesinformation on probable loss of production.
  32. 32. 6.Phenological studies
  33. 33. 7.Spatial signature library:Spatial signature evaluation of thespecies and the reflectance properties ofdifferent species in different phonologicalstages and growth stages are yet to be explored.The work on this line on crop reflectance propertiesare conducted by organizations likeSpace Application Center, Ahemadabad.
  34. 34. 8.Crop yield modeling and production forecasting:The information on production of crops beforethe harvest is very vital to the national foodpolicy planning and economy of the country.Reliable crop yield estimate is one of the mostimportant components of crop production forecasting.
  35. 35. Crop evaluation
  36. 36. 9.Pest management:Integrated pest management isan important component of sustainableagriculture.Methodologies need to beperfected for identification of locustbreeding grounds based on vegetationor moisture status, thereby developingstrategies for preventing their spreadand effective control measures.
  37. 37. 10.Agricultural draught assessment:Draught assessment is yet anotherarea wherein remote sensing datahas been used at operational level.The district level drought assessmentand monitoring using NDVI generatedfrom NOAA-AVHRR data helps in takingtimely preventive and corrective measuresfor combating drought.
  38. 38. 11.Temporal data for irrigation studies
  39. 39. 12.Reflectance modeling:Physical reflectance modelsfor crops serve the importantpurpose of understanding thecomplex interaction betweensolar radiation and plant canopies.
  40. 40. In order to obtain a reliable yield prediction,growth of crops has to be modeled bymeans of crop growth models. Cropgrowth models describe the relationbetween physiological process in plantsand environmental factors such as solarirradiation, temperature, water andnutrient availability.
  41. 41. “The solution”To effectively utilize the informationon crops for improvement of economy,there is a need to develop state/ district levelinformation system based on availableinformation on various crops derived bothfrom conventional and remote sensingapproaches in GIS environment.
  42. 42. Forestry Applications
  43. 43. Forests types of KeralaClassification: mainly based onRainfall ,Temperature, Humidity and Altitude
  44. 44. Forest types of Kerala 1,500 m High upwards altitude Shrublands grasslands Montane Wet 1,500 m bamboo upwards sholas brakes Subtropical hill1,200-1,500m forests Reed brakes700-1,200 m Wet evergreen Myristica forests swamps 700-900 m Semi-evergreen Reed Low altitude forests brakes GrasslandsUp to 900 m Moist Moist deciduous bamboo forests brakes 0-700 m Dry Riparian Townships and agro-ecosystems deciduous gallery rests forests msl Mangroves
  45. 45. Wet evergreen forestsStratification Aerial view 1 st 2 nd 3 rd
  46. 46. Semi Evergreen Forests
  47. 47. Moist deciduous forest after rains
  48. 48. Grasslands
  49. 49. Shola forests
  50. 50. Subtropical hill forestsC•ommercially inferior to the Evergreen forests. •Found from 1200 to 1900 m•Stands 15-20 m only. •Profusion of Lauraecae: Cinnamomum, Neolitzea,Phoebe, Actinodaphne, Litsea, etc. •Other trees: Calophyllum elatum,Elaeocarpus munroii, Dimocarpus longan, Garcinia spp., Memecylon spp.,Mesua ferrea, Syzygium spp. Encroaching tea A transitional estate type between Evergreen forests and Montane Sholas. Tea estates Tea estates cut the forests into patches
  51. 51. • Mangroves: ( + 50 km2) Specialized ecosystems rich in indigenous flora and fauna. It serves many ecological and biological functions.
  52. 52. Myristica swamps• Edaphic facies of EGFs in flat-bottomed•Water-logged valleys at low elevations.•Trees with stilt and breathing roots.• Abundance of Myristicaceous trees: Myristica magnifica, M. malabarica, Gymnacranthera canarica, Knema atten• Undergrowths of Pandanus and Calamu• These ecosystems are endangered• Much of the swamps have already been converted to rice fields.• The remaining patches largely located i S Kerala.
  53. 53. Riparian forests• Edaphic formations of the dry deciduous forests• Distributed along the river courses• Stands 30-32 m, composed of evergreen and deciduous trees: Mangifera indica, Terminalia arjuna, Calophyllum elatum, Bassia sp.• The forest type is very restricted• Abode of the grizzled giant squirrel, Ratufa macroura dandolena Riparian forest
  54. 54. Bamboo and cane brakes Bamboo brakes • Important raw materials for cottage industry, and pulp industry. • 25 species under 7 genera. • 2 bamboos: Bambusa bambos Dendrocalamus strictus D. strictus restricted to the rain shadow areas. • 13 species of reed bamboos belonging to the genera, Ochlandra, Pseudoxytenanthera and Sinarundinaria. A bamboo brake Cane brakes • 16 species rattans mostly used for cane furniture. • Some of the grow gregarious as cane brakes A reed brake Bambusa bambos Cane brake
  55. 55. Forest plantations: 1701 km2 (18.1%) Teak Eucalypts Tea, etc.
  56. 56. Plantation Species Gmelina Teak Albizia Grevillea AcaciaEucalypts Casuarina Ailanthus
  57. 57. Satellite Image ofKerala (IRS 1D)
  58. 58. EXTENT OF FOREST • Total geographic area of Kerala - 38863 sq.km • Forest area in the state- 10336 sq km (26% of total geographic area). • Total area of Sanctuaries and National Parks in the state-2324.72 sq. km. • This forms the 22.49% of the forest area and 5.98% of the geographical area of the State
  59. 59. Forest Biodiversity Biodiversity conservationIdentification of Priority area for conservation is required Solution: Bio-prospecting of Resources
  60. 60. Remote Sensing Technologyin biodiversity measure at landscape level gives a perspective horizontal view and helps in delivering different landscape elements and their spatial characteristics
  61. 61. Impact of FragmentationNatural Landscape Artificial Landscape Intact Fragmented Impact of Porosity Intact Porous Pattern of Landscape Fragmentation
  62. 62. Loss of Corridors Impact of Forest Edges Transitional Stage
  63. 63. Fragmentatio n Map of Kerala
  64. 64. BiologicalRichness map of Kerala
  65. 65. Remote sensing forms a valuable toolin mapping and monitoring of biodiversityand provides valuable information toquantify spatial patterns, biophysicalpatterns, ecological process that determinespecies richness and anthropogenic factorscausing loss of species richness and forpredicating response of species toglobal changes.
  66. 66. Forest degradation in KeralaStatus:45% 0f Evergreen forests are degraded78% of Moist deciduous forests are degraded64% of Dry deciduous forests are degraded24% of Subtropical hill forests are degraded62% overall degradation
  67. 67. Degradation assessment
  68. 68. The rapid depletion of forests made itessential to know the rate and trend of thisdegradation so that timely measures could betaken to prevent further loss of forestresources.Timely and accurate information fordetecting changes over a period of time isrequired for forest ecosystems.
  69. 69. CHANGE DETECTION STUDIESDATA USEDLANDSAT 5 TM FCC OF 1973, 1975 AND 1983TECHNIQUESVISUAL INTERPREATIONSTUDY AREAIDUKKI REGIONOUTPUTLANDCOVER MAPSCONTINUITY CHANGESAREA STATISTICS
  70. 70. LANDSAT 5 TM FCC OF IDUKKI REGION1973 1975
  71. 71. CHANGE DETECTION STUDY OF IDUKKI AND SURROUNDINGS1973 1975 1983
  72. 72. CHANGE DETECTION: IDUKKI REGION (AREA IN KM2)Year Dense Sparse Agriculture Barren Vegetation Vegetation1973 1338.2 974.2 83.0 36.1 15.61% 32.16% 86.57% 53.19% Reduction Reduction Reduction Reduction1975 1135 660.9 618.4 16.9 21.71% 23.64% 38.99% 30.61% Reduction Reduction Reduction Reduction1983 888.8 504.6 1013.7 24.3
  73. 73. CHANGE DETECTION: IDUKKI Overall Changes Period 1973 – 1983Dense Vegetation 33.58 % ReductionSparse Vegetation 48.2 % ReductionAgricultural Land 91.81 % Increase
  74. 74. Vegetation Mapping of Sanctuaries
  75. 75. Digital Terrain Models
  76. 76. Mangrove ecosystem study
  77. 77. Digital Mapping of Forests
  78. 78. VEGETATION DENSITY MAPPING DATA USEDIRS 1B FCC (1:50,000)B&W AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS (1:15,000)STUDY AREAIDUKKIPOOYAMKUTTYOUTPUTDENSITY SLICED(3 LEVEL VIZ. <40%, 40-60% & > 60%)MAP FOR MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
  79. 79. Forest Fire Disaster
  80. 80. Forest Fire AssessmentBEFORE AFTER Burn scars
  81. 81. Active Fire Detection Based on active fire detection algorithm (pixel brightness status) Burnt Scars
  82. 82. Rajive Gandhi Nat. Park, Nagarhole, Karnataka Burnt area – IRS P6 LISS3, 9th Mar.2004
  83. 83. 9. FOREST RESOURCE EVALUVATION AND SURVEYA. CHECKING OF REED RESOURCESOF KERALADATA USED 1:15,000 B&WPHOTOGRAPHSOUTPUT REED RESOURCE MAP IN1:25000B. RATTAN SURVEY STUDYDATA USEDIRS 1B LISS 2 CCTTECHNIQUESDIGITAL IMAGE PROCEEINGOUTPUTDELINIATION OF RATTAN /NONRATTAN AREA
  84. 84. BAMBOO RESOURCE ESTIMATIONDATA USEDIRS 1C LISS 3 CCTTECHNIQUESDIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING COUPLED WITH AERIAL PHOTOINTERPRETATION STUDY AREAKERALA FORESTSOUTPUTDENSITY SLICED BAMBOO DESTRIBUTION MAP AND RESOURCESTATISTICS
  85. 85. Supervised classificationIn this method, computer is made tostudy the characteristics of distinctobjects. Based on this, the computer isable to generalize characters of objectsand come up with accurate classification.In this technique all available spectralbands can be used and hence featuresnormally not visible become clear. Withthe help of accurate ground informationhigh classification accuracy can beachieved.
  86. 86. Bamboo Resource Estimation
  87. 87. 12.Mapping and quantitative assessment of geographic distributionand the population status of plant resources of Western Ghats
  88. 88. Sub-division of Grids
  89. 89. Laying of plots Uniform Density Area Selection
  90. 90. Laying of plots Transect Studies

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